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2 Greeleyville H 4 
2 Rldgeville...G 6 
2 Harleyville..G 6 
2 Lowndesville 

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1 Parksville...C 4 

1 Midway F 5 

1 Reevesville . F fi 

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General Map Showing Railroads and Principal Cities and tL 



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;/with Population Indicated According to Census of 1900. 



TO 

SOUTH CAROLINA. THE COMMONWEALTH. 

TO 

SOUTH CAROLINIANS 

AND TO 

THOSE WHO MAY BECOME CITIZENS 

OF THE 

PALMETTO STATE 



♦ 



I 

X 

Publications of the Department of Agriculture, Commerce J 

and Immigration. | 

1. "The Garden Country of America" — Land List: 1904. 

2. "CUMATOLOGY OF SoUTH CAROLINA": 1904. 

„ 3. "South Carolina — A Primer": 1904. 

S 4. Map of State of South Carolina — 1905. 

T 5. Isothermic Map of South Carolina — 1905. 

% 6. Precipation Map of South Carolina — 1906. 

7. First Annual Report — 1904. 

8. Second Annual Report — 1905. 

9. Catalogue of Exhibit "Resources of South Carolina" — 1905. 

10. Catalogue of Exhibit "Resources of South Carolina" — 1906. 

11. "ZuiD Carolina" — 1905. 

12. "SuD Carolina" — 1905. 

13. "South Carolina, U. S. A." — 1906. 

14. "De Tuin der Vereenigde Staten" — 1905 (Agricultural). 

15. "De Tuin der Vereenigde Staten" — 1905 (Manufacturing). 

16. "South Carolina" (Foreign) — 1905. 

17. Bulletin i — Statistics — 1906. 

18. "The Granite Industry" — 1906. 

19. "The Garden Country" — 1906 (Published in Scotland). 

20. "The Trucking Industry of South Carolina" — 1906. 

21. Map of South Carolina — 1907. 

22. Third Annual Report — 1907. 

23. "The Story of King Cotton" — 1907. 

24. Water Powers of South Carolina — 1907. 

25. South Carolina — Her Resources Epitomized — 1907. 

26. Mineral Resources of South Carolina — 1907. 

27. The Cotton Mills of South Carolina — 1907. 

28. Midseason Cotton Report — 1907. 

29. "Handbook of the Resources op South Carolina" — 1907. 

30. Map of South Carolina — 1908. 

31. "The Williamson Corn Method" — 1908. 

32. "The Garden Country of America" (Land List) — 1908. 
23. "Handbook of the Resources of South Carolina" (Second Ed.) — 1908. 

i 

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CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

CHAPTER II. 

CHAPTER III. 

CHAPTER IV. 

CHAPTER V. 

CHAPTER VI. 

CHAPTER VIL 



Thji State of South Cabolina. 

The Story of the State. 

How the State is Governed. 

The Climate — J. W. Bauer, Director of South Carolina Section 
United States Weather Bureau Service; E. J, WateoD, Tourist 
Advantages. 

Geology and Mineral Resources — Earle Sloan, State Geologist. 

The Water Powers of South Carolina — G. E. Shand, C. E. 

^ Education in South Carolina — A. R. Banks, Member State Board 
of Education. 



CHAPTER VIII. Agriculture — 1, General ; 2, Cotton ; 3, Trucking ; 4, Rice ; 5, Rec- 
ord Crops ; 6, Silk Culture ; 7, Tea Culture ; 8, Tobacco ; 9, 
Good Roads ; 10, Miscellaneous. 

CHAPTER IX. Horticulture — 1, General; 2, Fruit Growing; 3, Pecan Groves. 

CHAPTER X. Live Stock — 1, General and Statistics; 2, Cattle and Hogs; 3, 

Dairying; 4, Cheesemaking ; 5, Poultry; 6, Angora Goats and 

Sheep ; 7, General. 

CHAPTER XI. Manufactures — 1, General Manufacturing; 2, Cotton Manufac- 
turing ; 3, Special Manufacturing. 

CHAPTER XII. Commerce, Transportatio.v, and Immigration and Emigration — 
1, Trans-Atlantic Service; 2, Coastwise Service; 3, Klver Ser- 
vice; 4, Railway Service; 5, Immigration, Its History and Its 
Present Condition. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

CHAPTER XV. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

CHAPTER XVII. 
CHAPTER XVIII. 



Population. 

Hunting and Fishing. 

Forestry and the Timber Industry — A. C. Moore. 

The Principal Cities — 1, Charleston; 2. Columbia; 8, Greenville; 
4, Spartanburg; 5, Newberry; 6, Sumter; 7, Orangeburg; 8, 
Rock Hill; 9, Chester; 10, Greenwood; 11, Georgetown; 12, 
Beaufort. 

The Stati bt Counties. 

Statistics and General Information not Otukbwisb Classi- 
fied. 



T CHAPTER XIX. The Statb at Expositions and Hand-Books. 

♦ 

•f Maps — State, Goologlrnl. Cllmatologlcal, Precipitation. Mlncrnl, 
T Congressional Districts, Judicial Circuits, Textile Manufac- 

4. turing. 

♦ 
t 



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South Carolina Pictured By The Poet 

^ ONE OF HER SONS 

♦ Nor lack there pastures rich and fields all green 
% With all the common gifts of God, 

% For temperate airs and torrid sheen 

♦ Weave Edens of the sod; 

♦ Through lands which look one sea of billowy gold • 
4 Broad rivers wind their devious ways; 

A hundred isles in their embraces fold 

A hundred luminous bays ; 

And through yon purple haze 
Vast mountains lift their plumed peaks, cloud-crowned ; 
4» And, save where up their sides the plowman creeps, 

♦ An unhewn forest girds them grandly round. 
In whose dark shades a future navy sleeps ! 

f Ye Stars, Avhich, though unseen, yet with me gaze 

^ Upon this loveliest fragment of earth ! 

J* Thou Sun, that kindliest all thy gentlest rays 

^ Above it, as to light a favorite hearth ! 

^ Ye Clouds, that in your temples in the West 

J^ See nothing brighter than its humblest flowers ! 

^ And you, ye Winds, that on the ocean's breast 

T Are kissed to coolness ere ve reach its bowers ! 

V ..." 

^ Bear witness with me m mj song of praise, 

T A7id tell the tvorld that, since the world hegan^ 

'f No fairer land hath -fired a poefs lays, 

^ Or given a home to man! 

^ — Henry Timrod. 



I 



♦? 



4» 



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SOUTHEF^N SRAN^ 

UNIVERSITY OF GALlFGi. 

LIBRARY 

Los ANGELES, GALlF. 



HANDBOOK 

OF 

SOUTH CAROLINA 



Resources, Institutions and Industries of 
The State 



A Summary of the Statistics of Agriculture, Manufactures, 
Geography, Climate, Geology and Physiography, 
^ Minerals and Mining, Education, Trans- 
portation, Commerce, Govern- 
ment, Etc., Etc. 




E. J. WATSON, Commissioner 



SECOND EDITION 
1908 



THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

COMMERCE AND IMMIGRATION 

COLUMBIA. S. C. 

COLUMI5IA, S. (". 

THE STATE COMTANY. 

1008. 



T 2 U o U 



FOREWORD 







N ORDER that the people of the world may be 
advised of the matchless resources of South Carohna, 
may be made acquamted with the wonderful story 
of progress that has characterized the course of 
events since the scourge of civil war has passed, 
may know of the rare opportunities open to ener- 
getic men and women who are m search of homes 
and happiness and wealth, this volmme has been 
prepared and issued in accordance with the wishes of the General 
Assembly of the State. South Carolina is rapidly restoring her 
agricultural prestige to the imperial position it occupied a half 
century ago, and her record in the industrial world in the period 
since industrial development began, less than two decades, has 
perhaps never been equaled in the history of the world. 

In the preparation of the contents of this volume the greatest 
care has been taken to secure absolute accuracy of statement. 
The statistics have been prepared in close cooperation with the 
Federal statisticians. The several chapters have been designed 
to set forth the information that the honest seeker for facts desires. 
Many things that should properly be contained in a volume of 
such broad scope and purpose have from the necessity of the 
case been omitted. This is the first general handbook of South 
Carolina issued since 1 882, and, therefore, the task of selection 
and condensation of valuable data has been difficult of execution. 
Much of greatest interest historically it has been impossible 
to even summarize, and the aim has been only to give enough 
of history to indicate the development upon the many lines of en- 
deavor which have commanded the attention of our citizenship. 
With the above announcements this volume is sent forth 
in the expectation that it will serve its purpose and serve in some 
measure to acquaint the world with South Carolina's possibilities, 
to the end that the State may speedily become what by nature 
she was intended to be, the garden country of America. 




c 



ommissioner. 






K ■*. .♦. .*. -♦■ ^». -*- -♦^ ^♦^ ^^ >. >.. A. A A »t-» A 4t til rti A A 
!* *<• 'r " '♦• U* T V V T V V V V "T i V T T " ▼ ▼ 



LEADS THE WORLD I 

SOUTH CAROLINA Leads the World in the Following Respects: % 

Grower of cabbages — Norman H. Blitch, Meggett. One thousand acres. J* 
Began a poor man, working for small wages in 1891. It costs $110,000 to X 
cultivate his crop. X 

Shipper of cabbage plants — Wm. C. Geraty, Yonge's Island. Ships 40,- J* 
000,000, worth $35,000. Has booked 100 cars, 100,000,000 plants, for this i^ 
year's delivery. Began poor. 4>- 

Pecan grower — John S. Horlbeck, Mount Pleasant. Main grove, 600 acres; 
two smaller groves with 10,000 trees each. Annual production, ten tons. 

Cotton mill under one roof--01ympia Mills, Columbia. Has 11 acres of 
floor space, and 105,000 spindles. 

In the production of upland cotton per acre — four bales. 

In the quality of sea island cotton. 

Yield of corn per acre as demonstrated in world contests. 

Yield of rice per acre. 

Yield of oats per acre. 

In the use of transmitted electric power for cotton mill drive. 

In the tensile strength of granite. 

LEADS THE UNITED STATES 

In the production of tin. 
In the yield of corn per acre. 
In the yield of oats per acre. 
In the yield of rice per acre. 
In the yield of cotton per acre. 
In the value of sea island cotton per pound. 

In the production of tea, possessing the only commercial tea gardens in 
America. 

In the use of water power, and transmitted electric power for textile plants. 
In the cheapness of the cost of living. 

In climatic conditions, which are only equaled by those of Southern France. 
In the production of gold (east of the Rockies). 

I LEADS THE SOUTHERN STATES 

X In textile manufacturing. 

% In production of corn, oats, rice and cotton per acre. 

Y In value and yield of hay, per ton. 
/ In water power — developed and undeveloped. 
X In cheapness of cost of living. 

Jl In establishing direct export and import trade and trans-Atlantic passenger 

X service. 

4» In production of gold and tin. 

♦|* In production of kaolin. 

% In climatic conditions. 

3. In variety of opportunities for the home-seeker. 

T In rapidity of industrial development. 

X In the manufacture of fertilizers. 

^f In harbor facilities, depth of water on bar and accessibility considered. 

Y In rapidity of development of the trucking industry. 
X In extent of cheese manufacturing. 
* In size of bleachery. 
•f In the strength of her granite. 
^ In the manufacture of paper pulp. 
T In welfare work in her cotton manufacturing districts. 

I RANK IN THE UNITED STATES 

% South Carolina, among the States of the American Union, ranks: 

1* Second — In cotton manufacturing. 

X Fourth — In the manufacture of commercial fertilizers. 

4| Fifth — In the canning industry. 

T Fifth — In the manufacture of hosiery. 

% Fifth — In production of raw cotton. 



CHAPTER I. 



THE STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 




OUTH CAROLINA— what memories of 
a glorious past the name recalls, what 
a splendid present it signifies, and what 
a glorious future it portends ! South 
Carolina has ever been a leader in all 
things that have served to make the na- 
tion the great world-power that it is to- 
day, and South Carolina has never ceased 
to be such. Today the little State that 
is the keystone of the South Atlantic 
seaboard is, while bereft of effective po- 
litical power in the affairs of the nation, 
still a power in the shaping of the poli- 
cies of the country. It is not my prov- 
ince to write of the glorious part that 
the country has played in American his- 
tory, but rather to tell truthfully of the 
natural advantages of the Slate, to show 
why this State must become one of the 
greatest centers of commercial, indus- 
trial and agricultural activity on the 
American continent. The present situ- 
ation gives ground for propliecy and ful- 
filment, and the plain, unvarnished truth 
is all-sufficient. 

Some one has remarked that "The 

State is the product of its people." If 

this be true, South Carolina is indeed a 

great State, for her people have ever been conceded to be. from the standpoint 

of inatc ability, of bravery, of chivalry, of unselfish patriotism, and of purity 

of character, the equal, if not the peer, of any on the American continent. 

From the earliest days a just pride of origin has animated the people of the 
State. High ideals and ambitions have controlled their actions, and for pure 
Americanism none today rank higher. 

Enured to personal hardsiiips, but jealous of their honor and of their State's 
honor at all times, the people of South Carolina have ever and always endeav- 
ored to seek the good of the American comniDnwealth. They have not, how- 
ever, been unmindful of the bounteous gifts of the Creator, and they realize 
the immense value of the natural productiveness of soil, climate and mineral 
resources that has been showered upon them. They have attempted the devel- 
opment of these wonderful resources as best they could under most adverse 
circumstances — circumstances that tried men's souls — but to this day the surface 
has merely been scratched, when all the possibilities are taken into consideration. 
'Jiiat an era of prosperity, such as the world lias never seen, is opening to 
South Carolina, South Carolinians and those who will soon become South 
Carolinians is a fact that no man with a knowledge of the commercial and 
industrial strategic importance of the Stale can deny. 

Up to this time South Carolina, — from the Colonial period on, — has l.ccn 
furnishing other South Atlantic States with the backbone of their civilization — 
sending sturdy, honorable men to them. Xote this from McCrady's History: 
"The extent of cmigr.ition from South Canilina is not gcner.illy realized, it 
is not generally kiuiwn that she was one ot ilic great emigrant States. 'Vet 
from i8jo to i860,' says General Francis A. Walker, in his introduction to the 
United States Census of iStSo, '.South Carolin.i was a beehive from wliu-h 
swarms were continually going forth to populate the newer cottongicw ing 
Slates of the Southwest.' The whole ]iopiilali(in of the State in i860 aiiinuuHHi 
to 470,257. 'Jhere were then living in oiIki St.ites i<j.V.?S<) white persons Ixirn 
in South Carolina. That is, two-fifths of the whole native-burn population had 



10 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

emigrated and were then living in other States, and these almost entirely in 
Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Florida and Texas. In 1870, out of 
67«,7o6 native-born South Carolinians, more than one-third, about 246,066, were 
living in other States." 

From this does it not appear that South Carolina has had something to do 
with making the South the standard of true Americanism that she is todav? 

As early as 1716, in the memorial presented on behalf of the Province of 
Carolina in London by Mr. Berresford, the following was contained, which 
is as true today as it was then: "Carolina being thus circumstanced and 
capable of affording greater quantity of valuable produce than any other part 
of British America, as the best of rice in abundance, all manner o'f timber for 
building, shipping in great plenty, pitch, tar, turpentine, rosin, indigo and silk, 
which has been manufactured in London and proves to be of extraordinary 
substance and luster, omitting to mention the great quantity of provisions and 




THE STATE CAPITOL — FROM MAIN STREET^ COLUMBIA. 

Other necessaries it affords a plantation, 'tis humbly hoped the King and Par- 
liament will be of opinion that it merits a particular notice and protection. 
The colony being capable of producing sufficient quantities of many of the 
aforesaid commodities, not only to supply Great Britain, but several other parts 
of Europe, the first of which being paid for in British manufacturies, and the 
whole freight redounding to his Majesty's subjects, are circumstances worthy 
of the notice of the Legislature." 

More than a century — nearly two centuries — later the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture of the United States, Mr. James Wilson, after riding across South Caro- 
lina from coast to mountains, remarked : "No section of the world offers such 
inducements for diversified farming," and he predicted a future for the section 
such as has not been witnessed before in this country. 

In the light of such testimony, and as a result of present-day experiences 
of energetic men, determined to win success, it is safe to say that South Caro- 
lina may be considered the garden spot of the Atlantic coast country and the 
ideal location for the home-seeker. The State is in the shape of an isosceles 
triangle, protected on its northern side by the towering walls of the Blue Ridge 
mountain chain, while on the east, the coast line, the tempering Gulf stream 



12 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

makes its inward bend on its way to the British Isles, its influence on the 
climate being so marked that an annual mean temperature of 65° is obtained, 
it never being greater than 50°, even in the extreme alpine region. ^ ^ 

In the center of the triangle an unvarying mean temperature of _47.2"' in 
winter, 63.4° in spring, 76.4° in summer, and 63.9° in autumn is maintained, 
with ten and one-half hours of daylight on the shortest day of the year and 
fourteen on the longest. With such meteorological conditions, South Carolma 
is easily the Southern France of America. Coupling this matchless climate — 
known the world over through the scores who have sought and recovered lost 
health at such resorts as Aiken, Camden and Summerville — with a most pro- 
ductive, sandy and porous soil, capable of growing money crops the year 
through— cotton, indigo, tobacco, sugar, tea, rice, corn, wheat, oats, barley, 
fruits of all kinds of finest quality, truck of every description, in short, all 
crops common to the different portions of the United States— coupling this with 
rarest deposits of minerals— gold, tin, iron, lead, copper, manganese, bismuth, 
aluminum— granite of finest quality, kaolin and other money-value clays, her 
great water powers and other resources of value to the investor, the warrant 
is apparent for the assertion that this State is the ideal spot for the home- 
seeker who wishes to devote his energy to agriculture or industrial pursuits 
or the investor seeking sure results from his energy and enterprise. 

South Carolina is one of the original States of this Union. She has been 
primarily an agricultural State. 

Note the tabulated statement herewith of those things in which this State 
leads the world, and the Southern States. In the last two decades she has 
leaped into second place in the United States in the matter of textile manu- 
facturing; in the production of gold she is leading all the country of the East; 
in production per acre she holds all world's records worth the while. 

The tendency of the negro is to the trades in the great centers of population. 
This is following in the wake of the education of the race. This State is 
today aiding the negro in these lines by maintaining a mechanical college, 
where he is given such training, preferring intelligent white labor on the farms, 
with their intensified methods, and aiding in the solution of a great problem. 

Diversified farming is now claiming the attention of this Stale's best farmers 
and landowners, and they want European, eastern and western methods cm- 
ployed. Hence they invite the sturdy white settlers to come and share with 
them what nature has so lavishly bestowed upon their land. They ask them 
to come while undeveloped lands may be had at minimum prices on easy terms, 
and not, as in thickly settled strips of country, at $150 an acre. It is the 
province of a department of the State government, just established, to collect 
these lands, locate the settlers, and watch over them, giving fostering care to 
their welfare. 

The stock-raising industry is now merely in its infancy, notwithstanding the 
thousands of acres of rich and valuable meadow lands. Many are going into 
this industry, and the man who is familiar with its methods, settling here at 
this time, cannot but reap a harvest. So it is with poultry-raising, dairying 
and trucking for the early eastern markets. 

The development of the trucking industry in South Carolina in the past 
decade has been almost beyond belief. 'I'oday it reaches into the millions of 
dollars in the value of the annual production. 

Dairying, cheese- making and like industries are thriving and steadily in- 
creasing. 



CHAPTER II. 



THE STORY OF THE STATE. 



South Carolina could be termed "the original" State of the United States, 
if priority of settlement on the continent of North America were to be con- 
sidered, the first settlement having been on May 27, 1562, on the southeastern 
extremity of Paris Island, Port Royal Harbor, by the Huguenots. Jamestown, 
in Virginia, was settled in 1607; Plymouth, in Massachusetts, in 1620, and 
Charlestown, in South Carolina, in 1670. 

The State is in the South Atlantic Division of the United States. It lies 
between latitude i'^^ degrees 4 minutes 30 seconds and 35 degrees 12 minutes N., 
and between longitude i degree 30 seconds and 6 degrees 54 minutes W. 
(Wash.). 

Area. — The United States has finally adopted the following figures as the 
area of the State : 

Square miles water 494 

Square miles land 30,495 




Total 30,989 

The first map of South Carolina was 
printed in 1757 by W. G. DeBrahm, 
who estimated the area of the State at 
33.760 square miles. In 1771 James 
Cook and in 1775 Henry Mouzon pub- 
lished in London maps of the State, from 
which both Ramsey and Drayton esti- 
mated the area at 24,080 square miles. 
A map, provided for by the State and 
made at considerable expense, was pub- 
lished in 1822, and in 1825 Mills' large 
atlas of South Carolina was completed 
and published and is regarded as per- 
haps the most accurate map even to this 
time. Mills placed the area of the State 



CONFEDERATE MONUMENT. 

at 30,213 square miles. The United 
States Census in 1870 placed it at 34,000 
square miles and the Census of 1880 
gives the acreage at 30,170 square miles. 
The United States has, liowever, finally, 
through the work of the Bureau of 
Census, determined that the total area 
is 30,989 square miles. 

Drainage Area. — It is worthy of note, 
in speaking of the area of the State, 
that in the Coastal Plain of this State 
there is a large area of swamp and 
marsh lands that are extremely valu- 
able agriculturally, which areas can be 
fully reclaimed and brought into culti- 
vation by a proper system of drainage. 
This swamp area in South Carolina as 
a whole is stated by United States ex- 
perts, who have examined the territory. 




IIAMITON MONUMENT. 



14 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



to embrace 1,750,000 acres. There is a bill now pending in Congress providing 
for the reclamation of such lands, and at this moment there is every indication 
that the bill will be enacted into law. The cost of drainage reclamation will 
not exceed, according to official estimates, more than $5 or $6 per acre, and 
it is estimated further that these lands, once reclaimed, would have an agricul- 
tural value of from $50 to $200 an acre. During the past few years, through 
the medium of State legislation and county work, utilizing convict labor, very 
effective reclamation work has been done under direction of the Charleston 
Drainage Commission. Soil experts say that these lands, when reclaimed, will 
be perhaps the most fertile in the entire State. 

History.— In the space available in such a volume as this, only a brief resume 
of South Carolina's history, so ably dealt with by Rarnsey, Mills, McCrady 
and others, can be given ; however, valuable historical bits are found in con- 
nection with the treatment of the several chapters. Hammond summarizes 
South Carolina's history in a sketch of the State prepared by him for the 
Encyclopedia Americana and published by permission under the title, "South 
Carolina— A Primer," by the South Carolina Department of Agriculture, Coni- 
merce and Immigration in 1904. What is here given is a reproduction of this 
condensed sketch, with some notes and addenda. 




TRINITY CHURCH WHERE GEX. WADE HAMPTON IS BURIED. 



When the first settlement on the North American continent, referred to above, 
was made by the French Huguenots on Paris Island in 1562, the colonists 
erected a fort, naming it, in honor of their king, Charles IX., Carolina (aborigi- 
nal name, Chicora). Their ships having returned to France for reinforcements, 
a fire broke out. which destroyed their barracks and magazine. In this plight 
they constructed boats, with the assistance of the Indians, and went back to 
France. 

The English.—ln 1665-69 Charles II., of England, claiming Carolina by reason 
of the discoverv of North America by John Cabot in 1497 when sailing under 
a patent from Henry VII., granted all that "tract of ground" in America be- 
tween the thirty-sixth degree and thirty-first degree north latitude, and to the 
west as far as the South Seas (Pacific Ocean), to eight English noblemen as 
Lords Proprietors. The grant covered about 1,020,000 square miles, or more 
than one-third the area of the present United States, a region since largely 
peopled from the South Carolina of today. The first colony sent out landed in 
1670, as the French had, at Port Royal, but removed shortly after to the con- 
fluence of the Ashley and Cooper Rivers, where they founded the city of 
Charleston. 



THE STORY OF THE STATE. 15 

The Proprietary Government was conducted under a royal charter and certain 
"Fundamental Constitutions" drawn for that purpose by the famous metapliy- 
sician, John Locke. In order to avoid "erecting a too numerous democracy," 
Locke designed a territorial aristocracy of landgraves, caciques, and barons. 
The colonists, however, insisting upon the clause of the king's charter directing 
the Lords Proprietors to "govern according to their best discretion by and with 
the advice, assent ^nd approbation of the Freemen of said territory, or their 
deputies or delegates," prevented from first to last this aristocracy from taking 
root in the colony. The Proprietary Government, without adaptability to the 
circumstances and necessities of the colony, prompted endless discussions and 
dissensions as to the interpretation of the charter and the "Constitutions." A 
succession of "heats and broils" during forty-nine years culminated in 1719. 
The Proprietors expressed their inability to aid the colonists, refused petitions 
addressed to them on important matters, and repealed acts of the Assembly 
laying taxes for the discharge of the public debt, and for the freedom of 
elections. The Assembly thereupon voted itself a convention, and unintimidated 




MONUMENT TO GEN. SUMTER. 

by the thueat of the Proprietary Governor to bombard Charles Town from a 
British war vessel, elected James Monroe governor in the name of the king, 
and the Royal Government of the Province supplanted that of the Proprietors. 

Indian Populaiton. — Bancroft and Dana place the highest estimate of the 
aborigines south of the Great Lakes and east of the Mississippi River at 180,000, 
or one person to 4^ square miles, a territory now supporting a population of 
sixty-seven to the square mile, or 301 for one Indian. John Lawson, 1703, and 
Governor Glen, in 1743, agree in estimating the Indian population of Carolina 
at about one to eight square miles. They were generally friendly to the colo- 
nists except when incited to sudden outbursts of hostility by the Spaniards, the 
French, or the British, and formed a more or less important contingent in war, 
as when James Moore, in 1702-03, invaded the Appalachian region witli twenty- 
five whites and 1,000 Indians and returned with 1,300 captives, who were sold 
into slavery to the northern colonies and the West Indies. 

Negroes and Slavery. — Negro slaves were introduced from the Barbadncs in 
1671, and were counted to be 12,000 in number at the close of the Proprietary 
rule in 1720. They were instructed in the Christian religion, and some of them 
taught to read. It was required of each white militiaman that he should train 
and arm a negro to accompany him in war. The white population had incrciscd 



i6 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



from 391 in 1671 to 9,000 in 1720, living chiefly in proximity to Charles Town. 

Early Agriculture. — While the Indians lived principally on game and fish, 
cultivating only two plants, corn and tobacco, both exotics, the white colony 
never suffered for subsistence. They got thirty to eighty bushels of corn from 
an acre, deer supplying meat ; an Indian hunter would for $25 a year furnish 
a family with 100 to 200 deer, besides wild turkeys, fish, etc. The culture of 
rice was introduced in 1693, and the export of this cereal in 1720 amounted in 
value to £3,350 sterling. The Proprietors refused in 1674 to send out cattle 
to the colonists, saying they wanted them to be "planters and not graziers," 
but seven years later they had so increased that many planters had 700 to 800 
head. The Assembly had to appoint commissioners to dispose of unmarked 
animals, and passed a law for the inclosure of crops, which remained in force 
until 1882. 

Trade. — As early as 1700 Charles Town had a large and lucrative trade with 
Indians in furs and hides, extending 1,000 miles into the interior, and a large 
export trade in forest products, timber, pitch, turpentine and provisions to the 
northern colonies and the West Indies. In 1748 there were 600,000 deer skins, 
valued at $180,000, shipped from Charles Town. 




THE OLD STATE HOUSE, 



Religion. — Religious freedom was secured, while the ministers of the Church 
of England were supported from the public funds. The various church mem- 
bers stood as follows: Episcopalians, 42 per cent.; Presbyterians and Hugue- 
nots, 45 per cent. ; Baptists, 10 per cent. ; Quakers, 3 per cent. A free public 
library was established in Charles Town in 1700, and a free school in 1710. 
In 1712 a digest of the English and colonial laws was prepared by Chief Justice 
Trott. In 1717 a successful war was waged against the pirates infesting Cape 
Fear, and a number of them captured and executed. A duty of £30 a head 
was laid on the importation of negroes. 

Kings George I. and II. — George I. and George II. were nursing fathers to 
Carolina. The Assembly was convened, all actions at law on account of the 
change of government were declared void, and the judicial proceedings under 
the provisional administration confirmed. Treaties were made with the Indians, 
who had hitherto stood as independent neighbors and were now constituted 
allies or subjects. Parishes were laid out, and whenever settled by 100 families, 
they were allowed representation in the Assembly. To relieve the burden on 
the country people of repairing for the trial of all causes to the General Court 
at Charles Town, county and precinct courts were established. 




K 



i8 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

Schools. — Schools were established in each precinct and £25 levied by the 
justices to assist in the yearly support of the teachers, who were required to 
teach ten poor children free of charge. Between 1733 and 1774 over 200 tutors, 
schoolmasters or schoolmistresses were engaged in the Province. The King, 
having bought out the Proprietors for £17,500, purchased also the quitrents 
due them by the colonists, and remitted them. Charles Town was the extreme 
southwestern outpost of the British in America. As late as 1741. when the 
Spanish possessions lay embosomed on the Gulf of Mexico, with Saint Augus- 
tine, the oldest fortified place in America, the French claimed all the territory 
lying west of a line starting from a point north of Charles Town, reaching the 
Appalachian Mountains, running round the headwaters of the Potomac, across 
the Mohawk and Hudson, down Lake Champlain, and by the Sorrel River to 
the Saint Lawrence. With little aid from the mother country, the colonists 
had stood the advance guard against the warring Europeans and held them, 
the American savages, the African savages imposed upon them, and the pirates 
in check. 

European Settlers. — The first settlers had confined themselves to the neigh- 
borhood of Charles Town. Now the settlement of Georgia, 1732-34, protected 
the western frontier, and the interior of Carolina received many irnmigrants, 
Germans, and after Culloden many Scotch came into the middle sections, and, 
on Braddock's defeat, refugees from Virginia and Pennsylvania followed in the 
Piedmont region. Land was granted free of charge for ten years, and after 
that the annual rental was four shillings sterling for 100 acres. Great Britain 
imposed restrictions on the commerce and domestic manufactures of her colo- 
nies. While this was prejudicial to the more northern colonies, it did not aflfect 
an agricultural people like the Carolinians. 

Commerce. — The restraint imposed by the navigation acts on colonial exports 
was removed on the export of Carolina rice. The exports of rice and indigo 
reached £108,750 in 1747. In 1775 the exports of these two commodities alone 
were valued at £1,000,000 sterling, a third of what the entire trade of the 
American colonies was estimated at in 1768. Between 1725 and 1775 the popu- 
lation increased sevenfold. In 1773 Josiah Quincy, writing from Charles Town, 
says of the city : "In grandeur, splendor of buildings, equipages, commerce, 
number of shipping, and, indeed, in almost everything, it far surpasses all I 
ever saw or expected to see in America." With the most sincere and loyal 
attachment to Great Britain, the king and his government, the Carolinians sent 
their children to England and Scotland to be educated, and spoke of the mother 
country as "home." 

The Revolution. — In the midst of this prosperity Carolina was led, step by 
step, during a period of eleven years, through sympathy with the northern 
colonies for injuries inflicted on them, to take part against the enforcement by 
Great Britain, of taxation without representation, not desiring or anticipating 
the separation from that country, which finally took place. On 28th June, 1776, 
while the Congress of the colonies were discussing the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, Colonel Moultrie, from the Palmetto Fort on Sullivans Island, 
repulsed with heavy loss the English fleet, and turned back the expedition of 
Sir Henry Clinton for the invasion and subjugation of the South. In the same 
year Carolina was the first colony to frame and adopt an independent consti- 
tution, but with the proviso that this constitution is but temporary "until an 
accommodation of the unhappy differences between Great Britain can be 
obtained." 

In 1778, John Rutledge, Governor of the State, declared "such an accommo- 
dation an event as desirable now as it ever was." The material injuries to 
Carolina by the Stamp Act, the duty on tea. and the other acts of the govern- 
ment of George III., were slight as compared with the advantages she enjoyed 
under English rule, but she had enlisted in no lukewarm manner in the struggle 
on account of the principles of right and justice involved. In was not until 
after the fall of Charleston, in 1780, when the State lay prostrate, that the out- 
rages of the British armies roused to resistance the population from the sea- 
board to the mountains. They then flocked to the standards of the partisan 
leaders, Marion, Sumter, Pickens and others, and so harassed and delayed the 
northward movement of Cornwallis to join Clinton that Washington and La- 
fayette were enabled to unite in Virginia and force the British into Yorktown. 
There, blockaded by the French fleet under DeGrasse, they were compelled to 
surrender, and the war virtually terminated in favor of the Americans. Caro- 
lina contributed $1,205,978 above her quota to this war — only a few thousands 
less than Massachusetts, whose war the Revolution was, and who never suf- 
fered from invasion — and more than all the other eleven colonies together. 




JOHN C. CALHOUN. 



THE STORY OF THE STATE. 21 

A Glorious Record. — One hundred and thirty-seven engagements with the 
British took place within her borders. In '103, Carolinians alone fought, in 
twenty others they had assistance, and fourteen, including Camden, were fought 
by troops from other colonies. "Left mainly to her ozi'n resources," says Ban- 
croft, "it Zi'as through the depths of wretchedness that her sous ivere to bring 
her back to her place in the republic after suffering more, daring more, and 
<ichiez'ing more than the men of any other State." 

After the Revolution. — The eight years of war were followed by eight years 
of distress and disorganization. The country had been laid waste, churches 
iDurned. and industries paralyzed. It was estimated that the British had kid- 
naped 25,000 slaves and sold them. They plundered the planters' homes. Ban- 
croft says they pillaged of plate alone to the value of £300,000. After the fall 
of Charleston there arose a fourteen-years' dispute between the army and navy 
engaged in the siege as to their respective shares of the plunder. On gth 
August, 1787, Carolina ceded to the United States her lands (10,000 square 
Tniles) not lying within her present boundaries. 

Constitution Ratified. — On 17th September of the same year she ratified the 
Constitution of the United States. In 1790 the seat of government was removed 
from , Charleston to Columbia, in the center of the State, and another Consti- 
tution substituted for that of 1776. An amendment in 1808 fixed the number 
of representatives at 124, allowing one representative for each sixty-second part 
of the white inhabitants, and one for each sixty-second part of the taxes raised 
by the Legislature. The Senate to be composed of one member from each 
election district, except Charleston, which was allowed two. This accentuated 
the differences already existing between the peoples of the lower and the upper 
country. The former being the outgrowth of the city life of Charleston, and 
the first settlers, preponderated in wealth. The other, arising from numerous 
and separate centers of rural settlement, had the larger and more rapidly 
increasing number of white inhabitants. 

The First Tariff. — The first tariff act of 1789 imposed an ad valorem duty 
of 5 per cent, on imports (with a few specific duties of 15 per cent.) for the 
support of the Federal government. This was in addition to the taxes raised 
Ijy each State for its own purposes. It was much higher taxation than under 
the colonial government, which required in ordinary times only a duty of 3 
per cent, on imports, with an export duty of 3d. on hides. Four years later the 
tariff was raised to 10 and 20 per cent. Ten years after, duties were increased 
2]^ per cent, in aid of the Mediterranean Fund against the Barbary powers. 
Double war duties, amounting to 25 to 40 per cent., were imposed in 1812. In 
1816 a tariff protecting the industries that had been found necessary but defi- 
cient during the later war, fixed duties at 25 per cent., to be reduced to 20 per 
cent, in 1820. The Carolina representatives supported this not unreasonable 
protection. The reduction never took place, and at this the Carolina represen- 
tatives protested. Disregarding their protest, a tariff imposing 12 to 50 per 
cent, duties was passed in 1824. Again, in 1828, without regard to the com- 
plaints of the Carolina farmers, who were being forced to contribute to the 
manufacturing profits of other States, a tariff raising duties 25 to 50 per cent, 
was enacted. Wearied with unavailing remonstrance, a convention of the people 
of Carolina was called in 1832, which declared the protective tariff law uncon- 
stitutional, null and void. To meet this action of the State, Congress passed 
the Force Bill in 1833 for the collection of customs. In the same month of the 
same year Congress passed "the Clay Compromise Act" for a gradual reduction 
of duties until 1842, when they should reach a 20 per cent, level. This restored 
tranquility, although for the second time the promised reduction was never 
fully realized. 

Slavery. — Coincident with the tariff, another and more serious source of dis- 
turbance arose. In 1775 slavery extended over North America from Canada 
to Florida, inclusive. It had been introduced by Queen Elizabeth and James II. 
In 1772 there were freed 14,000 negro slaves, who were owned and living in 
England, and belonged to the Royal African Company for trading in negro 
slaves. Now it began to be looked upon with horror, as something strange and 
foreign to human instincts. The New England Anti-Slavery Society was formed 
in 1832. In less than four years more than 100,000 persons had joined anti- 
slavery societies in the Northern and Western States. They demanded of Con- 
gress that "all slaves should be instantly set free without compensation of the 
owners." They declared "we will give the Union for the abolition of slavery." 
The lesson was taught far and wide that the slaveholders of tiie South, "a few 
.arrogant, domineering, self-constituted aristocracy," were— through the rcprc- 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



sentation allowed them "in proportion to the number of their slaves" — ruling the 
work-people of the North and denying their industries the protection due from 
the Federal Government. They declared that "the country must become all 
free or all slave." The non-slaveholding whites of the South were as violently 
opposed to the emancipation of the negroes as their brethren of the North were 
in favor of it. To them it meant industrial, political and social equality with 
a people in their midst whom they deemed inferior to themselves. They did 
not ask for aid to their industries through Federal taxation and did not see 
why Northern manufacturers should. 

Conditions in i860. — In i860 South Carolina stood third among the States in 
the per capita wealth of her people. Connecticut stood first and Louisiana 
second. It had risen from $431 in 1850 to $779 a head in i860, against an 
average of $501 for all the States. Taxation, not national, was $1.85 per capita, 
against an average of $2.95 for the other States. The tariff had been reduced 
in 1857 below 20 per cent., which was lower than it had been since 1812. The 

repeal of the 
Missouri Com- 
promise, the 
passage of the 
fugitive € 1 a v e 
1 a w, and the 
Dred Scott de- 
cision all tend- 
ed to the secur- 
ity and welfare 
of the South. — 
(Senator Ham- 
mond's Barn- 
well speech, 
20th October, 
1858.) 

The War. — 
After years of 
angry discus- 
sion along these 
lines the crisis 
came — during a 
period of unpre- 
cedented pros- 
perity in Caro- 
lina — on the 
election by the 
A n t i - Slavery 
party of a Pres- 
ident, in i860, by less than a third of the popular vote. It found the peoples 
North and South solidly arrayed against each other with fatal unanimity.* The 
"irrepressible conflict" burst into war. The North took the offensive for Federal 
domination and patronage, and after ist January, 1863, for race equality, freedom 
and fraternity. They were sustained by the popular sentiment of the European 
masses. South Carolina and the South rose to a man — with no sympathy or 
support from without — to resist invasion, in defense of State autonomy and 
white supremacy. From an arms-bearing population of 55,046 in Carolina, 44,000 
volunteered (most of them not identified with the slaveholding class) in defense 
of the domestic institutions of the State, its sovereignty and free trade. Ulti- 
mately 71,088 were mustered in. 

Slaveholders. — In i860 there were 26,701 slaveholders in South Carolina, less 
than 9 per cent, of the white population. Of these 60 per cent., belonging 
chiefly to the mercantile and professional classes, owned each only a few slaves. 
They frequently freed their domestics, which accounts for the fact that the free 
negroes in the South increased 23I/2 per cent, during the decade 1850-60, while 
at the North they increased only 13 per cent., in spite of the "Underground 
Railroad" and the active resistance to the enforcement of the law for the cap- 
ture of fugitive slaves. 




FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, COLUMBIA, IN WHICH THE SECESSION 
CONVENTION FIRST MET. 



THE STORY OF THE STATE. 



23 



NORTHERN ARMY. 

Whites from the North 2,272,333 

Whites from the South 316.424 

Negroes 186,017 

Indians 3,530 

Total 2,778,304 

Southern army 600,000 

North's numerical superiority 2,178,304 

In the Northern army there were : 

Foreigners 494,900 

Negroes , 186,017 

Total 680,917 

Total of Southern soldiers 600,000 

ARMIES AT THE WAR's END. 

Aggregate Federal army, May i, 1865 . . 1,000,516 

Aggregate Confederate army, May i, 1865 133.433 

Federal prisoners in Confederate prisons . 270,000 

Federals died in Confederate prisons .... 22,570 
(or a little over 8 per cent.) 

Confederate prisoners in Federal prisons . 220,000 
Confederates died in Federal prisons . . . 26,436 
(or 12 per cent., despite the blockade making- 
hospital supplies contraband of war.) 



Relative Strength. — The following figures as to the armies are now generally 
accepted : 

Losses. — Poorly 
armed, poorly clad, 
poorly fed, practically 
without pay, for more 
than four years they 
maintained their 
cause, losing in battle, 
from wounds, and by 
diseases, 133,821 of 
their number. The 
Federal losses from 
the same cause were 
309,800. The negroes, 
who, in earlier days, 
had been enticed 
away by promises 
from the Spaniards, 
and had sometimes 
sided with the Tories 
and the British, re- 
mained as a rule loyal 
to their masters in 
this war, served their 
families and tilled 
their fields while they 
were absent. 

The Negro.— "The 
negro race, which was 
in slavery * * * a 
backward, kindly, 
pious and industrially 
valuable race * * * 
between whom and 
the Southern people no natural hate and fear found place, struck no single blow 
for its own freedom." — (Letter of Ex-Gov. D. H. Chamberlain to James Bryce, 
M. P., June, 1904.) "Not only has there been no approach to a race war, but 
the economic condition has steadily and swiftly bettered, until at the present 
time the district which thirty-five years ago was the most impoverished ever 
occupied by an English people is perhaps the most prosperous of its fields." — 
("The Neighbor." by Prof. N. S. Shaler, of Harvard, 1904, page 333.) 

Vi et Armis. — The issue was decided by force of arms and numbers and was 
never submitted to legal adjudication. No indictments for treason, as is usual 
in rebellions, were made. An export duty was placed on cotton and import 
duties were increased by the National Government. 

Reconstruction. — For eight years negro supremacy was enforced in the State 
by the Federal army. Wade Hampton, general of cavalry in the War of Seces- 
sion, was the last leading representative of the old plantation slaveholder class; 
from the first days of reconstruction he favored negro education and suffrage, 
and on these issues he delivered the State in 1876 from the negro domination 
imposed on it by Federal arms. When, on loth April, 1877, the Federal guard 
filed out of the south door of the Capitol at Columbia, the negro government 
collapsed without a struggle. The white citizens quietly resumed the adminis- 
tration of affairs. 

The Result. — President Eliot, of Harvard, in a speech before the Central 
Labor Union in Boston, February, 1904, on the world-wide conflict of labor and 
capital, sums up the result of this titanic struggle in these words : "How many 
things my generation thought were decided at A[>pomattox ; but during the 
subsequent forty years it has gradually appeared that hardly anything zvas set- 
tled there except the preservation of the unity of the national territory." 

Even tariff protection continues to be an imminent issue, the so-called "arro- 
gant, domineering, self-constituted aristocracy" of the South in the last century 
being replaced by the trusts of overgrown Northern capitalists, with this dif- 
ference: the slaveholders worked as best they could with an ancient and uni- 
versal institution imposed on them against their protest, while the protected 
trusts themselves institute a servitude against the protest of those they impose 
it on. 



24 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 




BRIDGE BURNED DURING 
CIVIL WAR. 



For more than two centuries, under ten written constitutions, the State had 
been governed by a more than usually centralized democracy. Opposing a sim- 
ilar centralization of functions by the Federal Union, the collision dispersed 
these functions into smaller and smaller civil divisions; counties, townships, 
school districts. The latter, restricted to an area of nine to forty square miles, 
were endowed with the sovereign power to lay taxes and incur debt. A centri- 
fugal tendency marked, also, in subdivision of farms, and in the establishment 
of cross-road stores and village banks. 

After Reconstruction. — The white people of the State, immediately after the 
overthrow of the negro government of reconstruction days — a period in the 

State's history filled with horrors and suffer- 
ing — began immediately to restoie good gov- 
ernment. Great attention was given to the 
readjustment of the financial affairs of the 
State, the restoration of the State's credit, to 
education, and to the enactment of safe laws 
for the government of the commonwealth. 
Much was accomplished, and slowly but surely 
the material mterests of the State began to 
recover from the scourge of war and the 
worse scourge of negro misrule. The South 
Carolina University and the South Carolina 
Military Academy reopened their doors to the 
youth of the State, as did other institutions of 
learning. There was little to disturb political 
conditions until there grew into strength and 
vigor what has been termed the "Farmer's Movement." 

The Farmers' Movement. — This movement was begun by Benjamin R. Till- 
man, at present serving his third term as senior United States Senator from 
this State, and others. It had its origin in dissatisfaction on the part of the 
agricultural class with conditions prevailing in the State at the time. It resulted 
in the stormy election of 1890, which resulted in victory for the Movement and 
in making Tillman Governor of the State, in which 
position he served two terms, going thence to the United 
States Senate. 

Dispensary System. — Soon after Tillman became Gov- 
ernor, a strong sentiment sprang up in South Carolina 
in favor of prohibition, and this resulted in the General 
Assembly enacting what has since become known as the 
State Dispensary System — a system of handling the 
liquor traffic heretofore untried in the United States. 
The State established a wholesale bottling plant, at 
which all liquor was bottled and from which it was 
shipped to county dispensers, who sold it to individuals 
between sunrise and sunset, being prohibited, however, 
from selling to minors or habitual drunkards. Very 
bitter feeling was engendered as a result of this legis- 
lation, and the effort to enforce the provisions of the 
law led to considerable bloodshed. 

The Darlington War.— Somt time after the law went into operation, liquor 
constables and citizens clashed in the town of Darlington, several being killed 
on each side^ The State was aflame and a fortnight of wild excitement fol- 
lowed. Gov. Tillman calling out the State militia, and a number of companies 
in several portions of the State refusing to obey his orders and putting down 
their arms. Finally a goodly force was sent to Darlington, but nothing more 
serious than the first conflict occurred. In the succeeding years the enforce- 
ment of the dispensary law became a more and more serious problem, and 
though the main features are now in the State Constitution, the General Assem- 
bly has seen fit to enact (in 1907) a law abolishing the State bottling plant, 
the State itself retiring from the business, taking a step towards local option in 
permitting each county to vote whether it wishes liquor or not, controlling the 
bottling and sale of liquor, and there is a sentiment for absolute prohibition, 
many of the counties having already voted in favor of prohibition and "gone 
dry." 

The New Constitution and the Franchise. — One of the principal events fol- ' 
lowing the success of the Farmers' Movement of 1890 was the calling of a 
constitutional convention, which met in 1895. This convention was primarily 




B. R. TILLMANj 
U. S. Senator. 



THE STORY OF THE STATE. 25 

for the purpose of readjusting the franchise in such a manner as to eliminate 
the ignorant vote by legal means. A provision was adopted requiring an edu- 
cational and a property qualification which had the desired effect. A complete 
new Constitution was adopted, but the only other radical departure was in the 
incorporation of the chief features of the dispensary system of handling the 
liquor traffic. An excellent provision was incorporated also providing for a 
constitutional tax for educational purposes. 

The Primary Election System. — As a result of agitation and practice in part 
in the upper portion of the State, and of the Farmers' Movement, naturally 
followed by the new franchise law eliminating the negro as a voting factor, 
which law, being fought, stood the test of the Supreme Court of the United 
States and has served as a model for other Southern States, w^as the introduction 
of the primary election system in this State. Today all State officials, county 
officials, and municipal officials, even the State's United States Senators and 
Congressmen, are virtually elected in the primaries, the general elections being 
mere matters of form. 

The Spanish American War. — When the United States Government issued the 
call for volunteers at the outbreak of the war with Spain, as in every other 
conflict in which the nation has engaged. South Carolina did her full duty. The 
call came in April, 1898. South Carolina soon had two full regiments and an 
independent battalion of infantry (finally incorporated in the Second Regiment), 
one battery of heavy artillery and a command of naval reserves in the field. 
The Second Regiment and the independent battalion served in Cuba until the 
evacuation of the island by the United States at the close of the war. The naval 
militia manned the United States steamship Celtic, and officers and men served 
on several other United States ships. The Celtic was at Santiago when the 
Spanish ships were destroyed. General M. C. Butler, one of the dashing chief- 
tains of the Confederate Army, served in the United States Volunteer Army in 
this conflict as a major-general; Major Micah Jenkins was an officer in the 
famous regiment of "Rough Riders," and was conspicuous for the gallantry he 
displayed in the charge up San Juan Hill before Santiago. In the regular army 
Captain George H. McMaster distinguished himself in the Philippines, and 
Lieutenant Victor Blue's record in the navy, in the operations about Santiago, 
made him one of the shining lights in the country's naval history. 

Tzvo Great Colleges. — In 1890 the South Carolina University was reduced to 
a college and so called. The State then set about to establish what the Far- 
mers' Movement had demanded — a great State Agricultural and Mechanical 
College. With the behest of Thos. G. Clemson, accepted by the General Assem- 
bly prior to 1890, this great college was established in the upper portion of the 
State, and is today a model institution. The demand was apparent after the 
establishment of Clemson for a great Woman's Normal and Industrial College 
also, and this resulted in the establishment by the State of the splendid college 
at Rock Hill that is now known as the Winthrop Normal and Industrial College 
for Women. It is regarded as perhaps the best woman's college in the South. 
Later on, in 1906, the South Carolina College was again made a university, and 
is continuing its splendid work for the young manhood and womanhood of the 
State. 

Wonderful Development. — Nothing in South Carolina history can compare 
with the remarkable advance that the State has made in manufacturing in the 
last two decades. Notwithstanding the political upheavals and the bickering 
over the best methods of handling the liquor problem, the disastrous earthquake 
at Charleston in 1886 destroying $6,000,000 worth of property, and the terrible 
hurricane on the coast in 1893 costing many lives, the State has advanced in 
manufacturing at a rate perhaps not excelled in the history of the world. In 
the decade between 1890- 1900 the increase in the production of cotton goods 
alone was 203 per cent. Manufacturing plants utilizing much of the water 
power sprang up one after another ail over the Piedmont section of the State. 
Today the State ranks second in the Union in cotton manufacturing, and is 
making strides in industrial and agricultural development tliat are actually 
straining the population to keep the pace, consequently attracting people of other 
sections to come and aid in the work of upbuilding and to share the conse- 
quent prosperity that is following the developincMit of mechanical powers and 
resources of soil and mines. 

Commerce. — The wonderful development in mainifacluring and the Iioginning 
made in the trucking industry soon brought to notice in no uncertain inaniior 
the need for more people and accentuated the necessity for opening the .State, 
as it was in its earliest days, to tlie commerce of the world. These conditions 
led to the establishment of a new department of the State Government in IQ04, 
charged with the upbuilding of tlic connncrce of the Stale, giving close allciilion 



26 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

to the commercial side of agriculture and stimulating both by means of the 
introduction of desirable and carefully selected new citizens. This work has 
been pushed vigorously, and by the end of the year 1907 it is hoped the products 
of the manufactory, the forest, the field and the mine of South Carolina will 
be going to the markets of the world through the State's own port of Charleston 
instead of seeking these markets by costly circumlocution. 

While manufactures have gone to the fore, agriculture is still the solid foun- 
dation of the prosperity of the State. The farmer is growing the cotton for 
the manufacturer, he is growing the food stuffs for the thousands of operatives, 
and now he is preparing to grow other agricultural products that the markets 
of the world demand, and reap the harvest that comes from those branches of 
agriculture he has heretofore neglected because of concentration of effort on one 
crop alone. Indeed, South Carolina is but upon the threshold of her real pros- 
perity. She is the "Garden Country of America" — a country filled with hos- 
pitable, earnest, hard-working people, but a people ever jealous of honor. . 




CHAPTER III. 

HOW THE STATE IS 
GOVERNED. 



For an adequate idea as to how the commonwealth is governed it would be 
necessary to trace the development of the institutions of the State from the 
colonial period on down the years. In the preceding chapter this growth has 
been touched upon somewhat. Unfortunately space permits only a plain outline 
of the machinery of the government of the present day under the Federal Con- 
stitution and the State Constitution of 1895. The attempt is made to present 
this outline briefly, preceding it with this pertinent extract from the introduction 
of McCrady's "History of South Carolina under the Proprietary Government" : 

"Despite political turmoil, hurricane, pestilence, and fire, the tomahawk of the Indian 
and the sword of the French and Spaniard, we shall find gradually developing from an 
emigrants' camp to social order and settled government, and carrying on successfully 
at their extreme end of the line of English colonies the experiment of representative 
government. We shall find them laying the foundation of great fortunes, building 
churches, quarreling over religion, but, withal, strenuously maintaining it ana 
curiously mixing Puritan fanaticism with high church dogma, founding schools and 
libraries, and laying so broad and deep the foundations of jurisprudence that that 
structure has coutinued to this day to rest irpon the Code of Laws adopted in 1712." 

The reference in the above is to the following from the same source : 

"It will be remembered that during Governor Ludwell's administration the Proprie- 
tors had disallowed the enactment of a habeas corpus act upon the ground that it 
was not necessary to reenact any statute of England, as such statute applied to this 
colony propria vigore under the charter. That theory was now abandoned, and under 
Craven the habeas corpus act of King Charles the Second, was formally reenacted. 
Then followed the adoption of Trott's great work. — a general codification of the Eng- 
lish statutes, applicable to the condition of the new country, and a compilation of all 
colonial acts then in force, 

'•This was for the time a stupendous work. There had been before this several in- 
stances of compilation of colonial statutes in other provinces, a brief mention of 
which, in Ihis connection, will rot be without interest here. In Massachusetts Nathan 
Ward had compiled the perpetual laws enacted by the General Court as early as 1641. — 
this work was entitled the 'Body of Liberties,' sometimes called 'Liberties,' or 'Book 
of Liberties." There were also several revisions by the Plymouth Colony General 
Court — 16:{G, 16.58. and 1671. In Virginia the laws in force in 1662 were collected out 
of the Assembly Records, digested into one volume, and revised and confirmed by the 
General Assembly, and in 1684 a complete collection of all the laws In force, with an 
Alphabetical Table annexed, was made. In 167.3 was published the book of General 
Laws for the people within the jurisdiction of Connecticut, collected out of the records 
of the General Court, then lately revised with emendations and additions established 
and published by the General Court of Connecticut holden at Hartford in (October, 
1672. In Xew York there had been a collection of the laws from 1601 to 1694, and 
In 1710 the laws as they were enacted by the Governor's Council and General Assem- 
bly from 1601 to 1700 were compiled and published. Following Trott's collection of 
the laws of South Carolina in 1712, which we are now considering, the laws of Penn- 
sylvania, collected Into one volume, were published by the Governor and Assembly of 
the province in 1714: there was a collection of the laws of New Hampshire in 1716; 
and a partial collection of the laws of New Jersey was made In 1717. These works 
were all compilations, or collations as they were sometimes termed, of the colonial 
statutes and laws in force in the respective provinces at the time of their collection, 
and were made either by private individuals or by enactments of the colonial legisla- 
tures. And such was a part of Trott's work — that relating to the compilation of the 
laws of the province ; but far the most important was the codification of the English 
statutes, to which we can find no other like and contemporaneous work in America, 
This work was more than a compilation. It was a codification embodied In a single 
act. The act was entitled 'An act to put In force In this Province the several statutes 
of the Kingdom of l^ngland or South Britain therein particularly mentioned.' It com- 
prised an actual revision of the whole body of the statutory law of England, and the 
selection from It of such statutes not only as were then applicable to the condition of 
the colony at the time, but which would become so on Its further development. The 
statutes r.elected, and modified when needful, were one hundred and sixty-seven In 
nuniber, covering one hundred and eighty pages royal octavo of the second volume of 
the Statutes at I^arge. Strange to say, the preamble to this most important act, 
which Is unusually brief, gives no intimation of the magnitude of the measure and 
assigns the most Inadequate reasons for its enactment. The occasion for the act 
stated Is that 'many statute laws of the Kingdom of England or South Britain by rea- 
son of the different way of agriculture and the differing produc-tlon of the earth of Ihia 
Province from that of England are altogether useless, and many others (whl<'h other- 
wise are very apt and good) either by reason of their limitation to particular places 
or because In themselves they are only executive by such nominal offices as are not 




1. Martin F. Ansel, Governor. 2. T. G. McLeod. Lieutenant-Governor. 3. K. M. McCown, 
Secretary of State. 4. J. Fr.\ser Lyon, Attorney-General. 5. R. H. Jennings. State Treasurer. 
6. A. W. Jones, Comptroller-General. 7. O. B. Martin, State Superintendent of Education. 
8. E. J. Watson, Commissioner of Agriculture, Commerce and Immigration. 9. J. C. Boyd, 

Adjutant and Inspector-General. 



HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 29 

in nor suitable for the constitution of this government are thereby become impractica- 
ble here.' With this very unsatisfactory explanation of the occasion of the work, the act 
provided that the statutes or parts of statutes of the Kingdom of England enumerated 
in an elaborate table annexed, consisting of statutes from the time of the great char- 
ter in the ninth vear of King Henry the Third, which was itself specilically mentioned, 
to the eighth year of Queen Anne, should be of the same force in the province as if 
they had been "enacted in the same. The text of the enumerated statutes was given in 
full' and included in the enactment. It was also provided in the same act tliat all 
and every part of the common law of i:ngland. when the same was not altered by the 
enumerated acts or inconsistent with the particular constitutions and customs and 
laws of the province, and excepting such as had relation to ancient tenures which were 
taken awav by acts of Parliament of 12 Charles II, c. 24, doing away with the court 
of Wards and Liveries and Tenures in capite and by Knight's service, was to be of 
full force in the province. There was also excepted that part of the common law 
which related to matters ecclesiastical which were inconsistent with or repugnant to 
the settlement of the Church of England in the province as there established. The 
Governor with his Council were constituted a Court of Chancery, with the same pow- 
ers as those exercised by the Lord Chancellor or Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of 
Great Britain, in England. The courts of Kecord in the province were to have the 
powers of the King's or Queen's courts. AH the statute laws of England not enumer- 
ated in the act (such only excepted which related to her Majesty's ctistoms and acts 
of trade and navigation) were declared impracticable. It was provided that nothing 
in these acts should be construed to take away or abridge the liberty of conscience, 
or any other liberty in matters ecclesiastical, from any of the inhabitants of the 
province, but that the same should still be enjoyed according to the powers and privi- 
leges granted to the true and absolute Lords I'roprietors by their charter from the 
Crown, and the several acts of assembly of the province then in force. 

"A remarkable circumstance in connection with this act is the undue haste in 
which a measure of such great importance was hurried through the legislature. It 
appears by the Journal that it was read in the Assembly, for the first time on Wednes- 
day, the 26th of November, 1712, and immediately passed by that body with some 
arnendments. It is not mentioned by whom this act was introduced. It was sent at 
once to the Governor and Council. That body hesitated to act so inconsiderately upon 
so grave and important a measure, and returned it with a message on the 28th, saying : 

" 'We take it to be a bill of that consequence that it will require your, as well as 
our diligent care to overlook all the statutes, that we may know whether all or any 
part of them are adopted to the nature and constitution of the government of the 
province. We give to you as our advice and opinion that the best way for both 
Houses to be satisfied in a case of this consequence will be to commit the bill to a 
committee of both Houses to examine the said statutes in which we shall readily join 
with you in appointing a Committee to join a Committee of yours.' This suggestion 
of the Governor and Council was at first accepted by the House, and a committee 
appointed to examine the bill and the several English statutes with instructions to 
report at the next session of the General Assembly ; or if in case that Assembly should 
sit no more, the committee were to report to the next sitting of the succeeding Gen- 
eral Assembly. What occurred to change this course of proceeding, and to demand im- 
mediate action upon the bill, is not disclosed in the Journal, nor is there any other 
contemporaneous statement. The entries in the Journal merely show that the bill 
was read a second time on December 5th, and a third time on the 11th, and that it 
was ratified on the 12th. The committee probably shrank from so arduous a labor 
as the revision of these statutes, or perhaps felt themselves incompetent to the task, 
and determined to accept Trott's work as it stood. It is, perhaps, after all as well 
that they did so. Their crude attempts to amend may have rather marred than im- 
proved a compilation which has remained the groundwork of all subsequent general 
legislation in South Carolina for nearly two centuries." 

No attempt will be made to trace the evolution of Sotith Carolina laws from 
this time to the time of the adoption of the Constitution of 1895, under which 
the people of the State are now living. 

This Constitution provides for three coordinate branches of the Government — 
the Executive, the Legislative, and the Judicial, and forever they are to be 
equal and distinct. 

Rights of the People.— In the Declaration of Riglits it is stated that all 
political power is vested in the people, and the people alone have the right to 
change their form of government; that representation shall be according to 
population; that the Legislature shall i>ot limit freedom of speech; that the 
privileges of citizens shall not be abridged in any way without due process of 
law; that property shall be assessed at its value; that the people must first 
corisent to the levying of any special tax before it can be collected ; that bills 
of attainder and ex post facto laws shall not be enacted ; that the right of the 
suffrage shall always be protected by proper franchise laws; that all elections 
shall be open to all possessing qualifications provided for by the Constitution of 
the State; that property qualifications are not necessary for the holding of 
public office; that acceptances of challenges to fight duels work forfeiture of 
the right to hold office; that no office shall be held for life; that temporary 
absence from the State does not forfeit citizetiship once obtained; that no laws 
shall be suspended except by the General Assembly ; that all court proceedings 
shall be public and the defendants shall have speedy trial ; that all persons be 
secured against the search of their premises without due process of law; that no 
person for offenses (not minor) shall be required to answer without a proper 
indictment ; that private property shall iK)t l)c taken for private use without 
consent of the owner, nor for public use without just conipt'ns.'ition to the owner; 



30 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 




DR. J. W. BABCOCK, 
Supt. Hospital for Insane. 



that no person shall twice be placed in jeopardy for 
the same crime ; that the rights of all accused persons 
shall be fully protected ; that excessive bail shall not 
be required ;that corporal punishment shall not be 
inflicted; that the power to punish for contempt shall 
not extend in any contingency to imprisonment in the 
State Penitentiary ; that the right to refuse bail in 
capital offenses extends only when the proof is evi- 
dent and the presumption of guilt great ; that the 
jury in all prosecutions for libel must be the judges 
of the law and the facts ; that treason against the 
State shall consist wholly in levying war or in giving 
aid and comfort to enemies of the State; that no per- 
son can be convicted of treason except upon the tes- 
timony of two persons who witnessed the same overt 
act, or upon open confession in court ; that the privi- 
lege of habeas corpus shall only be suspended in 
cases of rebellion, or invasion, when the public safety 
demands such a course ; that the right of trial by 
jury shall be preserved inviolate; that militia must 
be maintained by the State alone ; that the military 
power shall always be subordinate to the civil author- 
ity; that the General Assembly alone can give authority for the exercise of 
martial law ; that all navigable waters must forever be maintained and considered 
as public highways. 

The Suffrage. — In Article II the Constitution declares 
that all elections by the people shall be by ballot, which 
ballots must never be counted in secret ; that no person 
shall hold two ofHces of honor or profit at the same time, 
except the party may also be an officer of the militia or a 
notary public. The qualifications for the suffrage are set 
forth in the Constitution in considerable detail. They are 
in brief as follows : 

The voter must be a citizen of the United States, a man 
who has paid six months before election any poll tax then 
due, and can read and write any section of the State Con- 
stitution, or can show that he owns and has paid all taxes 
due the previous year on property assessed in the State at 
$300 or more. Previous residence of two years in the 
State, one year in the county, and four months in the 
town or the precinct is a requirement. All felons, and 
persons convicted of bribery, unless pardoned, the insane 
and paupers, are prohibited the ballot. 

of certain crimes, the insane, 
are deprived of the franchise. 
The General Assembly is required by law to provide 
all the machinery for the carrying out of the provi- 
sions of the Constitution as to the franchise. The 
same general requirements are made to apply to 
municipalities. 

The Legislative Department. — There are two dis- 
tinct branches — the House of Representatives and the 
Senate. The two bodies together constitute the Gen- 
eral Assembly of South Carolina. The members of 
the House must number 124 and are chosen by ballot 
by the qualified voters at an election held every 
second year. The representation is by counties, one 
representative being allowed to every 124th part of 
the whole number of the inhabitants of the State. 
If any county fails to meet this requirement, it is 
allowed one representative without regard to popu- 
lation. The Senate is composed of one member from 
each county, elected for a term of four years, and 
the elections are so arranged that every two years 
half of the body is elected. Senators must be at least 25 years and Representa- 
tives 21 years of age. Annual sessions of the General Assembly are held begin- 
nmg on the second Tuesday of January of each year. The per diem of the 
members is limited to 40 days. All bills for raising revenue must originate in 




A. J. BETHEA, 

Private Secretary to 

the Governor. 

Persons convicted 
idiots and paupers, 




D. J. GRIFFITH, 
Supt. State Penitentiary. 



HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 



31 




A. S. SALLEY, JR. 

Secretary State Historical 

Conunission. 



the House. Every act or joint resolution having the force of law must relate 
to only one subject. Each must be read three times in each House on as many 
separate and distinct days, and must be duly ratified in the Senate Chamber, 
the members of both Houses being in attendance. Joint sessions are held in the 
Hall of the House of Representatives. The Lieutenant-Governor of the State 
is President of the Senate and presides over that body. The House elects one 
of its own members as Speaker. The old English custom of presiding officers 
wearing robes is practiced, and the Mace of the State is placed on the Speaker's 
desk at the opening of each day's session. The Constitution provides the class 
of laws that the General Assembly shall enact of a general character. 

The Governor. — The supreme executive authority 
of the State is vested in the chief magistrate, who is 
styled "the Governor of the State of South Carolina." 
He is also commander-in-chief of the militia of the 
State. In him is vested the pardoning power, all 
applications for pardon, reprieves, commutations, etc., 
for conviction only being first submitted to the State 
Board of Pardons for its recommendations. The 
Governor is not bound by the recommendations, how- 
ever. The Governor makes an annual message to the 
General Assembly, in which he gives information as 
to the general condition of the State and its affairs 
and recommends such measures as he may deem 
necessary or expedient. He has the power to con- 
vene the General Assembly in extra session whenever 
he deems it necessary. He commissions all officers 
of the State under the Great Seal of the State. He 
is required to reside in the capital except in cases of 
contagion or emergencies of war, except in case the 
General Assembly should sit in any other place, when 
he is required to reside wherever the sessions are 
held. The Governor has the power to veto any 
measure passed by the General Assembly, sending it 
back to that body with his reasons therefor. In order to pass a measure over 
the Governor's veto a two-thirds majority of both Houses is required. No 
measure can become law without the approval of the Governor, except in cases 
above named. 

The Governor must be elected by the people; his 
term of office is two years, or until his successor is 
qualified, and in case of his death the Lieutenant- 
Governor succeeds to the office. No man can be 
Governor unless he is 30 years of age. Should there 
be a tie vote in the general election, the General 
Assembly selects the Governor viva voce, but the 
choice is confined to the two who have the same 
number of votes. Contested elections for Governor 
are always determined by the General Assembly. 

The Lieutenant-Governor. — The Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, as all other elective State officers, is chosen by 
vote of the qualified electors in the same election as 
Governor. As President of the Senate the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor has no vote, unless the Senate is equally 
divided. The Senate elects a Presiednt pro tempore, 
who, in the event of the Lieutenant-Governor becom- 
ing Governor or acting as Governor, succeeds to the 
position of President of the Senate as well as Lieu- 
tenant-Governor. 

Other State Officers. — The other constitutional 
State officers are the Secretary of State ; the Comp- 
troller-General, whose department has charge of all of the tax machinery of the 
State; the Attorney-General; the State Treasurer; the Adjutant and Inspector- 
General; the State Superintendent of Education, and three State Railroad Com- 
missioners, who are elected by the people for terms, respectively, of 2, 4 and 6 
years each. 

By legislative enactment, creating departments of goyernment, there are also 
a Commissioner of Agriculture, Commerce and Immigration, whose term of 
office is four years; a State Geologist, whose term is four years; a State Bank 
Examiner, whose term is four years; a State Librarian, who is elected by the 
General Assembly every two years; a State Dispensary Auditor, wliose term of 




EARLE SLOAN, 
state Geologist. 



32 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 





MISS L. H. LABORDE, 
State Librarian. 



office is four years, and an Insurance Commissioner, whose term of office is two 
years. All of these last-named officers are appointed by the Governor, with the 
exception of the State Librarian and the State Insurance Commissioner. The 
Governor also appoints the Superintendent of the State Hospital for the Insane, 
and the members of the Board of Regents, but the Superintendent of the State 
Penitentiary and the directors of this institution are elected by the General 
Assembly. 

Judicial Department. — The judicial 
power of the State is vested in the Su- 
preme Court and in the Circuit Courts. 
Of the latter, the Court of General Ses- 
sions has criminal jurisdiction only, and 
the other branch, known as the Court of 
Common Pleas, civil jurisdiction only. 
County courts may be established as a 
result of an election held in any particu- 
lar county under specified regulations. 
The Supreme Court consists of a Chief 
Justice and three Associate Justices. They 
are elected by the General Assembly for a 
term of eight years each, the terms being 
so arranged that one Justice shall go out 
of office every two years. The Supreme 
Court appoints a reporter, a clerk and a 
librarian, each of whom hold their offices 
for four years. In order to be eligible to 
the office of Chief Justice, a candidate 
must be at least 26 years of age, have been 
a licensed attorney for five years, and a 
resident of the State for the same period. 
The Governor has the right to appoint to 
the unexpired term in case of any vacancy 
on the bench. In order to reverse the 
court below, three of the Justices must 
agree to the reversal. In case of equal 
division, the decision below stands. Special provision is made for the calling into 
consultation of all the Circuit Judges of the State. The State is divided into 
twelve judicial circuits, and the Court of Common Pleas and General Sessions 
are required to sit in each county at least twice in every year. At the Criminal 
Court prosecutions are conducted by Circuit Solicitors, there being one for each 
Circuit, and these Solicitors being elected by the people. Each county has a 
Probate Court in charge of the Judge of Probate, who has jurisdiction in all 
matters testamentary and in administration, in business appertaining to minors 
and the allotment of dower and in cases of idiocy and lunacy. The Judge of 
Probate is elected by the people of the county. 

The Governor appoints jNIagistrates in all parts of the 
State, who hold office for a term of two years. These 
Magistrates have jurisdiction in minor cases in both 
civil and criminal matters, except in capital cases the 
Magistrate sits as Judge in the preliminary court with 
jurisdiction to commit for trial by the Circuit Court, 
bail or discharge for lack of evidence. 

The Circuit Judges are elected by the General Assem- 
bly, and the Supreme Court arranges for the systematic 
interchange of circuits. Petit juries of Circuit Courts 
consist of twelve men, and in the Magistrates' Covirts of 
six men, and the grand jury of each county consists of 
eighteen men. Judges cannot charge juries in respect to 
matters of fact, but can merely declare the law. The 
clerk of the Circuit Courts in each county is elected by 
the people of the county for a term of four years. The 
voters of each county also elect a Sheriff and a Coroner 
each for a term of four years. Circuit Courts and all 
courts inferior thereto, as well as municipal courts, have 
the power in their discretion to impose sentence of labor 
upon highways, streets and other public work upon persons by them sentenced 
to imprisonment. 

Jurisprudence. — The fundamental law provides for arbitration of differences. 
It also provides for the change of venue either by the State or the defendant 
from one county to another in the same circuit, but no change of venue can be 
pranted in criniinal cases until after a true bill has been found by the grand 




Y. J. POPE, 
Chief Justice of the State 
Supreme Court. 




MAP OF STATE SHOWING THE JUDICIAL CIRCUITS 



,— '^^ I XcMS/IOAeeJ \/*'f 






\ 



'^ V ^ / \ cn£sr£A \ \ \ ^^ v 












^FLOnence 
3i//>7r£H 









/. 



Aine/^ 



joR/if/ceei/m ^ v 

'n BeRKBLtr 



/ t^"' 



A£ 



I BflnBe/iii\r <!ii,. 



*<r, 






ic'^ 



s/ 



^ .f""^ 

/.< 



MAP OF STATE SHOWING CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS 




HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 33 

jury. Justice is administered in a uniform mode for pleading without distinc- 
tion between law and equity. A Code Commissioner appointed by the Legis- 
lature is required to keep all of the statute laws of the State thoroughly 
codified. 

If a prisoner is lynched through the negligence of 
any State, county or municipal officer having him in 
charge, the officer is subject to trial for misde- 
meanor, and upon the rendering of a true bill, va- 
cates his office until the determination of the trial. 
The trial shall be in a county other than the one in 
which the lynching occurred. In all cases of fatal 
lynching the county in which the lynching takes 
place, without regard to the conduct of the officers, 
becomes liable in damages of not less than $2,000 to 
the legal representatives of the victim, and the county 
has redress against the parties who cotnmit the 
lynching. 

Comities and County Governments. — Full machin- 
ery is provided for the formation of new counties, 
but no new county can have less than 400 square 
miles and no old county can be reduced to an area 
of less than 500 square miles. Each county is an 
election district and is a body politic and corporate. 
EUGENE B. GARY, Each county is divided into townships, which is 

.Associate Justice Sup.cii.e likewise a body politic and corporate, but, at this 
Court. time, though the Legislature has the right to do so, 

there is no system of township government, the divi- 
sion being simply for convenience in matters of taxation. 

Congressional Districts. — The several counties are divided into seven Con- 
gressional Districts as follows: 
First. Berkeley, Clarendon, Charleston, Colleton, and Dorchester. 
Second. Aiken, Barnwell, Bamberg, Beaufort, Saluda, Edgefield, and Hamp- 
ton. 

Third. Abbeville, Anderson, Greenwood. Newberry, Oconee, and Pickens. 
Fourth. Greenville, Laurens, Spartanburg, and Union. 

Fifth. Cherokee, Chester, Chesterfield, Fairfield, Kershaw, Lancaster, and 
York. 

Sixth. Darlington, Florence, Georgetown, Horry, Marion, Marlboro, and 
Williamsburg. 

Seventh. Calhoun, Lee, Lexington, Orangeburg, Richland, and Sumter. 
Judicial Circuits. — The several Judicial Circuits are arranged as follows : 
First. Calhoun, Berkeley, Dorchester, and Orangeburg. 
Second. Aiken. Bamberg, Barnwell, and Hampton. 
Third. Sumter, Clarendon, Williamsburg, and Lee. 
Fourth. Chesterfield, Marlboro, and Darlington. 
Fifth. Kershaw and Richland. 
Sixth. Chester, Lancaster, York, and Fairfield. 
Seventh. Cherokee, Spartanburg, and Union. 
Eighth. Abbeville, Laurens, Greenwood, and Newberry. 
Ninth. Beaufort, Charleston, and Colleton. 
Tenth. Anderson, Greenville, Oconee, and Pickens. 
Eleventh. Edgefield, Lexington, and Saluda. 
Twelfth. Georgetown, Florence, Horry, and Marion. 

Municipalities. — Full legal machinery is provided by law for the municipal 
governments of the several cities, towns and villages of the State, there being 
provision for the acquirement of water works and lighting plants, the levying 
and collection of taxes, the issuing of licenses, and as to the bonded debts. 
Cities and towns are also permitted to exempt for a period of five years, by 
ordinance, certain classes of manufactories from all taxes, except for school 
purposes, provided such ordinances be ratified by the qualified electors at an 
election. The Constitution of the State proliibits for all time the issuing of 
licenses by municipal corporations for the purpose of selling liquor. 
All prize fighting is also prohibited for all time in this State. 
Corporatif}ns.—'l'hc laws of the State arc very complete in dealing with cor- 
porations. For the purpose of chartering corporations there is a general incor- 
poration act, which authorizes the Secretary of State, upon proper showing, to 
issue a State charter. All transporting and transmitting corporations are taxed 
as such and are not permitted to make any contracts relieving them of common 
law liability in reference to the carriage of passengers. All corporations doing 
business under the laws of this State arc rcfpiired to maintain an authorized 
.•?— II. IJ. 



34 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



agent and an office where legal documents can be properly served. Railroads 
are not permitted to buy up competitive lines, and are required, when directed 
by the State Railroad Commission to do so, to make physical connection with 
other railroads at junctional points. No foreign corporation can build or 
operate a railroad in this State without first becoming domesticated by obtaining 
a charter in this State. 

Provisions are made by law for the examination and inspection of all banking 
and fiscal corporations. The State is protected by law against the formation 
of trusts and combinations of interests for the destruction of competition. The 
rights of railway employes are thoroughly protected, as much so as those of the 
passengers. The laws of the State in regard to the liability of stockholders of 
corporations are complete. 

Finance and Taxation. — The laws of this State provide for direct taxation 
of all property of every description except such as may be exempted by law 
for municipal, educational, library, scientific, religious or charitable purposes. 
There is also a law providing a graduated tax on incomes, but this has not 




JOHN H. EARLE. 



B. L. CAUGHMAX. CHAIRMAN. 
State Railroad Commission. 



J. M. SULLIVAN. 



proven very effective up to this time. The State Government is directed almost 
entirely by a direct tax on property levied by the General Assembly. The 
county governments are also permitted to levy a direct tax for corporate pur- 
poses. The bonded debt of any county, township, school district or municipal 
corporation cannot exceed 8 per cent, of the assessed value of all the taxable 
property therein, the value being that determined for the purposes of State 
taxation. 

The credit of the State cannot be loaned or pledged for the beenht oi any 
individual, company, association or corporation, and the State cannot become a 
stockholder in such. No scrip, certificate or other evidence of State indebt- 
edness can be issued, except for the redemption of stocks, bonds or other evi- 
dence of indebtedness previously issued, or for such debts as are expressly 
authorized by the Constitution. No money can be drawn from the treasury 
except upon appropriations made bv the General Assembly. 

Education.— The laws and everything relating to education are so fully cov- 
ered in the chapter on that subject that it is not deemed necessary to here refer 

thereto. . . , • , r , .1 

Charitable and Penal ■Instiiutiflns.—Frovision is made m the fundamental 
laws of the State for institutions for the care of the insane, the blind, the deaf 
and the dumb and the poor. The General Assembly elects the directors of all 
such institutions. All convicts sentenced to hard labor by any of the courts in 
the State may be employed on the public works of the State or of the counties 
and "upon the public highways. 

Militia.— AW male citizens of the State between the ages of 18 and 45 years, 
except such as are exempted by the laws of the United States or of this State, 
'"or, who, from religious scruples mav be averse to bearing arms," are subject 
to service in the militia of the State. The Governor is given power to order 
out the militia to execute the laws, repel invasion, suppress insurrection and 
preserve the public peace. Provision is made by law also for the pensioning 
of indigent or disabled Confederate soldiers or sailors of this State and of the 



HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 35 

late Confederacy who are citizens of this State, and also to the indigent widows 
of such soldiers and sailors. 

Etnittent Domain. — All of the rivers and navigable streams of the State are 
declared by the Constitution common highways and forever free, without any 
taxes or imports unless the General Assembly expressly provides therefor. When 
titles of land fail from defect of heirs all such property reverts to the State. 

hnpeachment. — Full provision is made for the conduct of impeachment pro- 
ceedings, and all impeachments are conducted by the State Senate. Full protec- 
tion is thrown around the accused. 

The Dispensary Systetn. — In consequence of the development of a strong pro- 
hibition sentiment in the State, in 1902 a law was enacted for the control of the 
liquor traffic, which was patterned in some measure upon the Swedish system. 
This was the Dispensary Law, the State at a central bottling plant undertaking 
to put and furnish to consumers, through county dispensaries, only "chemically 
pure" liquors. The barroom was banished, and the dispensary could only sell 
liquor between sunrise and sunset, no drinking on the premises being allowed. 
Later, in 1895, these provisions were embodied in the State Constitution. In the 
first years of the operation of this system the attempt to enforce the law with 
liquor constables led to frequent clashes, the most lamentable occurring in Dar- 
lington, where several citizens and constables were killed, leading to the calling 
out of State troops and an exciting period, which has been termed the "Darling- 
ton War." The road of the dispensary system throughout has been a stormy 
political one, leading finally, in 1907, to the abolition of the State dispensary and 
substituting therefor local option to the extent of each county buying and bottling 
and selling through dispensaries its own liquor, the people having the right, how- 
ever, to vote between "prohibition" and "dispensary." 

Miscellaneous. — Women of 21 years of age are by the Constitution made 
eligible to the office of State Librarian and the departmental clerkships. 

Any person who denies the existence of a Supreme Being can hold no office 
in this State. 

Lotteries are not permitted in South Carolina, and it is unlawful to even 
advertise the sale of tickets of lotteries operated in other States or countries. 
It works forfeiture of office for any official to engage in gambling or betting on 
games of chance. 

The real and personal property of a married woman held prior to marriage is 
considered her separate property and she has equal power over it as if she 
were unmarried. 

Divorce. — The Constitution says : "Divorce from the bonds of matrimony shall 
not be allowed in this State." In the Constitutional Convention of 1905 an effort 
was made to provide for divorce under certain circumstances, but this effort, 
though it was a most vigorous one, failed utterly. This State has never but 
once had a divorce law, and public sentiment has from the time of the foundation 
of the colony frown'ed upon divorce; and there is only one instance in the entire 
history of the State up to the Reconstruction period where one has been granted. 

Prior to the Constitution of 1868, divorces were unknown to the laws of South 
Carolina. 

The Constitution of 1868 (Art. XIV, Sec. 5) declared: "Divorces from the 
bonds of matrimony shall not be allowed but by the judgment of a court, as 
shall be prescribed by law." 

The Act of January 31, 1872 (15 Stats., 30), provided: 

"That a divorce from the bonds of matrimony may be decreed for the follow- 
ing causes: ist, adultery; 2d, when either party wilfully abandons or deserts 
the other for a period of two years : Provided, that when the suit is instituted 
by the party deserting, it appears that the desertion was caused by the extreme 
cruelty of the other party, or that the desertion by the wife was caused by the 
gross or wanton and cruel neglect of the husband to provide suitable main- 
tenance for her, he being of sufficient ability to do so." 

By the Act of 1878 (16 Stats., 719) the above-quoted provisions were repealed. 

In 1879 the Supreme Court decided that "the Act of 1878, repealing all divorce 
laws in South Carolina, deprived the courts of this Stale of jurisdiction of 
actions for divorce, even though pending at the passage of the Act," thus making 
divorce impossible except through the enactment of a new law on the subject. 

'ihe present Constitution, adopted in 1895, in Section 3 of Article XVII, de- 
clares: "Divorces from the bonds of matrimony shall not be allowed in this 
State," as stated above. 



36 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

GOVERNORS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 
By A. S. Salley, Jr. 

I. 

Under Proprietary Government. 

1. William Sayle, March 17, 1670— March 4, 1671. (Appointed by Sir John 

Yearnans under authority from the Lords Proprietors.) 

2. Joseph West, March 4, 1671 — April 19, 1672. (Nominated by Governor 

Sayle and Council to succeed Sayle, retired.) 

3. Sir John Yeamans, April 19, 1672 — July, 1674. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 

4. Joseph West, August 13, 1674— June, 1682. (Appointed by the Palatine. 

From June to October, 1675, during the absence of Governor West, John 
Godfrey, by choice of the Council, acted as Governor.) 

5. Joseph Morton, 1682 — 1684. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 

6. Sir Richard Kyrle, 1684. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 

7. Robert Quary, 1684. (Elected by the Council on the death of Kyrle.) 

8. Joseph West, 1685. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 

9. Joseph Morton, 1685 — 1686. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 

10. James Colleton, 1686 — 1690. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 

11. Seth Sothell, 1690 — 1692. (Assumed the governorship by right of being a 

Proprietor.) 

12. Philip Ludwell, 1692 — 1693. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 

13. Thomas Smith, 1693 — 1694. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 

14. Joseph Blake, 1694. (Elected by the Council on the death of Smith.) 

15. John Archdale, 1694 — 1696. (Assumed the governorship by right of being 

a Proprietor.) 

16. Joseph Blake, 1696 — 1700. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 

17. James Moore, 1700 — 1702. (Elected by the Council on the death of Blake.) 

18. Sir Nathaniel Johnson, 1702 — 1710. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 

19. Edward Tynte, 1710. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 

20. Robert Gibbes, 1710 — 1711. (Elected by the Council on the death of Tynte.) 

21. Charles Craven, 1711 — 1716. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 

22. Robert Daniell, 1716 — 1717. (Appointed by Craven as deputy.) 

23. Robert Johnson, 1717 — 1719. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 

II. 

Under Royal Government. 

1. James Moore, 1719 — 1721. (Son of 17. Elected by a convention of the 

people, who had overthrown the government of the Proprietors.) 

2. Sir Francis Nicholson, 1721 — 1729. (Provisional governor. During his ab- 

sence, from 1724 to 1729. Arthur Middleton. President of the Council, 
administered the government.) 

3. Robert Johnson, 1729 — 1735. 

4. Thomas Broughton, 1735 — 1737. (Lieutenant-Governor acting governor, 

with full powers of governor.) 

5. William Bull, 1737^1743- (President of the Council and Lieutenant-Gov- 

ernor acting governor.) 

6. James Glen, 1743— 1756. 

7. William Henry Lyttelton, 1756 — 1760. 

8. William Bull, 1760 — 1761. (Son of 5. Lieutenant-Governor acting gov-- 

ernor.) 

9. Thomas Boone, 1761 — 1764. 

10. William Bull, 1764 — 1766. (Lieutenant-Governor acting governor.) 

11. Lord Charles Greville Montagu, 1766— 1773. (During the absences of Gov- 

ernor Montagu in 1768 and from 1769 to 1771 Lieutenant-Governor Bull 
acted as governor.) 

12. William Bull, 1773 — 1775- (Lieutenant-Governor acting governor.) 

13. Lord William Campbell, 1775. 

14. Henry Laurens, 1775 — 1776. (President of the Council of Safety, an execu- 

tive body organized from a congress of the people administering the 
government.) 



HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 37 

HI. 

Under State Government. 

Presidents. 



1. John Rutledge, 1776 — 1778. 

2. Rawlins Lowndes, 1778— 1779. 

Governors.^ 

1. John Rutledge, 1779 — 1782." 

2. John Mathewes, 17S2 — 1783. 

3. Benjamin Guerard, 1783 — 17S5. 

4. William Moultrie, 1785 — 1787. 

5. Thomas Pinckney, 1787 — 1789. 

6. Charles Pinckney, 1789 — 1792.' 

7. William Moultrie, 1792 — 1794. 

8. Arnoldus Vander Horst, 1794 — 1796. 

9. Charles Pinckney, 1796— 1798. 

10. Edward Rutledge, 1798 — 1800. (Died in January, 1800, and was succeeded 

by John Drayton, lieutenant-governor.) 

11. John Drayton, 1800 — 1802. (Lieutenant-Governor succeeding Edward Rut- 

ledge. deceased; reelected in December for a full term.) 

12. James Burchell Richardson, 1802 — 1804. 

13. Paul Hamilton, 1804 — 1806. 

14. Charles Pinckney, 1806 — 1808. 

15. John Drayton, 1808 — 1810. 

16. Henry Middleton, i8ic — 1812. 

17. Joseph Alston. 1812 — 1814. 

18. David R. Williams. 1814— 1816. 

19. Andrew Pickens, 1816 — 1818. 

20. John Geddes, 1818 — 1820. 

21. Thomas Bennett, 1820 — 1822. 

22. John Lyde Wilson, 1822 — 1824. 

23. Richard Irving Manning, 1824 — 1826. 

24. John Taylor, 1826 — 1828. 

25. Stephen D. Miller, 1828— 1830. 

26. James Hamilton, Jr.. 1830 — 1832. 

27. Robert Y. Hayne, 1832— 1834. 

28. George McDuffie, 1834 — 1836. 

29. Pierce Mason Butler, 1836 — 1838. 

30. Patrick Noble, 1838—1840. (Died . 1840; succeeded by B. K. 

Henegan, lieutenant-governor. ) 

31. B. K. Henegan, 1840. (Lieutenant-Governor succeeding Patrick Noble. 

deceased.) 

32. John Peter Richardson, 1840 — 1842. (Nephew of 12.) 
;i$. James H. Hammond, 1842 — 1844. 

34. William Aiken, 1844 — 1846. 

35. David Johnson, 1846 — 1848. 

36. Whitemarsh B. Scabrook, 1848— 1850. 

37. John Hugh Means, 1850 — 1852. 

38. John Lawrence Manning, 1852—1854. (Son of 23.) 

39. James Hopkins Adams, 1854 — 1856. 

40. Robert F. W. Allston. 1856— 1858. 

41. William H. Gist. 1858—1860. 

42. Francis Wilkinson Pickens, 1860—1862. (Son of 19.) 

43. Milledge Luke Bonliam. 1862 — 1864. 



CTho f'onsfitution of 1778 fixed the meeting time of the General Assembly In Jnn- 
iiarv and Ihe election of governor liy that l)ody followed at the session succeedinR tlie 
general election for the General Assembly, which was -held In the autumns of the even 
years.) 

(^Governor Riitledge's successor should have been chosen at the session of 1781. but 
the State being in the hands of the liritlsh no elections could be held in 1780 or 1781.) 

f^The Constitution of 1790 changed the meeting time of the General Asseml)ly from 
.I.'iimnrv following general elections to November following, and when Governor 
IMncknev's term expired In 1791 he was reelected for the short term ending November. 
1792.) 



7205G 



38 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

44. Andrew Gordon Magrath, 1864— 1865. (Arrested by the Federal Govern- 

ment, sent to prison and deposed as governor.) 

45. Benjamin Franklin Perry, June— November, 1865. (Provisional governor 

appointed by President Johnson.) 

46. James Lawrence Orr, 1865— 1868. (Deposed by Act of Federal Congress 

reconstructing the Southern States, General Canby acting as military gov- 
ernor until a new government could be established.) 

47. Robert K. Scott, 1868— 1872. (Elected under the new constitution; inaugu- 

rated in July; reelected in December, 1870.) 

48. Franklin J. Moses, Jr., 1872— 1874. 

49. Daniel H. Chamberlain, 1874— 1876. • o o , j 

50. Wade Hampton, 1876— 1879. (Reelected for a second term in 1878; elected 

United States Senator and resigned in February, 1879; succeeded by W. 
D. Simpson, lieutenant-governor.) 

51. William Dunlap Simpson, 1879— 1880. (Lieutenant-Governor succeedmg 

\\ ade Hampton in February ; resigned in September, i88o, having been 
elected Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court.) 

52. Thomas B. Jeter, 1880. (President of the Senate succeeding W. D. Simpson, 

resigned.) 

53. Johnson Hagood, 1880 — 1882. 

54. Hugh Smith Thompson, 1882— 1886. (Reelected for a second term in 1884; 

resigned in July, 1886, having been appointed Assistant Secretary of the 
Treasury of the United States by President Cleveland.) 

55. John C. Sheppard, July— December, 1880. (Lieutenant-Governor succeeding 

Hugh S. 'I'hompson, resigned.) 

56. John Peter Richardson, 1886— 1890. (Son of 32. Two terms.) 

57. Benjamin Ryan Tillman, 1890— 1894. (Two terms.) 

58. John Garv Evans, 1894—1897-' , ■ o o ,_ 
59 William H. Ellerbe, 1896— 1899. (Elected for a second term m 1898, but 

died in June, 1899; succeeded by M. B. McSweeney, lieutenant-governor.) 

60. Miles B. McSweeney, 1899— 1903. (Lieutenant-Governor succeeding W. H. 

Ellerbe, deceased; reelected in 1900 for a full term.) 

61. Duncan Clinch Heyward, 1903—1907- (Two terms.) 

62. Martin F. Ansel, 1907—- ^, . -r.. , 

Of these West, the second William Bull, and Charles Pmckney, governed three 
times each ; Morton, Blake, Robert Johnson, John Rutledge, Moultrie, and Dray- 
ton, governed two separate times each, so that, with Godfrey and Arthur Middle- 
toni South Carolina has had ninety-one rulers in all. 



The Seal of the State. 

By a. S. Salley, Jr., 

Secretary of the Historical Commission of South Carolina. 

On March 26, 1776, the Provincial Congress of South Carolina set up an 
independent government and elected John Rutledge president. On Tuesday, 
April 2, 1776, the General Assembly passed the following: 

Resolved That His Excellency the President and Commander in Chief by and \yith the 
Advice and Consent of the Privy Council may and he is hereby authorized to design and 
cause to be made a Great Seal of South-Carolina and until such a one can be made to hx 
upon a temporary Public Seal. 

For a temporary seal President Rutledge used his private seal bearing his 
family coat-of-arms. • a- • 1 

After the Declaration of Independence a design for the arms of an othcial 
great seal was prepared bv William Henry Drayton, a member of the Privy 
Council, and, after some slight amendments thereto, was accepted and, together 
with a design for the reverse, turned over to an engraver in Charles Town 
to be engraved as a great se^l. Both the arms and reverse symbolized the 
battle which took place at the unfinished and unnamed fort on Sullivan's Island 
(soon after named Moultrie), June 28, 1776. The following description of the 
seal as it appeared when finished is given by Governor Drayton in his fathers 
Memoirs which he edited : 



(iThe Constitution of 1895 changed the meeting time of the General Assembly and, 
the inauguration of the governor to January, thereby lengthening Governor Evans s 
term into 1897,) 





SEAL OF THE STA [ 



CAROLINA ARMS 




T 



SKAL OF THE STATE OF SOUTH C^ROLINA — REVERSE 



40 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

Arms: A Palmetto-tree growing on the sea-shore, erect; at its base, a torn up Oak-tree, its 
branches lopped off, prostrate; both proper-. Just below the branches of the Palmetto, two 
shields, pendent; one of them on the dexter side is inscribed March 26 — the other on the 
sinister side July 4. Twelve Spears, proper, are bound crosswise to the stem of the Pal- 
metto, their points raised; the band uniting them together, bearing the inscription Quis 
Separabit. Under the prostrate Oak, is inscribed Meliorem Lapsa Locavit ; beiow which, 
appears in large figures 1776. At the Summit of the Exergue, are the words South Carolina, 
and at the bottom of the same, Animis Opibusque Parati. 

Reverse: A Woman walking on the Sea-shore, over swords and daggers; she holds in her 
dexter hand, a laurel branch^and in her sinister, the folds of her robe: she looks towards 
the sun, just rising above the sea; all proper. On the upper part, is the sky, azure. At 
the summit of the Exergue, are the words Dum Spiro Spero: and within the field below 
the figure, is inscribed the word Spes. The Seal is in the form of a circle, four inches in 
diameter; and four-tenths of an inch thick. 

Governor Drayton gives the following interpolations of the devices of the 
seal : 

It was not designed, until after the fort at Sullivan's Island, had defeated the British 
fleet, as all its devices will prove. The fort was constructed of the stems of the Palmetto- 
trees, (Corypha Palmetto,) which grow abundantly on our sea-islands — which grew on Sulli- 
van's Island at the time the fort was made — when the battle was fought — and which grow 
there, at this day. 

The Arms^ were designed by William Henry Drayton; and the original executed by him 
with a pen, bearing a great similitude to what is represented on the Seal, is in the posses- 
sion of his son. It, however, contains more devices — but this is easily reconciled, by sup- 
posing, all he had designed was not deemed by the President and Privy Council, necessary 
for the Great Seal. The explanation of this side of the Seal, is the following. The Pal- 
metto-tree on the Sea-shore, represents the fort on Sullivan's Island; the shields bearing 
March 26, and July 4, allude to the Constitution of bouth-Carolina, which was ratified on 
the first of those days; and to the Declaration of Independence, which was made by the 
Continental Congress, on the last of them. The twelve Spears, represent the twelve States, 
which first acceded to the Union. The dead Oak-tree, alludes to the British fleet, as being 
constructed of oak timbers — and it is prostrate under the Palmetto-tree, because, the fort, 
constructed of that tree, defeated the British fleet; hence, the inscription Meliorem Lapsa 
Locavit, is appropriately placed underneath it: under which, 1776 is in large figures — allud- 
ing to the year the Constitution for South-Carolina was passed — to the battle fought at 
Sullivan's Island — to the Declaration of Independence — and, to the year, when the Seal was 
ordered to be made. 

The Reverse, of the arms, is said to have been designed by Arthur Middleton, often 
mentioned in these Memoirs; and who was the father of Henry Middleton, at present Am- 
bassador from the United States of America, to the Court of Russia. The Woman walking 
along the Sea-shore strown with swords and daggers, represents Hope' overcoming dangers, 
which the Sun just rising, was about to disclose, in the occurrences of the 28th June 1776; 
while the laurel she holds, signifies the honours which Colonel Moultrie, his ofiicers and men, 
gained on that auspicious day. The sun rising in great brilliancy above the Sea, indicates 
that the 28th of June was a fine day; it also bespeaks good fortune. 

The engraver to whom the work of executing this great seal was entrusted 
must have completed his job and turned over the seal prior to May 22, 1777, 
as on that day President Rutledge issued a pardon under "the Seal of the said 
State," whereas prior to that time he had issued them under "the Temporary 
Seal" or "the Temporary Public Seal." Governor Drayton says : 

The Author remembers seeing the mould or dye of the Great Seal, brought by the Artist 
who was engraving it, to his father William Henry Drayton, at his residence in Charlestown, 
for his inspection; but he cannot fix what particular time it was. From some circumstances 
which occurred, he believes it was not in the winter. 

This great seal is never used now, because it is not convenient. In former 
days all papers that required the attachment of the great seal had a piece of 
red tape attached to them. This tape was inserted in a hole in the top of the 
mould made by the fastening together of the two halves of the seal. Melted 
beeswax was then poured into the same hole and after it had cooled the halves 
were unfastened and removed and there was a great seal pendant to the docu- 
ment. But that seal having been originally adopted as the great seal of the 
State, should be and is the pattern for all other scale of this State. 



HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 41 

The Mace. 

By a. S. Salley, Jr., 

Secretary of the Historical Commission of South Carolina. 

VISITORS to the Hall of the House of Representatives doubt- 
less notice, not without some curiosity, the handsome silver, gold- 
burnished mace that hangs against the front of the Speaker's 
desk. That mace has just passed the century and a half mark, 
and has more of a history than the average mace of that age. 
As is shown by the hall-marks thereon, it was made in London 
in 1756 by Magdalen Feline, a plate worker then well known in 
London. In 1773 Josiah Quincy, Jr., a distinguished citizen of 
Massachusetts, visited Charles Town (now Charleston), and on 
the 19th of March made the following entry in his diary : 

"Spent all the morning in hearing debates in the House and 
had an opportunity of hearing the best speakers in the Province. 
The first thing done at the meeting is to bring the mace — a very 
superb and elegant one, which cost 90 guineas — and lay it on the 
table before the Speaker." 

During the Revolution this mace w^as carried off by some Brit- 
ish sympathizers to Nassau, New Providence, where it was offered 
for sale to the House of Assembly of the Bahama Islands. 

The records of the House of Assembly of the Bahamas at Nas- 
sau show that on the 2Sth of June. 1790: 

"Mr. McKenzie moved that John Wells, Esquire, be empowered 
and authorized to purchase from the person or persons having 
custody of the silver mace of the late Assembly of the Province 
of South Carolina and that this House will provide for any sum 
or expenses incurred by reason of said purchase." 

The records do not show that any further action was taken in 
relation to the mace, but many writers have assumed that it was 
purchased, and one writer has gone so far as to chronicle the 
wanderings of the mace from South Carolina to the Bahamas, 
and another writer has asserted that "As a matter of fact, it was 
about 10 years before the purchase was effected and appropriation 
passed to cover the cost of the mace and the speaker's robe." 
But, "as a matter of fact", it was never purchased at all and tlie 
mace now in Nassau and supposed to be the South Carolina mace was made in 
London in 1799, as shown by records in London and by the hallmarks on the 
mace itself. Mr. Harcourt G. Malcolm, a member of the Bahama House of 
Assembly and an authority on such matters in the Bahamas, says, in a letter to 
Mr. J. S. Churchill, Colonial Secretary of the Bahamas, dated February 23. 
1903 : 

"Last summer when our mace was in London for the purpose of being 
regilded and repaired, it was inspected at the Assay Office. The officials of that 
office fixed the date of its manufacture at 1799, and the records of that oftice 
also disclosed the fact that it had been made by Lewis Pantin, a small worker, 
whose address was 62 St. Martin's le Grand, at present part of the site of the 
General Postoff.ce building. 

"The date given by the Assay Office was also corroborated by Mr. W. H. 
St. Jr)hn Hope, of the Society of Antiquaries. 

"This is further substantiated by the votes of the House of Assembly. For 
on the 8th of December, 1800, the following item appears in the resolution 
arrived at in a committee of the whole house on petitions, estimates and 
accounts : 

" 'To Alexander C. Wylly, Esquire, for amount paid by him for a mace, 
speaker's gown, etc., £269-10-0.'" 

The writer goes on to say that Mr. Wylly had been Speaker of the House 
from October 30, 1798, to November 17, 1800, when it became necessary to elect 
a successor to him in consequence of his absence from the colony ; that he had 
returned to Nassau on November 28, 1800, and was refunded tlic nniount which 
he had paid out for the mace and robe as described above, and that it seemed 
"a plausible suggestion lliat he brought it with him." 

There are some who indulge in silly twaddle about our mace being the Crom- 
well "bauble" mace, notwithstanding that it contains the arms of the House of 
Hanover. Mr. Malcolm, referring to the same idea existing in connection with 
the mace in the Bahamas, says : 



42 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



"In connection with the 'Cromwell bauble' theory, which I believe exists or 
has existed in nearly every British West Indian colony which possesses a mace, 
I might mention that Mr. Hope showed me in London last summer a book on 
'English Maces' of which he is joint owner. And the part of this book which 
treats of the present mace of the House of Commons apparently proves that 
that mace is the original 'bauble.'" . ,, 

It is also interestmg to note what Samuel Rawson Gardiner, in his 'A His- 
tory of the Commonwealth and Protectorate, 1649-60" (London: Longman), 
says of the mace of Cromwell's time. He says: 

"The final words of the scene were not the 'Take away this bauble' of popular 
tradition, but 'What shall we do with this bauble? Here, take it away!' Capt. 
Scott removed the mace whose fate was so little regarded that it lay for many 
subsequent months in the private house of Worsley, the commander of the 
detachment which carried out the coup d'etat." 

When the Hon. Langdon Cheves became president of the Bank of the United 
States in Philadelphia in 1819 he found the South Carolina mace there m a 
vault. It had the arms of the royal Province of South Carolina on it, by which 
it was identified. He restored it to his native State, where it has been ever 
since. 

As will be seen by Quincy's comments it was formerly used in the ceremony 
of opening the proceedings of the House, by bringing it in and laying it on the 
Speaker's' desk. That ceremonial is not kept up now, and there is not on the 
Speaker's desk a proper rack for it. It is one of the surviving evidences of the 
broad culture of the people of the Province of South Carolina. 



An Historic Chair. 



BY DR. J. W^ BABCOCK. 

In connection with the mace described above, an illustration is given of another 
interesting historical relic, a chair, which has long been preserved in the Library 
of the University of South Carolina. This chair was presented to the Library 

over fifty years ago, as the accompany- 
ing note shows : 

"Preston Place, February, 1856. 
"Dear Sir: Seeing that you have 
thought proper to place a cast of my 
bust in the Library, it has occurred to 
me, etc., etc. 

"I also give to the Library a huge 
mutilated mahogany chair, the tradition 
in regard to which is that it was the 
quasi throne of the Colonial Governors 
of our State. I am, dear sir, 
"Your obedient servant, 

"Wm. C. Preston. 
"Mr. McMaster, Librarian." 

The chair is, technically speaking, a 
Chippendale State chair. It is thus in- 
teresting to the historian as w^ell as to 
the antiquarian. It is of unusually 
large dimensions,* and even in its muti- 
lated condition commanded the atten- 
tion of the casual visitor to the Library. 
The arm terminates in, a handsomely 
carved eagle's head curved upon it- 
self, and the upper portion of the 
front legs have a carved fringe, con- 
tinuing the effect of the fringe that 
originally hung from the lower edge 
of the seat at the front and sides. At 
the back of the top rail three mortises 
with screw holes seem to indicate that 




*Hpip-ht of back from floor, .o3i^ in.; height of seat, 26 in.: length of seat, 21 in.; 
widfhff seat between ai°ms. 25 in. : Width of seat at back, 221/2 in.; width between 
^ims 31 in • height of arms, 36% in.: width of back at top, 26y2 in. : height of back 
fr^ seat, 3'l in. : width between front feet, 22% In. ; width between back feet, 16% 
in. ; space' between front and back feet, 20i^ in. 



HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 43 

originally ornaments, — possibly the British coat-of-arms or other emblem of 
authority, — were attached thereto in order to lend significance as well as to give 
finish to the chair. 

A picture of this antique chair is given in "The Old Furniture Book" by Mrs. 
N. Hudson Moore, who ascribes it to a very early period of Chippendale's work 
[about 1 740- 1 750] when he was still content to copy, for the front legs show the 
bear's paw, while the rear ones are the familiar Dutch foot. This would place 
the time of its production and probable importation from London during the 
governorship of James Glen (1738-1756), or possibly of his successor, William 
Henry Lyttleton (1756-1760). 

Unfortunately, furniture bears no hall marks or other signs by which its exact 
date may be arrived at. This chair is unquestionably a "State chair" of the 
early Chippendale period, if not of his own workmanship, — in fact, it is much 
handsomer than a similar chair in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, — and its 
"mutilation" may have been due to the vicissitudes of the Revolution. If^ the 
tradition about it be true, it probably once held a place of honor in the old State 
House in Charlestown. Careful research, however, has failed as yet to discover 
any reference to the chair earlier than the presentation note of Wm. C. Preston, 
nor is it known how it came into his possession. 

Just prior to the centennial celebration of the college in January, 1905, the 
right arm and side attachments to the tops of the legs of the chair were 
"restored" by order of the Board of Trustees, so that it would be in condition 
for use on that and other State occasions. But the restoration was done with 
absolute regard for the original design, no attempt being made to embellish or 
"glorify" the original conception of the master craftsman who designed and 
made this grand old chair. It thus appears that after being left m innocuous 
desuetude for one hundred and twenty-five years, the venerable "throne" has 
resumed an honorable career. Esto perpetual 



PUBLIC CHARITY IN SOUTH CAROLINA 

By J. W. BABCOCK 
Physician and Superintendent State Hospital for the Insane* 

Public charity in South Carolina dates back almost to the permanent settle- 
ment at Charles Town, having for precedent or basis the Poor Laws of England. 
The earliest Act for the poor was passed June 20, 1694, but the title alone has 
come down to us. Under the Proprietary Government there were passed, in all, 
five Acts dealing with public charities. 

In 1722, shortly after the change to the Royal Government, the Assembly 
passed an Act authorizing the wardens and five vestrymen to levy assessments 
for the maintenance of the poor who had been residents of their parish twelve 
months. A more effectual Act for the relief of the poor was passed in 1737.. to 
which amendments were made in 1738 and 1751. One of the most interesting 
sections of the Act of 1751 is that "providing for the subsistence of slaves.^ who 
may become lunatick, while belonging to persons too poor to care for them." By 
this section justices of the peace and overseers of the poor are required upon 
notice to cause such lunatic slaves to be secured in some convenient place in the 
parish as well to prevent their doing mischief as for the better subsisting of such 
lunatic slaves, the expenses to be borne by the parish. It thus appears that the 
earliest legal recognition of the claims of the insane in South Carolina addressed 
itself toward providing for lunatic negro slaves. • 

Of the charitable organizations in Charlestown, one of the earliest was the 
Fellowship Society, which was begun April 4, 1762, and incorporated in 1769. 
The Act of incorporation was presented for approval at the Court of St. James, 
June 17, 1770, before the King's Most Excellent Majesty, and his Cabinet. 1 he 
original purpose of this society was the founding of an infirmary or hospital for 



•Portions of this paper appoared In the centennial edit Ion of Ihe Char est. )n .NVita 
and Courier (1903) and In tho hospital rcpm-f f'>r 1004. Consldornb c addllloiiMl Infor- 
niatir.M has now l.o.-ii br.-UKlH loKfihcr and siMllsllcal and finaiK-liil Inhlrs liav lu-on 
added. It is hoped that l).v placing in p.'inianent and acc-ssll.!.- funii tliis linp.Tl.'ct 
study of an Important sul)J<Mt rcn.-wcd nnd liil.'Jilgciil liilcn-sl nia.v lie \n\^rn 111 the 
welfare of the hospital. 



44 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

the reception of lunatics and other distempered persons in the Province. 
(McCrady.) Furthermore, Mills says that the Fellowship Society "was origi- 
nally intended to cover under its sheltering wing the deplorable maniac, and for 
that purpose it appropriated one-half of its funds, near $2,000." 

No evidence has been found that a hospital 'was built, which is not surprising, 
when we recollect that the Revolutionary struggle came on soon after the incor- 
poration of the society. However, an old certificate of membership of the 
Fellowship Society shows a representation of a three-storied building, composed 
of a central structure, with two projecting wings, evidently planned for hospital 
purposes. This effort was the second attempt, so far as known, to provide for 
the insane in the Colonies. (Yates Snowden.) In the controversy with Chris- 
topher Gadsden upon the Stamp Act (1776), William Henry Drayton makes 
reference to a mad house existing in Charlestown at the time. (McCrady.) 

From Mayor Courtenay's annual review, in the "Year Book of the City of 
Charleston" for 1880, we learn that this institution (the Alms House) dates back 
to 1712, and, perhaps, an earlier date in our Colonial history * * * On May 29, 
1755, the Provincial Assembly voted "four hundred pounds sterling for an addi- 
tional building, and a further sum of six hundred pounds sterling for the main- 
tenance of the poor in St. Philip's parish." On April 12, 1768, an Act was 
passed authorizing "the Commissioners of the Exchange and Custom House to 
erect a Poor House (and Hospital) on the four acres of ground belongmg to 
the city, on which the Work House and Brick Barracks then stood." By this 
Act the said Commissioners were authorized "to issue certificates not exceeding 
£10,000; and the high duty on wine was continued to risk said certificates." In 
the "Year Book" for 1881, page 340, it appears that a hospital was also included 
in the purposes of this Act. For many years the alms house received support 
from the Legislature for the transient poor, as is further shown in Mayor 
Courtenay's record, varying from £1,000 annually, 1785-1795, to $12,000, 1820- 
1825. The Legislature continued to make annual appropriations for transient 
poor, subject to order of the City Council of Charleston, until the close of the 
Civil War. 

The modern development of asylums with better care for the insane takes its 
origin from the humane efforts of Pinel, in France, in 1791, and Tuke, in Eng- 
land, in 1796. In the United States, neither the last quarter of the eighteenth 
century, nor the period of unrest, which resulted in the War of 1812, was favor- 
able to the development of charitable institutions. 

Some years later, in 1826, Mills says in his "Statistics," in discussing the 
benevolent institutions of Charleston : "The poor house, and asylum (for lunatic 
persons), situate near the corner of Queen, on Mazyck street * * * * was founded 
at a very early period; it is built of brick, three stories high and crowned with 
a large cupola * * * * the number of paupers and outdoor pensioners averages 
983 in the year; of these, twenty are lunatic persons, who are placed in an out- 
building by themselves." /- ^■ 

In December, 1808. Judges of Courts of Common Pleas in South Carolina 
were vested with the same powers as Courts of Equity to inquire into cases of 
lunacy or idiocy and to appoint guardians for the same. 

In passing, it is worth while to call attention to the case of Wm. Linnen, who. 
on the 6th of May, 1815, fatally wounded Dr. David Ramsay, of Charleston, who 
had served his adopted State most zealously as statesman and historian. For 
this crime Linnen was placed in confinement, probably in jail in Charleston, as 
a maniac. (Memoir of Dr. Ramsay.) 

The foregoing are some of the bare facts of the history of our State, rescued 
from musty records and interesting, perhaps, only to the specialist of the 
Dryasdust type. But would it not be more interesting to us all if we could 
learn something of the individuals and the observations and experiences which 
led them to make the tentative propositions which, after securing the approval 
of the majority of the lawmakers, became "Acts and laws"? In this crystallized 
form they have come dotm to us. but the journals and records of the men them- 
selves and their reasons for their proposed enactments are probably forever lost, 
the pioneers in this work thus sharing the fate common _ to many men who 
contributed to the earlv development of South Carolina. Lists of the names of 
the beneficiaries, with" relief afforded, still exist down to 178.^ (Year Book, 

i88r, p. 3.33-) , ■ ■ r , ■ u A : u f u 

In the Colonies the needs of better provision for the insane had long been telt. 
Before the time of Pinel and Tuke, the Pennsylvania Hospital, foundedin Phila- 
delphia in 1752, by Benjamin Franklin and his associates, had a building for 
lunatics adjoining its wards for the sick. This provision marks the earliest 
hospital care for the insane in the United States, our Fellowship Society follow- 
ino- soon afterwards. But it was not until 1842 that the broad-minded managers 



HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 45 

of the Pennsylvania Hospital separated their insane patients in adequate struc- 
tures remote from their sick wards. 

The first separate insane hospital in this country was established by Virginia, 
at W illiamsburg, in 1773. The next— The Friends' Asylum— was founded by a 
private corporation of Quakers, near Philadelphia, in 1817; another private 
mstitution— The McLean Asylum, near Boston, in 1818, and similarlv another— 
Bloomingdale Asylum — in New York, in 1821. 

Upon reflection it is clear, as has already been pointed out, that the earlv 
efforts among the Colonies in behalf of the insane received a setback during the 
Revolution, from which they did not recover, till after the War of 1812 in South 
Carolina, as well as in other parts of the countrj'. 

In a memoir of William Crafts, it is mentioned incidentally that in the session 
of the South Carolina Legislature in 1813, "the late Col. Farrow, of Spar- 
tanburg, projected the establishment of a lunatic asylum, but it failed at that 
time from the situation of the country, which required all its moneyed resources 
in resisting a powerful enemy."' 

Another account* says that Capt. Farrow was elected to Congress in 1812 
and reelected in 1814. While in Congress he conceived the idea of his State 
building an asylum for the insane and one for the deaf and dumb. He declined 
reelection to Congress in 1816 and declared himself a candidate for the House 
of Representatives of the General Assembly of South Carolina for the avowed 
purpose of establishing a lunatic asylum and a school for the deaf and dumb. 
He was elected and reelected until finally, in 1821. he secured an appropriation 
of seventy [thirty] thousand dollars to establish the lunatic asylum, and it was 
only a few years until the school for the deaf and dumb was also established." 

This brings us at last to the individual, Samuel Farrow, who not only saw 
the needs of the insane existing in his own time, but who after years of persistent 
effort so impressed his belief upon his fellow-members of the General Assembly 
that an appropriation of $30,000 for the establishing a lunatic asylum was made 
finally in 1821. 

Let us look up his history. Samuel Farrow (1760-1824) has rightly been 
called the "Father of the Asylum." From a sketch of him by Judge O'Neall 
we learn that Mr. Farrow was one of the pioneer lawyers of the up-country, 
who, without the advantages of a liberal education, struggled through difficulties 
till he won farne at the bar and in the State and National Legislatures. He was 
born in Virginia, and was brought in infancy to South Carolina by his parents, 
who settled about 1765 in Spartanburg District. Farrow was a patriot of '76. 
was once made prisoner by the British and bore upon his face a scar, resulting 
from a sword cut received in battle. After the war he studied law and was 
admitted to the bar in 1793. In 1810 he was Lieutenant-Governor of the State, 
member of Congress, 1813-16. and of the State Legislature, 1816-21. Judge 
O'Neall says the asylum "originated with Mr. Farrow from seeing by the road- 
side, on his way to Columbia, a poor woman, from Greenville, who, at the 
sessions of the Legislature, visited Columbia for many years." There are several 
variations of this legend, but of Mr. Farrow's experience and sympathy with 
the insane there can be no doubt. In the Waters' Genealogy, already quoted 
from, it is stated that "After his success with the asylum Mr. Farrow declined 
further public honors and died in 1824. He is buried at the old home-place 
near Musgrove's Mill, and the inscription on his tomb reads: 

"'SAMUEL FARROW. 

" 'Died in 1824 in the 63rd year of his age. 

" 'He was feared by the Tories and loved by the Whigs. 

" 'A lawyer by profession and an honest man.' " 

But with all his perseverance, Samuel Farrow did not succeed in his efforts to 
get the Legislature to found an asylum till he secured the cooperation of Wm. 
Crafts, Jr., of Charleston. 

In many respects William Crafts (1787-1826) was the counterpart of Farrow. 
He was born in Charleston, where he received all the advantages of early 
educational training. Subsequently he was placed under care of the experienced 
Dr. Gardiner, of Boston, to prepare for college. He was graduated with dis- 
tinction from Harvard, in 1807, and two years later was admitted to the bar 
in Charleston, afterwards leading a brilliant career as lawyer, statesman, orator, 
editor, poet. In connection with his main scheme of popular education, Mr. 

•"A Genealogical History of the Wafers niid Klnilifil I'';inilllfs." I)v I'. I!. \\;ii.t'< 
iind 11. M. Miilani. Atlarila, 1!)0;{. 



46 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

Crafts was especially interested in the establishment of a school for the deaf 
and dumb. His efforts in behalf of founding the South Carolina Medical Col- 
lege deserves special recognition. Mr. Crafts's eminent services in the develop- 
ment of the public school system form part of the educational history of the 
State, and have been recognized through the interest of the Hon. W. A. Cour- 
tenay, by naming one of the schools of Charleston for him. 

Portraits of these two worthy Carolinians adorn the walls of the principal 
reception room of the State Hospital in Columbia, and are herewith reproduced. 
Brief biographical sketches of them may be found in O'Neall's "Bench and Bar 
of South Carolina," to which my indebtedness is gratefully acknowledged. 

The slow evolution of the movement for an asylum is indicated by these 
extracts from the Reports and Resolutions of the General Assembly of the State 
of South Carolina for the year 1818: 

"In the House of Representatives, Dec. 9th, 1818. 

"The special committee, to whom was referred the resolution relative to Luna- 
tics, are unanimously agreed that those unfortunate beings highly deserve the 
attention and patronage of the Legislature. Your committee have ascertained 
from the best information, that great many lunatics are now at large unsheltered 
and unprovided for ; they therefore beg leave respectfully to submit the follow- 
ing resolutions : 

"Resolved, That an asylum be provided at the expense of the State for the 
reception of Lunatics from the different districts. 

"Resolved, that the Civil and Military Engineer be directed to devise and 
draw the most economical plan of a building suitable for the accomrnodation 

of Lunatics, and report the same at the next session of the' Legislature, 

with an estimate of the expence attending the erection of such a building. 

"Resolved, That the neighbourhood of Columbia is — in the opinion of the com- 
mittee, the most eligible site for such a building, because it will be within the 
reach of medical assistance, and of the superintendence of the legislature. 

"Ordered, That the resolution be sent to the Senate for their concurrence. 

"By order of the House. R. Anderson, C. H. R. 

"In the Senate, Dec. gth, 1818. 
"Resolved, unaniniotisly. That this House do concur in the report. Ordered, 
that the same be returned to the house of representatives. 

"By order of the Senate. W. D. Martin. C. S." 

Through the combined efforts of these two distinguished men — Messrs. Far- 
row and Crafts— an Act was finally passed by the General Assembly, December 
21, 1821, authorizing the erection of suitable buildings for a lunatic asylurn and 
a school for the deaf and dumb. 'Under this Act a Commission was appointed, 
consisting of Governor Thomas Bennett, the Intendant of Charleston, Elias 
Horry, John L. Wilson (the next Governor), Dr. James Davis (subsequently 
the first physician). Dr. Edward Fisher and Thomas Taylor, Jr., who were 
empowered to draw from the State Treasury $30,000 with which to purchase 
sites and erect suitable buildings of brick or stone for the purposes of the asylum 
and school. 

The Commission collected information about the defectives of the State, show- 
ing that there were 55 lunatics and 29 deaf mutes, and reported that they had 
purchased a square of four acres within the town of Columbia. They further- 
more reported that it was not feasible to have the asylum and school together. 

Writing about 1826, Mills, to whose "Statistics" reference has already been 
made, says in describing Columbia : "The asylum for lunatic persons is another 
of those institutions established by the liberality of the State in this place. The 
building is now nearly finished and will probably soon go into operation. The 
design "of it is both novel and convenient. It combines elegance with perma- 
nence, economy and security from fire. The rooms are vaulted with brick and 
the roof covered with copper. The building is large enough to accommodate 
upwards of 120 patients, besides furnishing spacious corridors, hospitals, refec- 
tories, a medical hall, several parlors, keepers' apartments, kitchens and sundry 
offices. The whole is surrounded by a lofty enclosure. The cost of the whole 
is considerably within $ico,ooo. Similar buildings executed at the North and 



HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 



47 



^m 






^^m 




\ 


^^^^E 




^E 




% 


^^^M 


^» 


v^ • 


s 


^s* 


^^^^^"^fe-^^?-^ 


A 


^ 


. w 



ROBERT MILLS, DESIGNER OF THE 
ORIGINAL BUILDING. 



in England of equal accommodations, yet not made fire-proof, have exceeded this 
sum. The facade of this asylum represents a center and two wings, and is 
crowned with a large cupola, opened all around, with sashed windows, which 
serve the purpose of a ventilator to the hospital story. 

"The entrance of the center build- 
ing is under a grand portico of six 
massive Greek Doric columns, four 
feet in diameter, elevated on an open 
arcade, and rising the entire height 
of the wing buildings ; the whole sur- 
rounded with a pediment. Only two 
sections of the wings are now built, 
one on each side. These, with the 
center, being considered sufficient to 
answer the present demands of the 
country. The design, however, is 
such that, without disturbing its sym- 
metry, any additional accommoda- 
tions may be made. The plan, when 
completed, according to the original 
design, will sweep a semi-circle, or 
horse-shoe figure, and enclose a spa- 
cious court to the south." 

Such is the description of the asy- 
lum given by Robert Mills, but not 
one word does he say about the ar- 
chitect, nor was the name of the 
architect known till quite recently. 
Curiously enough, a set of the plans 
and elevations of the "asylum at Co- 
lumbia, S. C," was found in an attic 
of an old Massachusetts asylum a 
few years ago and sent to the writer 
by Dr. George T. Tuttle, Super- 
intendent of the McLean Hospital, Waverley, Mass. Upon one of these plans 
is the inscription : "Designed by Robert Mills, Engr. & Archt." But for this 
discovery and record, the name of the forgotten architect would probably have 
remained unknown for some years longer. Mills, then, was no doubt the 
designer of one of the earliest asylums erected in this country, and the building 
left by him is today probably the oldest existing asylum building in the United 
States erected by a State for its insane. Let us learn, so far as we may, who 
Mills was. 

Robert Mills (1781-1855) was born in Charleston, being descended on the 
maternal side from Landgrave Smith, of the Proprietary period. In 1802 the 
Trustees of South Carolina College divided between Mills and another architect 
named Clark the premium of $300 offered for general plans for the College and 
grounds. In 1820 he was appointed State Architect and Engineer of South 
Carolina. It was while holding this position that he became the architect for 
designing the original asvliun building. In 1837, President Jackson made him 
.Architect of the General Government, and he held this position until 185 1. 
Under this and the next administration. Mills designed custom houses and 
marine hospitals from New Orleans to Massachusetts. He had charge of the 
erection of the Treasury Building in Washington, D. C, the postoffice and the 
patent office buildings. Mills's designs for the National Washington Monument 
were accepted over many competitors. This was perhaps his crowning work. 

The portrait of Mills is reproduced from Glenn Brown's "History of the 
United States Capitol," with the author's kind permission. 

Mills says of himself in his "Statistics" (pp. 466-67) that he was "the first 
native .American that entered on the study of architecture and engineering in the 
United States — these he pursued under the celebrated Latrobc." He says he 
designed the first monument erected to Washington, that his designs for Bunker 
Hill Monument were accepted, that he designed and erected a great bridge over 
the Schuylkill near Philadelphia, a penitentiary at New Orleans, and that "many 
vears ago" he made a present to this State of a plan of a penitentiary to induce 
it to adopt this institution into the State. 

It deserves mention that of the two founders, one an elderly man and the 
other comparatively young, neither lived to see the result of their combined 



48 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

labors, for Mr. Farrow died in 1824 and Mr. Crafts in 1826. The Asylum was 
not completed till 1828. 

The accessible records fail to show that activity among the body of physicians 
through the State that one would expect in the foundation of a lunatic asylum. 
At least, I have not been able to discover any such. But this must be due either 
to an oversight, or to the traditional unwillingness of the profession to "adver- 
tise." Both Mr. Farrow and Mr. Crafts were lawyers. But on the original 
Commission were two doctors, and Dr. Trezevant was a leading member of the 
first Board of Regents and served in that capacity until he was subsequently 
made Physician to the Asylum. 

A general idea of the number of dependents and defectives in this State in 
1826 may be had from this table, compiled from Mills's "Statistics": 

Deaf and 

Paupers. Dumb. Blind. Lunatics. 

Abbeville 60 very few very few very few 

Barnwell 4 

Beaufort few few some 

Charleston 963 23 

Chester 25 15 7 3 

Chesterfield 20 i o i 

Colleton 

Darlington "It's proportion." 

Edgefield "About 50." 

Fairfield 30 none known 

Georgetown few few few 

Greenville 25 

Horry 8 or 10 2 none 

Kershaw 

Lancaster 

Laurens 

Lexington few 

Marion 10 or 12 2 none 

Marlboro 10 or 12 

Newberry few 2 i or 2 2 

Orangeburg 5 i i o 

Pendleton 

Richland few 2 or 3 2 or 3 4 or 5 

Spartanburg 27 2 i 

Sumter 

Union 

Williamsburg 20 

York 



On December 18, 1827, was passed an Act to carry into operation the Lunatic 
Asylum, and though subsequently found defective in many respects, some of its 
provisions remain in force to this day. 

As the construction of the Asylum proceeded slowly, it was not ready for 
occupation for another year — six years after its foundations were laid. 

Although all the privileges of the new institution were extended to citizens 
of other States as well as to our own, no applications for admission were 
received for some time. When the first annual report went to the General 
Assembly no patient had been admitted. In that report it is stated : "The 
Regents regret that an establishment every way calculated to do honor to the 
intelligence and philanthropy of the State, should not, hitherto, have met with 
a success commensurate either with their wishes or the bounty of the Govern- 
ment." After a careful consideration of the subject they report several defects 
in the law "as the leading causes of the disappointment of this benevolent plan 
for the relief of the most dreadful malady to which our common nature is 
liable." 

While the Legislature was still in session — December 12, 1828 — a young white 
woman was received as the first patient, and her mother was made matron to 
look after her. 

In 1829 the Regents and Physician still considered the Asylum an experiment, 
and advertised for patients in the newspapers of this and adjoining States. 

At a later period Dr. Trezevant wrote out of the fullness of his knowledge 
of the subject: "Our institution has never been a popular one. Owing to the 
improper conduct of those who were employed in planning and erecting the 



HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 



40 



building the Legislature was grossly deceived ; large sums of money were con- 
stantly called for and uselessly expended, and when, at last, the building was 
completed, so thoroughly disgusted had it become that the Asylum was a bye- 
word and a reproach and our friends hardly dared advocate it in our Halls. 
Money was not to be obtained for properly fitting it up. and the Regents never 
had it in their power to do for its inmates what their situation really required." 

In November. 1830, the Regents rcconmiended that the General .Assembly pass 
an .A.ct to render it obligatory on all persons and bodies corporate having charge 
of idiots, lunatics and epileptics to send them to the Asylum and support them 
there at the expense of the city. town, parish, etc.. chargeable with their support. 

In 1831. because of lack of funds to maintain the institution, the Regents were 
upon the point of resigning, when Governor Hamilton came to their relief with 
$654 from his contingent fund and thus tided over a crisis. But it was several 
years before the institution was established upon a firm footing. In fact, the 




MILLS BUILDING, STATE K(;SPITAL FCR THE INSANE — FOUNDATIONS LAID IN 1822. 
Probably the oldest buildinf; now .standing in the United States built by a State for the Insane. 

continuance of the Asylum seems to have been uncertain till 1836, wlicn it was 
completely reorganized. 

In passing, it deserves to be emphasized that for many years patients were 
received at the Columbia Asylum from other Southern States which were lacking 
in such accommodations for their unfortunate citizens. Georgia opened iier 
asylum in 1844; North Carolina in 1856; Alabama in i860; while Georgia and 
South Carolina divided the care of Florida's insane down to 1877, and were duly 
paid therefor each cpiarter. When the ncighljoring States, however, did under- 
take the care of their insane, the location of the South Carolina A.sylum in a city 
served as a warning to them to place tiieir institutions in the country and in tiie 
neighboijiood of large towns, usually the cai)itals of the States. Tiie intramural 
location of onr .Xsyluni has iiad its drawbacks as well as advantages since its 
opening. 



-II. It. 



so SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

MANAGEMENT. 

The management of the Asylum was vested in a Board of nine Regents, who 
were elected by both branches of the Legislature and were empowered to fill 
vacancies till the next regular session of the General Assembly. The original 
Board consisted of Wm. F. DeSaussure, President; Robert Henry, D. H. Treze- 
vant, Abraham Blanding, Wm. C. Preston, D. J. McCord, E. W. Johnson, B. F. 
Taylor and Edward Fisher. Subsequently upon the Board have served some of 
the noted men of the State. Among these may be mentioned : Andrew Wallace, 
Dr. Thomas Cooper, Maximilian LaBorde, Francis Lieber, the Rev. P. J. Shand, 
John S. Preston, Dr. A. N. Talley and Dr. B. W. Taylor. Down to about 1880, 
citizens of Columbia were usually elected to serve on the B'oard, receiving no 
pay. For the next twelve years one member was appointed by the Governor 
from each Congressional District. In 1892 the Board was reduced to five mem- 
bers, appointed by the Governor, to serve six years. They now receive a per 
diem and mileage. 

The Regents have always endeavored to administer their charge upon prin- 
ciples of the broadest charity. Their efforts have been towards extending rather 
than restricting the functions of the Asylum. To the classes of idiots, lunatics 
and epileptics originally provided for have been added, from time to time, 
inebriates, criminals, "dotards," paupers, and even cases of nervous disease. In 
fact, the institution has served as a receptacle for the undesirable members of 
many communities not otherwise provided for. It is matter of record that till 
1902 non-residents of this State were often admitted — long after neighboring 
States had adopted an exclusive policy towards citizens of this State, who were 
stricken while in their midst, or before they had been residents there long 
enough, two years, to acquire "settlement." 

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. 

In the '30's. after the purposes and uses of the institution had been recognized 
by the public, the Asylum began to grow in spite of adverse conditions. Although 
the plans prepared by Robert Mills were never fully carried out, but were wisely 
modified, additions were made to the original structure constituting the old 
Asylum, about every ten years, to meet the growing demands. By 1848 it had 
reached the limits of the square of four acres, upon which its foundation stone 
had been laid. Meanwhile, about forty acres of land lying east of the Asylum 
had been secured for gardening and farming purposes. The location of the 
institution practically within the city has always proved a serious drawback. 
By 1848 demands for the admission of new patients forced the question of the 
advisability of erecting new buildings near the old site in Columbia, or selling 
the buildings and land and moving into the country. Upon this question there 
was difference of opinion among the Regents, the physicians and the General 
Assembly. At one time the controversy was so bitter that it almost led to a 
duel. Finally, the General Assembly, in 1856, took the matter in hand, and 
directed that new wards be constructed upon the land lying east of Pickens street. 
When the annual report was prepared there was a total of 171 patients in the 
institution, and the admissions for the year had been 6"]. Previously, Dr. Treze- 
vant had expressed the opinion that the State might in the future be required to 
furnish accommodations for as many as 400 patients annually. In view of the 
ever-increasing demands in recent times for the admission of more and more 
patients (the number of new patients for several years has been over 500 and the 
total number under care was 1,849 i'l 1906), we can now see that a mistake was 
made in 1856 in keeping the Asylum in the city. The Regents have been forced 
to purchase, from time to time, at seemingly high prices, such tracts of adjacent 
land as were offered for sale, and the patients have never been able to have the 
amount of liberty they might have, were the institution located a few miles in 
the country. 

But in the '40's and '50's not even the most far-seeing statesman could foretell 
what demands the future would bring to all civilized communities for providing 
for the insane. But by that decision in 1856 our State was committed, for many 
years at least, to the policy of maintaining its insane wards practically within 
the limits of a city. 

By the beginning of the Civil War, two sections of the new Asylum building, 
each three stories high, had been erected. But the total acreage owned by the 
institution was less than fifty. Although additional land was rented for farming 
purposes, it was many years before the Regents were able to secure small adjoin- 
ing tracts for tillage and pasturage. 



HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 



SI 



IXTERXAL MANAGEMENT. 

At first, the Superintendents of the Asylum were laymen — practically head- 
keepers, who were frequently changed. Dr. James Davis, one of the original 
Commissioners, served as Visiting Physician from 1828 till 1836, when he 
resigned, and a system of internal management, which Dr. Davis had long advo- 
cated, was inaugurated by the appoiniinent of Dr. J. W. Parker, of Abbeville, as 
Resident Physician and Superintendent, and of Dr. D. H. Trezevant, of Colum- 
bia, as Visiting Physician. 

Dr. Trezevant had been a member of the original Board of Regents. He 
seems to have had very broad views regarding the care of the insane and also 
of their needs. His reports are evidently the productions of a well-trained 
mind and show the experienced physician and alienist. He had his own opinions 
and these he expressed vigorously, as witness these extracts : 

In 1853 he says : "That I am anxious about our Asylum, I do not deny. I 
have been connected with it from the time the first patient entered its walls up 
to the present moment. I was with it when it was viewed with pride, and I 
thought that our little State was far in advance of our sisters, though I then 
saw much that was faulty in its construction. In 1835 I became aware that we 
were falling behind. In 1840 we were distanced, and it was painful in '45 and 




.MAils iJUiLDlXG, STATE HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE — COMPLETED IN 1885. 

'50 to see how inferior were our accommodations, when compared with those of 
other institutions." 

Again in the same report he says with reference to the Legislature and appro- 
priations: 

"I confess I do not look to the purse of the Legislature when I am acting for 
the insane. My thoughts are first and principally to what is most for their 
benefit; next, to what will assist the keepers and officers; and lastly, to the 
amount necessary to be expended. Who is there who claims to be civilized, 
who would on his return home, boast to his constituents of having saved $20,000 
by curtailing the comforts of the insane? — that he had voted against the solicited 
appropriation, and given to them a prison — that he could not sec the utility of 
giving them comforts — that he had asked what they wanted with light ;ind airy 
rooms, extended corridors and fine verandahs? — that in his opinion, they should 
be shut up in dark cells at night, made to sleep, and in the day they could walk 
out very well in the yard? Would such a speech be permitted?" 



52 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

Or, again, this regarding removal into the country, for which he was an ardent 
advocate: "This has been with me a subject of deep and anxious thought, and 
eighteen years ago, when President of the Board of Regents, 1 urged on the 
Joint Committee of the two Houses, the propriety of abandoning this edifice 
(the original Asylum) and erecting one better adapted to our wants." 

Dr. Trezevant had the courage of his convictions, for when his wise proposal 
of removing the institution into the country failed to secure Legislative sanction, 
he and some of the Regents of his way of thinking resigned as officers of the 
Asylum. To use his own words. Dr. Trezevant was for thirty years "intimately 
connected with the Asylum for the Insane." 

In 1870, Dr. Ensor, in his first report, quotes from Dr. Trezeyant's reports at 
length, saying: "There are few men in this country whose opinions upon the 
care and management of the insane are worth more than Dr. Trezevant's." 

Dr. Parker, who now became Physician and Superintendent of the Asylum, 
was an advocate for continuing the institution in the city of Columbia. As 
Resident Physician he had long devoted himself to its interests with wonderful 
singleness of purpose. Few men and no physicians have left greater claims to 
be remembered by the State. In all, he devoted over forty-five years of his life 
to the service of the insane in this institution. His experience and skill in 
management, coupled with a sublime faith in his mission, alone carried the 
Asylum through the dark days of the war and its direful sequels. 

In his dealings with the General Assembly, Dr. Parker was more conciliatory 
than Dr. Trezevant, for in his reports to the Regents, in i860, he says: "It is 
true that the prosperity and existence of the Asylum rests not entirely in your 
hands, nor with its officers, but is chiefly dependent on Legislative action. To 
the honor of the intelligent members of that body be it said that whenever they 
have been convinced that the claims of humanity and the interest of the Asylum 
demanded Legislative aid, it has always been extended with commendable liber- 
ality. But they require to be fully informed and to know that their action will 
be right. Notwithstanding the great intelligence of the members of the Legis-. 
lature, many of them, in common with a large and intelligent proportion of our 
fellow-citizens, entertain incorrect ideas of susceptibilities and requirements of 
the insane. The ordinary limits of our annual reports cannot accomplish all 
that is necessary to enable them to pursue the most enlightened course towards 
this class. I, therefore, respectfully suggest the appointment of a Committee of 
Regents, who will undertake the duty of communicating fully and freely all 
matters connected with the Asylum, and, if they deem it proper, memorialize the 
Legislature for aid to carry on necessary improvements and buildings and finish 
such work as may have been commenced." 

In part, the following paragraphs on the history of the Asylum, 1861-65, Pre- 
pared by the writer for another occasion, bring out the salient points of that 
eventful period and reveal in detail the great value of Dr. Parker's services. 

The difficulties of maintaining a daily average of about 200 persons during the 
earlier years of the war appear trivial in comparison with later experiences. 
For instance, it is recorded that in 1863, "the past year has been marked by 
peculiar trials and difficulties. Never within the experience of the oldest member 
of this Board has such an amount of effort been necessary to conduct the admin- 
istration. These difficulties are due to the condition of the country. It is no 
figure of rhetoric to say that from the beginning of the year to its close the 
existence of the institution has been one of severe, protracted struggle. Without 
money to purchase the necessary supplies, the Board was compelled to look else- 
where than its treasury for support." The Governor was unable to furnish aid 
from the contingent fund, because it was already too small to meet the demands 
upon it for the military wants of the State. The annual cost per patient was 
$428, and the Asylum was sustained by the individual credit of the Board of 
Regents, who borrowed the necessary funds from the Bank of the State. 

The crisis being passed, the "doors were again thrown open to patients from 
all parts, without discrimination or preference, without regard to form, degree 
or duration of disease, desiring the benefits of the Asylum to be commensurate 
with the wants of that class for whom it was designed." Citizens from other 
States were still received and restored to usefulness. In 1864. in consequence 
of a depreciated currency and of the exorbitant prices of supplies, the price of 
board in the city of Columbia was from $30 to $40 per day and from $3,000 to 
$4,000 per year. Facing such conditions. Dr. Parker courageously said : "In 
presenting my annual report I may reasonably offer you my congratulations that, 
notwithstanding the consequences of war in restricting and curtailing many 



HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 53 

comforts hitherto enjoved bv the inmates of the Asylum, as well as our remedial 
agems, we have by vour personal liabilities, with the just liberality of the last 
Legislature, been successful in our eflforts to conduct the institution through 

another year." 

■■—---:-- During '64 an effort was made by 

, ^J^. Confederate officers to obtain the 

«r r-, vV^^^"^'"'- "^^^ Asylum building east of Pick- 

r-" ,♦ '':'^r'"f ■/'-.•*•'•!?''■.'!? .' , ens street as a prison for Northern 

- '/p.'^Mj.i'^^'^^rr*-''''''^^^-* officers. But the Regents declined 

* •»-• H'<^lifcli*ikfeiiL«£.- ^ 4'^'^'«:^v*4 ^° y'^^d ^•''^^^ ^^^^^ ^°^ °'^^^'' ^'^^" 

^-f .''" ''^'^^!^^^liy^^^^mSl^^^j^^^ its original purpose, although they 

$/' •♦♦•■■ '.'•'^■'.'■•mis '^^Wjj^KSy- - did grant an unoccupied square ly- 

' . ^u<''^ ■''^/^rf^'^^'j/'^^^ : ing farther east for the purpose re- 

ti>f'Bi i''.^i'^'i i^ 4W':l-^^->i-jf*~W^"' quested. A print from a war-time 

W ¥-■ picture of the "Asylum Camp" is 



^'*"' ~ herewith reproduced. 

A few paragraphs from the report 
WAR PRISON CAMP ON ASYLUM PROPERTY of 1865 may serve to summarize the 
IN 1864- '65. history of that eventful year: 

"The year was commenced under most trying circumstances, but no special 
obstacle to our regular routine of duty occurred until the advent of General 
Sherman's army, on the 17th of February. The wholesale and wanton robbery 
and destruction permitted or ordered by that officer, the burning of the city and 
the subsequent want and suffering of the whole community, are too indelibly 
engraved upon your hearts to be now, if ever, forgotten. The Asylum, although 
it escaped pillage, was crowded by hundreds of our fellow-citizens, who sought 
safety and shelter from their burning homes. Its doors were thrown open and 
its scant supplies shared to the last mouthful with the starving and destitiite. 
Left without a horse or wagon or any means of communicating with the outside 
world, our situation became every day more embarrassing, and early in April 
I made my first appeal to you. Your condition, in common with that of every 
other citizen, made it impossible for you to render assistance. My next appeal 
was to Governor Magrath, but alike without success. Soon followed the final 
disaster to our arms, and the utter worthlessness of Confederate currency. 
Placed in a position from which there seemed no way of escape, consistent with 
duty, I continued to struggle on until the last of May, when I was forced to 
apply to General Gillmore. He promptly ordered 'rations and medicines,' but 
such was the demand at this post that only one week's supply was received and 
I was again thrown on my own resources to support the institution. Feeling 
insufficient to the task, as soon as a Provisional Governor was appointed I wrote 
a full letter to him, but received no answer. Reduced to the last extremity, I 
appealed through the newspapers 'To the patrons of the Asylum and to the 
benevolent of the State.' This appeal, too, seems to have gone unheard, save 
in the single instance of a lady from Charleston, sister of James B. Campbell, 
Esq., who promptly responded by a donation of flour and bacon, nearly equal to 
the rations received by the Government. I have thus endeavored to sketch briefly 
some of the obstacles which beset my path." 

In the same report the Regents say that they "deem it but simple justice to 
express their conviction that but for Dr. Parker's extraordinary skill and energy 
this shelter of the unfortunate must have succumbed to the pressure of the times. 
At a period when the resources of the Board were exhausted and the authorities 
to whom we applied for help were impotent to assist us. when destitution and 
starvation or the abandonment of the institution seemed inevitable, your Super- 
intendent put his shoulders to the wheel and by appropriating his dornestic sup- 
plies, exhausting his private resources and staking his personal credit, he con- 
trived to secure food, raiment and the necessary comforts for the patients. 

Such in part is the war record of the Asylum, and in it not only may the 
descendants of Dr. Parker take pride, but every South Carolinian should claim 
the honor of sharing in that feeling. 

In i86q, in his report to the Regents, Dr. Parker says: Another important 
subject for legislative action, now under the consideration of your Board, and 
which you will, doubtless, urge in your annual report, is the better provision for 
persons of color. More than twenty years ago, you obtained sanction of the 
Legislature to provide for and receive persons of color. Until the close of the 
war, very few applications were made, the number in the Asylum never exceed- 
ing five. During the present year, the number admitted was twenty-nine. For 



54 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

so large an accession to our number, there was no adequate and suitable provi- 
sion, and the buildings now occupied and appropriated exclusive to them are 
almost full. These buildings, although comfortable, are of wood, and, in other 
respects, are ill-adapted to the purposes to which they are put. My experience 
leads to the conclusion that the welfare and proper treatment of the insane of 
both races requires that they be kept entirely separate and apart. And with this 
conviction, even if the present building were of greater capacity, I would still 
recommend that another and distinct house, of brick, properly planned and 
arranged, be erected, as soon as practicable, for their special accommodation." 

In spite of recommendations to the same purport made annually by successive 
Boards of Regents and Superintendents, such a building as Dr. Parker saw the 
need of in 1S69 was not erected till 1897. When it, was begun, it was properly 
named for Dr. Parker as a slight recognition of his eminent services. 

Dr. John Waring Parker (1803- 1882) was born in old Edgefield District on 
January 24, 1803, being of English and French descent. He attended lectures in 
the Charleston Medical College and completed his medical education in Phila- 
delphia. He practiced his profession in Spartanburg and Abbeville. In 1836 





DR. J. F. ENSCR — 1834-I9O7. 

Dr. Parker was elected Superintendent of the Asylum. He was connected with 
the Asylum continuously for over forty-five years, except for a short interval 
during the Reconstruction period. 

Dr. Parker, after serving as assistant physician during the administrations of 
both Dr. Ensor and Dr. Griffin, finally achieved the ambition of all good physi- 
cians, for he died in harness, as it were, after a short illness, October ii, 1882. 

Under the Republican regime in 1870, Dr. J. F. Ensor, of Maryland, super- 
seded Dr. Parker as Superintendent. Dr. Ensor began his administration by 
securing from the Legislature the adoption of "State Care" for beneficiary 
patients, that is, direct support from the State Treasury, instead of the uncertain 
support of each patient from his or her county, which had embarrassed the 
financial management of the institution for years. At one time when the State 
(Republican) Government refused to provide the means of maintaining the insti- 
tution, and when its officers could no longer get credit for necessary supplies of 
food and clothing in Columbia or Charleston, Dr. Ensor obtained from benevolent 
Quakers in Philadelphia the sum of ten thousand dollars upon his personal note, 
tn this way was the institution tided over a grave emergency. After the restora- 



HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 55 

tion of the State Government to the Democrats, Dr. Ensor's note was taken up 
by order of the General Assembly and paid from the State Treasury. 

In view of the purchase, in 1896, of the Wallace property and the closing of 
adjacent streets and roads, it is interesting to read this paragraph from Dr. 
Ensor's last report for 1877-78 : 

"The plan I proposed is to extend Barnwell street from its present terminus 
through the Asylum lands till it strikes what is known as the Asylum Road 
from the east end of Elmwood avenue to where Barnwell street intersects it. 
Close up that portion of Pickens street that lies between the male and female 
departments and remove the high brick walls that now border it, and construct 
a neat iron or board fence between the two departments ; purchase the entire 
Wallace estate that lies immediately in front of the female department, and as 
much of the adjoining land as may be deemed necessary; close up that portion 
of Elmwood avenue that lies between Bull and Pickens streets; and then, if you 
keep pace with the progress of the age in internal improvements and conve- 
niences, you would have an Asylum that the State of South Carolina could look 
upon with pardonable pride." 

This is enough to demonstrate how earnest an advocate Dr. Ensor proved 
himself in behalf of the insane entrusted to his care, and that like his prede- 
cessors he, too, dreamed dreams and planned far ahead of such financial backing 
as he was enabled to secure from the General Assemblies of his time. 

An interesting view of the reconstruction period is well presented in Dr. 
Ensor's report for 1875-76, in which he epitomizes his service as Superintendent 
in these terms : 

"It is my duty to inform you that it is not improbable that I shall sever my 
connection with the institution before the end of another year. The hardships 
and drawbacks attending its successful management are so onerous that I do not 
care to endure them any longer. I make no complaint of the duties that properly 
belong to the office of Superintendent. They are pleasant. They harmonize with 
my nature, my disposition, my taste and my education. But the burden I do 
complain of — the burden that is distasteful to me, and which I propose to endure 
no longer — is that of providing the ways and means for the support of the insti- 
tution nine months out of every twelve, which I have had to do ever since I 
have been connected with it. The appropriations have been ample for the sup- 
port of the Asylum, had they been promptly paid, but such has not been the case. 
"Every year a very large part of the money due the institution has had to 
stand over till January of the next year. During the fiscal year of 1870-71 the 
institution received no money from the State Treasurer after July, the balance 
of the appropriation not being paid till the end of February, 1872. Scarcely any 
of the appropriation for 1872 was paid till the middle of January, 1873, there 
being due of this appropriation on the 31st of October, $67,170.24. The appro- 
priation for 1873, after a deduction of $8,182.16 made by the State Treasurer on 
account of an overpayment on the appropriation of 1871, netted the Asylum but 
$57,788.56, of which $22,915.70 was not paid till the middle of January, 1874. 
That year we received no money from the State Treasurer after the 3d of June, 
till the following January. A large part of last year's appropriation was not 
paid till January of the present year. $18,000, or nearly one-third of this year's 
appropriation, is still unpaid, and will have to be carried over till another tax 
levy shall have been collected, which will not be before the middle of next winter. 
No part of any appropriation for any year has ever l)een collected before the 
first of March. Practically, therefore, the institution has been without money 
nine out of twelve months every year for the last fiva years. The difficulties 
and embarrassments attending the maintenance of a large establishment like this, 
without the necessary means to defray its expenses for three-fourths of every 
year, are incalculable. If the institution is kept open at all it must be done on 
credit, and credit is an expensive article, and often hard to procure at any price. 
After exhausting the credit of the institution, I have been obliged to use my own 
means and credit and the credit of my friends, for its maintenance or close its 
doors. Every year 1 have been compelled to beg and borrow, and to submit to 
all sorts of impositions and humiliations, to give my personal obligations and 
those of my friends, in order to keep the institution open. Even within the past 
two months of this year of reformation and good government I have been 
obliged to give my private notes in order to obtain the necessary subsistence 
and clothing for our inmates. I have been forced to do the same every year 
since I have been Superintendent, and it frequently happens that I am unable, 
for obvious reasons, to meet these obligations at maturity, which, while it inter- 
feres with my personal matters, is a serious injury to my credit. I do not ask 
any one to take my word for these statements. The records of this office and 
those of the various banks and mercantile houses in this city will verify them. 



56 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

"Moreover, the State authorities do not seem to give the institution that con- 
sideration to which it would appear to be entitled, nor to appreciate my efforts 
in behalf of its welfare." 

Dr. Joshua Fulton Ensor (1834-1907) was born in Butler, Bath County, Mary- 
land, December 12, 1834. His ancestors came to this country from Warwick- 
shire, England. He received his early education in the common schools of 
Maryland and Pennsylvania. He was graduated in medicine from the Univer- 
sity of Maryland in 1861. In the early part of the War between the States he 
entered the United Slates army as assistant surgeon, subsequently becoming 
surgeon. In 1868 he became medical purveyor for the Freedman's Bureau in 
South Carolina. In 1870 he was appointed Superintendent of the Asylum. After 
leaving the institution he held a number of positions of trust and honor under 
the General Government. Having been postmaster of Columbia for nearly ten 
years he died while still holding that position, August 9, 1907. 

Dr. P. E. Griffin, of Darlington, succeeded Dr. Ensor in 1877. Dr. Griffin's 
administration was marked by many improvements which his predecessors had 
vainly endeavored to carry into efifect. Responding to his earnest etiorf; and 
appeals, the Legislature, in the course of a few years, made aooropriations for 
constructing the entire wing of ten wards now occupied by white women. In 
1885 the large central structure for administration, domestic and amusement 
purposes was finished. The appeals for more land which for nearly forty yenrs 
had been reiterated in vain in successive reports were finally heard when (pre- 
sented by Dr. Griffin and the Regents. Thus we find the Wigg Farm bought in 
1877, the Parker Farm in 1878 and the Black Farm in 188 1. 

This sketch of Dr. Griffin was published in Tlie State at the lime of his death: 

"Dr. Peter Evans Griffin (1830-1904) was born in Society Hill, Darlington 
County, August 30, 1830. His great-grandfather was Rcderirk Mclver, the head 
of the Welch Colony that settled in the Pee Dee section of the State. Dr. Griffin 
was graduated from South Carolina College as an honor man in the famous class 
of 1852, numbering among his classmates Jn-lcc Hudson, General Youmans, Maj. 
Harry Hammond, Judge S. W. Melton and other men of note. After graduating 
in medicine in 1855 from the University of Pennsylvania and spending two years 
in practice at home. Dr. Griffin went abroad to spend two years more in study in 
the hospitals of Paris. Returning home, he continued in private practice until 
the War between the Sections broke out. In 1861 he enlisted as a private in 
Company F, Eighth Regiment, South Carolina Volunteer Troops. He was soon 
made second lieutenant of his company, being a gallant soldier. Shortly after- 
wards he was sent home on account of ill health. 

"In the last year of the war he reentered the service as surgeon of the Third 
Regiment of State Troops, the duties of which position he discharged with con- 
spicuous ability until the close of the war. He was in the first battle of Bull 
Run and was in the fight at Williamsburg, Va., besides participating in many 
other fights and skirmishes. 

"After the war. Dr. Griffin practiced at home until 1876, when he removed to 
Florence, practicing there until January i. 1878, when he was elected Superin- 
tendent of the Lunatic Asylum. Dr. Griffin remained at the head of the insti- 
tution for thirteen years, when he returned to private practice at Darlington, 
remaining there until the fall of 1898. He then returned to Columbia and entered 
upon the general practice of his profession. Three years later his health began 
to fail, and he suffered from a slight stroke of paralysis. Surrounded by the 
members of his devoted family, the end came peacefully. May 18, 1904." 

In 1891, Dr. Griffin was succeeded by Dr. J. W. Babcock, of Chester. 

In 1895, the Constitutional Convention directed the change of the old name 
of Lunatic Asylum to the more modern style of nomenclature of the State 
Hospital for the Insane. In 1896. the General Assembly authorized the purchase 
of the adjoining Wallace property, consisting of no acres, as well as the closing 
of adjoining streets and roads, and plans were at length carried into effect similar 
to those already advocated by Dr. Ensor in 1877. More recent additions in the 
rear of the institution have been the purchase of the Jones property (1902), the 
Seegers land (1903), and the Weir corner in 1904. By all these additions the 
total land of the institution has been brought up to about 360 acres. A commis- 
sary building was erected in 1895 and the Parker Building in 1897. A building 
for white men called the Taylor Building, having been under construction for 
some time, was burned in 1904, but has been restored. A two-story brick build- 
ing called the Talley Building was erected in 1905 for e.xcited white women, 
and a portion of another pavillion building for white women is now in process 
of erection north of the Main Building. The extension of Lumber street east 
to Harden street and the closing of Elmwood avenue and Barnwell streets com- 
pletes the enclosure of the Hospital property, making a continuous boundary line 



HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 57 

on the south from the corner of Bull and Lumber streets to the Southern 
Railway. 

THE COLORED INSANE. 

During the first year of the life of the Asylum (1828-1829) applications were 
made for the admission of insane negroes. They were refused, however, as no 
special provision had been made for them by the General .A-Ssembly. This ques- 
tion, like Banquo's ghost, would not down, but kept forcing itself upon the 
Regents and the Legislature until finally an Act was passed in 1848 (almost one 
hundred years after the Provincial General Assembly had recognized the needs 
of negro lunatics), admitting insane slaves or free persons of color upon similar 
conditions as provided for white persons. Two small brick buildings were 
erected containing four rooms each for colored patients. In the next decade, 
thirty insane negroes were received. At the close of the war, five colored 
patients were under care. Since that time the problem of the negro insane has 
been one of constantly growing importance. As in other Southern asylums, 
tlieir presence requires two additional departments, one for each sex. Some 
States, as Virginia and North Carolina, have entirely separate hospitals for their 
colored insane. Their rapidly growing number in this State has repeatedly 
brought up the question of a separate institution for them, but both the Regents 
and the General Assembly have decided that one single colony centrally located 
for both races was yet a better policy for South Carolina. The male negro 
patients are comfortably housed in a large three-storied structure, the Parker 
Building; the negro women are in the Old Asylum— the original structure begun 
in 1822. 

METHODS OF SUPPORT. 

From the opening of the institution two classes of patients were received — 
pay and pauper, or beneficiary, as the latter came more properly to be called at 
a later period. For a long while the prevailing idea of individualism, as opposed 
to centralization prevailed even in the operations of the Asylum. That is, it 
was not expected that the State should do for individuals what the individual 
could or should do for himself. The State erected the buildings, but individuals 
or Commissioners of the Poor were called upon to support the patients. In 
fact, the Act of 1872 required that the rates be fixed by the Legislature so as to 
prevent any charge on the Treasury of the State. Originally, the rates for 
pauper patients were established at $156 per annum, but later they were reduced 
to $100 and no bond was required of the Commissioners of the Poor. 

The rates for pay patients were from $250 to $650 annually, according to 
accommodations, payments being made half-yearly in advance and secured by a 
bond with approved security. When the accommodations became limited, the 
law required the admission of paupers in preference to pay patients. 

In 1842, Dr. LaBorde showed that the expenses for pauper patients were $160 
annually, or sixty dollars in excess of what the Commissioners of the Poor oaid. 
Of sixty-five patients then in the Asylum, fifty-two were from South Carolina, 
and thirty-nine were paupers and twenty-six paying patients. "The Institution," 
says Dr. LaBorde. "is becoming a pauper institution, owing to the want of proper 
accommodations for the higher classes." 

Any surplus accruing from pay patients was applied to the support of paupers. 
In 1848, when colored patients were first admitted, their rate was fixed at $100 
per annum, paid by their owners. In 185.3 there were ninety-five indigent patients 
and seventy-seven supported liy their friends or estates. 

In 1856, Dr. Parker states that "It should be remembered in connection with 
this part of the subject that our Asylum is not only a self-sustaining institution, 
Init that for many years it has contributed largelv to the support of pauper 
lunatics and is at this time paying at the rate pi $6,500 per annum at least to 
this object." The rate for indigent patients continued to be fixed by the General 
.^ssembly and were paid by the Commissioners of the Poor for the several 
Parishes or Districts. 

In 1858 the Legislature seemed to have yielded to repeated appeals and fixed 
the annual rate for pauper patients at $135, which was still found to be inade- 
quate, as the actual annual cost was $165. 

In his report for 1859, Dr. Parker informs the Regents that "unless these 
growing difficulties be promptly met and remedied, we must lose the character 
and position which we have so long and honorably maintained as an independent 
and self-supporting institution and become a burden and incubus upon the State. 
In the name of that liberal policy which established our early existence: of that 
wisdom and philanthropy which have always distinguished our statesmen; of 



58 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

that pride and patriotism which still animates our people; and of that courage 
from which none can claim continued exemption, I would reverently deprecate 
the issue." Of 247 patients then in the Asylum, 213 were from this State and 
34 from other States. 

The same system continued during the war, but the obligations of Commis- 
sioners of the Poor as well as of individuals not being promptly met, the insti- 
tution suffered accordingly. Fluctuation in the price of food stuffs as well as 
in the purchasing power of Confederate currency added seriously to the diffi- 
culties of maintaining the institution. 

Under date of October 8. 1862, Dr. Peter Bryce, formerly Assistant Physician 
in this Asylum, wrote to Dr. Parker on the methods of support an interesting 
letter from the Alabama Insane Asylum, of which he was then and for many 
years afterwards the distinguished Superintendent. 

"The ways and means," says Dr. Bryce, "already in operation in our country 
for supporting institutions of this character are almost as numerous as the insti- 
tutions themselves. In Virginia and Georgia the current expenses are met by 
appropriations made annually in advance by the Legislature, and in the former 
State alone, if I am not misinformed, more than $100,000 are granted every year 
for the benefit of the institution. In North Carolina and in your State the 
indigent insane are supported in the hospitals by the counties from which they 
are sent for a stipulated unconditional sum per capita, which sum is determined 
by the Legislature ; and in some of the Western States I understand that a 
certain per cent, of the regular State tax is annually applied to the uses of the 
hospital. The objections to the system of annual appropriations adopted in 
Virginia and Georgia are, first, the difficulties of procuring from every Legis- 
lature a sum sufficient to meet the expenses of the institution, especially when 
the amount is likely to be large, and in the next place the impossibility of deter- 
mining accurately what that amount is likely to be, in view of the ever-changing 
population of insane hospitals and variations in the prices of provisions and 
other necessaries of life. In addition to all this, the County Commissioners of 
the Poor, in consideration of the fact that the State alone provides for the 
insane without respect to the number from each county, commit every case 
possible to the Asylum without reference to the pathology or to the condition of 
the patient ; upon the slightest evidence of mental unsoundness of whatever 
character or degree, the oauper is at once removed from the alms house, where 
in many cases he properly belongs, to the Asylum, and the burden of support 
placed upon the State. LTnder these circumstances the crowded state of the 
hospital too often excludes other patients who might be benefited by hospital 
treatment. During a late visit to one of these State hospitals I saw an entire 
family, six or seven in number, of idiots of the first degree, every one of whom 
should have been in the alms house. That those objections likewise obtain with 
greater force, perhaps, in those States where a certain portion of the State tax 
is applied to the hospital, you will readily infer. * * * But the fact is, the 
Legislature seldom or never allows a sufficient sum to the hospital for the sup- 
port of the indigent insane, the effect of which is alike disastrous to the welfare 
of the patient and the character and vitality of the hospital. * * * 

"How far these objections are met and effectually surmounted in (Alabama) 
you will readilv discern from a glance at the accompanying document; you will 
perceive that the counties here are required to pay for the clothing and three- 
fourths of the expense of boarding their indigent insane in the hospital, while 
the remaining fourth, not exceedins: a dollar a week for each patient, together 
with the salaries of the resident officers, are paid quarterly by the State. The 
price of boarding the indigent insane is determined by the Trustees at their 
regular meetings, and is never allowed to exceed the amount actually expended 
in their support. Observe now how this remedies the difficulties against which 
you have to contend. The county charges reduced to three-fourths of the actual 
expenses places them at as low a figure as they can be allowed in the poor house, 
or by private individuals, and a premium is actually offered to the county officers 
for the exercise of humanity. The remaining one-fourth paid bv the State. 
together with the officers' salaries, constitutes comparatively a small item at the 
end of the fiscal year and is cheerfully given, but what is of paramount impor- 
tance, is the support of that hospital at all times and under all circumstances is 
positively insured. * * * 

"Hoping that you may succeed in establishing your Asylum upon the most 
liberal and enlightened foundation, I am very truly yours, 

"P. Bryce. Supt." 



HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 59 

The recommendations of Dr. Bryce evidently carried weight, for in the report 
of the Treasurer, Mr. John Waties, under date of November 4, 1865, it is stated : 
"The charges for pay patients have been reduced to original rates. The rate of 
paupers, as last fixed by the Legislature, was $312 per annum — the State paying 
one-fourth, the Districts three-fourths. At these rates the whole amount owing 
the Asylum is $32,55S-45-" 

A year later, although the institution contained fewer patients than at the 
beginning of the war, the large amount of $17,219 was due from pay patients, 
which could not be collected, while the Commissioners of the Poor were equally 
remiss. Compliance with the law requiring payments in advance was the excep- 
tion rather than the rule. Nine Districts had paid nothing for two years, only 
six had paid in advance and the rest were all in arrears. By 1868 the amount iii 
arrears was over $26,000. In 1870, the Regents, acting upon Dr. Ensor's recom- 
mendation, urged the maintenance of beneficiaries by the State instead of by the 
several counties. 

The method of requiring local Commissioners of the Poor to support from 
the Districts (counties) and Parishes their indigent insane had been in operation 
over forty years. The old ideas of individualism had to give way under the 
new order of affairs. The poverty of individuals and families as well as of 
communities forced all to look to the State for succor when misfortune came 
upon them. The law of State care for pauper patients was passed, but under 
Reconstruction it proved a failure, since the State Treasurer was often unable 
to meet the amounts called for by warrants upon him authorized by the Legis- 
lature. But the idea of centralization had been engrafted in the place of the old 
individualism, and State care has continued in spite of all its abuses and draw- 
backs unto this day. A few years ago this system was adopted by New York 
State as the only right method. 

There is still a small residue of paying patients, yielding to the institution 
about $5,000 annually. These are supported from small personal estates or from 
the pride of relatives. As these patients receive no advantages over beneficiaries. 
it is a fair question whether the State should not make the institution one of 
absolute charity. It will probably be only a short time before this is done. 

To all this there is one exception, viz. : The support of patients suffering from 
inebriety and the drug habits. These the law requires not only to be pay 
patients, but that they be accompanied by two months' pay ($41.70) as a pre- 
requisite for admission, and, furthermore, a bond is required securing future 
payments. It is painful to say that this law is honored more in the breach than 
in the observance. The old customs of the County Commissioners of the Poor 
have been handed down to this generation, for county officers wilfully disregard 
the law when sending inebriates to the Hospital and ignore bills subsequently 
sent them. 

The expenses of the institution in 1870 were $58,507.52, the total number of 
patients being 370. A year later the approximate expense per patient was $250. 

Since that time the financial side of the institution is indicated by a table 
showing expenses at the close of every fifth year : 

Total Daily Total Per 

Year. Patients. Number. Expenses. Capita. 

1875 428 312 $83,182 $210.40 

1880 541 397 84,000 214.04 

1885 914 593 136,977 146.34 

1890 1,014 754 100,744 131-05 

1895 1,157 827 123,332 115-76 

1900 1,461 1,043 127,181 102.71 

1905 1.734 1-250 176,708 103.04 

THE MX FUND. 

The institution never had an endowment. In the '70's, Miss Dorothea L. Dix, 
the lifelong friend of the insane in this and other States and countries, collected 
by private subscription in Charleston and elsewhere $3,300. This sum was 
invested in 4 per cent, bonds of the City of Charleston, which were placed in the 
hands of a Trustee, with instructions that the income be spent under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Parker for the pleasure and comfort of the patients. After several 
years, upon the death of the distinguished Trustee, the lionds disappeared and 
were only recovered in 1894 through the efforts of the late Mr. A. II. Haydcn. 
of Charleston, a former Regent, and of Mayor J. F. Ficken and Corporation 
Counsel Charles Inglesby. This fund served under authority of the Genera! 
Assembly to make part of the first payment on the Wallace purchase, and. next 



6o SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

to the approval given the proposed purchase by Governor Evans, was one of 
the most important aids in securing that valuable property. In recognition of the 
aid thus rendered the institution by Miss Dix even after her death, the largest 
building on the Wallace land was devoted to convalescent white women and has 
very largely added to their "pleasure and comfort." This building is appropri- 
ately called the Dix Cottage. 

GROWTH CF POPULATION. 

At the end of the second year of the history of the Asylum, eighteen patients 
had been received, only two being recent cases. 

In 1836, when Dr. Trezevant took charge, there were fifty-three inrnates and 
in the next seven years one hundred and fifty-three patients were admitted. 

The increase in the number of patients has necessarily been brought out under 
the several preceding headings and need not be repeated. In a recent report of 
the Hospital it is stated that the total number of admissions since its opening 
were 10,568. of whom 7.150 were received since 1880 and 4,861 since 1890. The 
annual admissions have steadily and latterly enormously increased from fifty-four 
in 1850 to five hundred and seventy-one in 1906. In other words, the Hospital 
now receives over one thousand patients every two years, whereas it formerly 
required thirty years to bring that number of patients from South Carolina and 
the adjoining States. 

Without entering into an extended discussion of the question, "Is Insanity 
Increasing?" it may be said that while there may be a slight increase, it is far 
short of such an increase as appears at first sight to be indicated by these 
figures. 

The real test of actual increase is shown by the number of first attacks occur- 
ring in the general population. For instance, there were admitted in 1881, one 
hundred and forty cases said to be suffering from the first attack of mental dis- 
ease ; in 1885, one hundred and ten cases ; in 1890, two hundred and twenty-nine ; 
in 1895, one hundred and ninety-nine ; in 1900, two hundred and sixty-five ; in 
1906, three hundred and two. Considering the growth of population, this is not 
a large increase of occurring cases of insanity. 

It cannot be denied, however, that there has been an increase in insanity among 
the negroes since their emancipation. In 1850 and i860, insanity was about one- 
fifth as common in the negro as is in the white race; in 1870 and 1880, it was 
one-third as common, and in the late years about one-half as common. There 
is r^ leason why in time insanity will not be equally as common in the black 
race as in the white. 

In our State since the adoption of "State Care," there has undoubtedly been a 
growing tendency to unload upon the State burdens which in former times would 
have been borne by individuals or localities. Dr. Bryce recognized in his letter 
in 1863 that this was a tendency of that time, but subsequent results must have 
far outstripped his expectations. 

There is, furthermore, today a broader view as to what constitutes insanity. 
Formerly, an asylum population consisted largely in raving maniacs. Now the 
large majority are quiet and well-behaved. While asylums may never be popu- 
lar, there is no doubt that they are much more resorted to than formerly. Public 
asylums, at any rate, have today no need to advertise. 

All old institutions show an increasing number of old and broken down cases, 
inebriates and cases of simple senility. 

THE FUTURE. 

From what has been set forth it must be clear, as was said in a recent report 
of the Regents, that the problem of caring for the insane of our State has grown 
more complex. From time to time efforts have been made to secure legislative 
aid in separating some of the classes — the negroes or the idiots and epileptics, 
for instance — into an institution by themselves. But there has been no separation 
of the classes originally assigned to the Asylum. On the contrary, to the "idiots, 
lunatics and epileptics" have been added inebriates, criminals, cases of old age, 
nervous diseases, etc. 

Out of this study of the history of the Hospital, covering a period of over 
eighty years, what are some of the lessons of the past and needs of the future? 

First. — That it has become the policy of the State to maintain in Columbia a 
large central colony for the insane of both races. 

Second. — That "State Care" is a better system than was afforded by the old 
method of county support. 



HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 



6i 



Third. — That the separate or cottage plan of buildings or wards is better 
suited in our climate to the needs of the insane than are large, conglomerate 
buildings. 

loiDili. — That the separation from the insane (properly speaking") of such 
classes as the inebriates, idiots, epileptics, etc.. who are now associated with 
them, would prove advantageous to all. 

fifth. — That the improvement of the county alms houses by having hospital 
wards, etc., would relieve this institution from receiving so many helpless 
dotards. 

Sixth. — The establishment of a farm colony for epileptics, a school for the 
feeble-minded and a hospital for inebriates, should form part of the future 
policy of the State. 

Seventh. — That the erection of separate wards for the violent insane is 
desirable. 

Eighth. — That the establishment of a farm colony for the chronic insane is 
an important problem for future consideration. 

Ninth. — The means for separating the tuberculous from the non-tuberculous 
is at the present time a question of vital importance. 

Finally, it may be confessed that one of the purposes of this long, though 
imperfect, review of an important subject has been to. demonstrate that there has 
been present here in South Carolina for over two hundred years a well-defined 
idea as to the needs of public charity properly bestowed. Once kindled, that idea 
has never been extinguished. It has had its advocates from generation unto 
generation. It has not been abolished by legislative indifference, by the ingrati- 
tude of its beneficiaries, nor by war itself. 




SAMUEL FARROW, 

1760-1824, Founder. 

Father of the Asvlum. 



WM. CRAFTS. TR. 
1787-1826, 
Co-Founder. 



DR. PARKER, 

1803-1882. 

Resident Physician, 

First Superintendent. 



^% 




DR. 1 ElEk E. i.KiEFIN, 

i8:-0-nm. 
Siiperiiitendent. 



It is nearly a century since Samuel Farrow conceived the idea of an asylum 
in ihat sanely determined mind of his. For years he failed to secure attention, 
till Crafts came to his aid. Then, at length, the General Assembly of 1821 (be 
it remembered with honor!) in advance of its time listened and/ said: "Let there 
be an asylum." Forthwith it was begun by the eminent architect. Mills, but 
ere it was completed. Farrow, the originator, and Crafts, his coadjutor, had 
each gone to his reward. Then Davis, the pioneer, directed the young insti- 
tution through a most hazardous and discouraging experimental stage, when 
even the Regents themselves were disheartened. Trezevant followed, sagacious 
and intrepid, who raised his prophetic voice against a city location in vain for 
thirty years. For over forty-five years Parker steadfastly kept the faith and 
remained supremely active at his post, even amidst the ravages of war and the 
humiliations of Reconstruction. With devotion to his charge, and in order that 
his patients might have bread, Ensor pledged his own means to distant strangers 
when his adopted State had no credit at home or abroad. .And. in turn. Griffin 
took up the burden and by his efforts laid the broader foundations for the 
Hospital his predecessors had striven for in vain through two generations. 
Besides these, from the beginning. Boards of Regents — men of fair renown, 
selected for their wisdom and foresight — have battled right manfully for tlu' 
claims of the insane before Governors and honorable Committees of the General 
Assembly and results have slowly followed. 

But through it all does there not nm in our minds a reasonable doubt whether 
the State — that is, the people: farmers, business men. doctors, lawyers, ministers, 
legislators, Governors, Christian men and women, if you please — whether these 
have ever given the most worthy public charity in tlicir midst the full measure 



62 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



of its deserts? Would not more prompt response to some of the repeated appeals 
in the past — the abolition of wooden buildings for patients, for instance — have 
betokened a more generous and active charity? Have not important problems 
connected with the development of the Asylum received less consideration than 
they merited? Have county officials always protected the institution with the 
same fidelity that they have given to local interests? 

As we look back and learn what the old Province and State accomplished for 
the unfortunate, we proudly exclaim, "Well done !" But, at times, could she 
not have responded more promptly and generously, when promptitude and gen- 
erosity meant so much ? These are some of the queries each of us may answer 
for himself. 

Today a hopeful expectation may be entertained that henceforth the State — 
that is, the people — will at all times supply all the means required to make the 
State Hospital for the Insane what it ought to be. With the lessons of the past 
as well as the intimation of a wonderful future before us, none may assume the 
role of prophet. From recent observations, however, the outlook is encouraging, 
but we must not forget that much yet remains to be done. 



APPENDIX* 



NUMERICAL AND FINANCIAL TABLE. 



Total 
Patients. 

1821 

1822-27 

1835- 1855 757 . 

1837 66 

1838 

1839 

1840 

1841 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 95 

1846 

1847 103 

1848 ic8 

1849 140 

1850 162 

1851 176 

1852 

1853 210 



Dis- 
bursements. 
$ 30,000.00 
70,000 . 00 

10,712.21 
9,481.49 
9,639-15 
9444-58 
9.948.49 



11,654.89 

Ii.728.c2 
12,702.56 
25.359.57 
25.757.78 
23,702.00 

27,094.00 



Total 
Patients 

854 

855 236 

856 238 

857 256 

858 234 

859 250 

860 263 

861 256 

862 240 

863 243 

864 216 

865 174 

866 174 

867 

868 269 

869 298 

870 322 

871 370 

872 388 

873 388 



Dis- 
bursements. 

34,018.84 
38.037.00 
38.894.47 
39,600.00 
45,087.26 
49,619.58 

43.688.79 
41,314.62 
85,488.19 
158,240.94 
207,487 . 72 
47,181.00 

57.758.63 
48,399.56 
58,507.00 
65,096.00 
66,506.00 
87,751.00 



* Owing to loss of records — the Hospital has not a complete tile of its reports even — 
it would be difficult, if not impossible, to supply complete tables of numerical and 
financial statistics. The appended tables are the result of researches in such records 
as are available at this time. It should be kept in mind that the State made appro- 
priations for buildings alone till 1870, the patients being supported by their families 
or friends ("pay patients") or by the District or County Commissioners of the Poor 
("pauper" or "beneficiary patients"). As already stated, South Carolina embarked on 
the method of "State care" in 1870. Since that time the Legislature has assumed 
entire financial responsibility for the Hospital. 



HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 63 



Total 
Patients. 

874 428 

875 447 

877 441 

878 457 

879 493 

880 541 

881 643 

882 755 

883 789 

884 914 

8«5 859 

886 854 

887 894 

888 931 

889 1,014 

890 1,081 

891 1. 132 

892 1,105 

893 1,109 

894 1,107 

895 1,157 

896 1,247 

897 1,257 

898 1,383 

899 1,399 

900 1,461 

901 1,453 

902 1,611 

903 1,641 

904 1,736 

905 1,734 

906 1,849 



-Av- 


Per 


Dis- 


erage. 


Capita, 


bursements. 


312 


$210.40 


$ 83,182.00 


304 


202.83 


70,285 . 00 


298 


194.21 


89,126.00 


317 


189.02 


61,888.00 


339 


176.25 


69,640.00 


397 


214.04 


84,000.00 




153-24 


117,589.00 




141.94 


112,909.00 


564 


146.54 


76,836.00 


630 


142.78 


102.638.00 


653 


146.34 


136.977.00 


623 


140.27 


114,661.00 


653 


137.39 


95,372.00 


657 


140.59 


94,142.00 


714 


137-47 


94,265.00 


754 


131.05 


100,744.00 


754 


133.42 


113,342.00 


754 


132. II 


113,542.00 


765 


132.80 


105,476.00 


778 


123.37 


112,383.00 


827 


116.76 


113,232.00 


853 


107.80 


157,100.00 


875 


112.31 


122,273.00 


976 


102.52 


124,494.00 


996 


102.75 


113.352.00 


1,043 


102.71 


127,181.00 


1,068 


103.00 


135,316.00 


1,134 


101.32 


157,870.98 


1,155 


105.06 


153.237.91 


1,210 


102.39 


162,643.36 


1,250 


103.04 


128,795.58 


1,317 


106.89 


164.701. 14 



64 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

-Number of Patients 



Residences of Patients Admitted During i 

December 31, 1906. 



Males. 



Females. 



Males. 



Females. 



Abbeville . . . 

Aiken 

Anderson . . . 
Bamberg . . . 
Barnwell . . . 
Beaufort . . . 
Berkeley . . . 
Charleston. . . 
Cherokee . . . 

Chester 

Chesterfield . 
Clarendon . . 
Colleton . . . . 
Darlington . . 
Dorchester . . 
Edgefield . . . 
Fairfield . . . , 
Florence . . . 
Georgetown . 
Greenville . . 
Greenwood . . 
Hampton . . . 

Horry 

Kershaw . . . 
Lancaster . . . 
Laurens . . . . 

Lee 

Lexington. . . 

Marion 

Marlboro . . . 
Newberry . . . 

Oconee 

Orangeburg . 

Pickens 

Richland . . . 

Saluda 

Spartanburg . 

Sumter 

Union 

Williamsburg. 
York 



Total 



148 149 



141 



^33 



571 



307 



293 



463 



PUBLIC CHARITIES IN COUNTIES 

In the Constitutional Convention of 1895 the effort was made to place the 
county poor-houses, jails, etc., under the supervision of a State officer, but the 
measure failed on the third reading. To complete this article these extracts are 
taken from the report of the Bureau of the Census on "Paupers in Alms- 
houses, 1904" : 

"South Carolina. — The county commissioners are overseers of the poor, except 
that in the cities of Charleston and Columbia the city authorities must provide 



HOW THE STATE IS GOVERNED. 



65 



for the poor of those places. Legal settlement, obliging the county to furnish 
support, is gained, in general, by residence in a county for three years. Pro- 
vision is made for the support of poor persons having lawful settlements in 
other places, for their removal thither, and for the recovery of the expenses 
incurred by the place giving relief. The overseers of each city and county must 
make annual returns to the Secretary of State with full details as to number, 
sex, color, etc., of the paupers helped, the mode of support, cost of the same, etc. 
Children who are county charges or likely to become such may be apprenticed 
to some reputable person — if males, until 16 years of age; if females, until 14 
years old. 

"The county commissioners have charge of the poor-house, appoint its super- 
intendent, physician, etc. The poor-house must have sufficient tillable land to 
give employment to all paupers who are able to work. The commissioners must 
submit an annual report containing an itemized statement of expenses and an 
account of the condition of the poor-house and of its inmates to the presiding 
Judge of the Court of General Sessions, which report is turned over by him to 
the grand jury." 

In 1903 there were 686 paupers, or 487 persons per 100,000 of population, in 
the alms-houses of South Carolina, against 578 in 1890, with a corresponding 
percentage of 50.2, the decrease being 1.5 per cent. In the same year the rank 
of this State by ratio of paupers enumerated in alms-houses to population was 
thirty-fifth in the United States. In 1890 it was twenty-eighth. Of the total 
number given, 418 were white, of which only 155 were male; and 268 were 
negroes, of which 154 were male. Practically all the paupers in South Carolina 
were of native birth except in the county of Charleston; there n foreign-born 
persons were receiving public charity. In the entire State only nine other 
foreign-born persons were in alms-houses, and they were confined to counties in 
which cities were located. 

The following statement shows the number of paupers by races in the alms- 
houses of the State on January i, 1905 — Lee County having none and being 
omitted : 



White. Col'd. 

Abbeville 10 24 

Aiken 23 8 

Anderson 25 18 

Barnwell 14 3 

Beaufort 8 

Charleston 63 

Cherokee 8 6 

Chester 14 14 

Chesterfield 5 i 

Colleton 9 

Darlington 5 4 

Edgefield 12 12 

Fairfield 88 21 

Florence 55 6 

Greenville 27 17 

Greenwood 9 

Hampton li 

Kershaw 8 I 



White. 



Lancaster 

Laurens 

Lexington 

Marion 

Marlboro 

Newberry 

Oconee 

Orangeburg 

Pickens 

Richland 13 

Saluda 4 

Spartanburg 24 



Sumter 
Union. 
York . 



Total 



16 
18 
iS 

415 



Col'd. 

5 
7 
6 

4 

5 
14 
32 
32 

I 
21 

4 
14 
II 

3 
10 

289 



H. U. 




"the kirkwood. 
tourist hotel at camden. 



CHAPTER IV, 

CLIMATOLOGY. 



Few, if any, States afford so interesting a field of study in physiography as 
South Carolina. .The topography varies from marshy coastal lowlands, interior 
alluvial plains and swamps, sandy highlands, rolling uplands to low mountains, 
in a series of gradations from the Atlantic Ocean to the southern spurs of the 
AppalarlfJTni s. The shape is that of an isosceles triangle having its base resting 
on the ocean~and its apex touching the mountains. This triangle is inclosed by 
the lines formed by the parallels of latitude, 32 degrees and 35 degrees 12 minutes 
north, and longitude 78 degrees 30 minutes, and 83 degrees 20 minutes west of 
Greenwich. The State is bounded on the north by North Carolina, on the east by 
North Carolina and the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Atlantic Ocean and 
Georgia, and o* the west by Georgia. Her greatest dimension is a line from 
Georgetown running northwestward through Columbia to the northwestern part 
of Greenville County, and measures 241 miles. The longest straight line due 
north and south is 216 miles, and can be drawn from the southernmost point of 
Beaufort County to the North Carolina border in York County. The total area 
is 30,170 square miles, bearing a population in 1900 of 1,340,000, making the 
density of population approximately forty-four per square mile. The area ex- 
pressed in acres is 19,308,800, of which 13,958,014 acres were included in farms, 
and of these farm lands 5.775,741 acres were under tillage in 1899, yielding crops 
valued at $58,890,413, or about $11 per acre.* 

The entire_ State is well watered by numerous rivers and their branching tribu- 
taries! The principal rivers are, navigable from the ocean for varying distances, 
usually to the points where the lowlands end and the hill country beginsV7 Al- 
though the commerce carried by water is as yet comparatively unimportarHT, it is 
capable of being greatly increased.^-* The "u p-co untrv" rive rs and their largest 
tributaries are important and valuable'' for t"R?TTumerous wafsr-power sites they 
offer. The relation between these streams in their availability for furnishing 
cheap power for manufacturing purposes, and the seasonal and annual precipi- 
tation, is intimate, but has been modified, and the availability of the water-power 
physical features of the western half of the State. When cleared, these hillsides 
yield profitable crops for a few years only, then become gullied, almost barren 
sites decreased by the deforestation of the steep hillsides that are so important_^ 
wastes, denuded of their soil by the washing rains. These gullies act as troughs"^" 
and drainage channels and facilitate the rapid off-flow of the rainfall, so that the 
streams are subject to quick freshets and overflows that destroy bottom-land 
crops, or damage them, then as quickly fall again to minimum flows. This rapid 
off-flow of the otherwise sufficient rainfall renders power sites on the smaller 
streams unavailable. The remedy is reforestation of the hillsides, for which the 
small loss in tillable lands incurred would be amply compensated by the greater 
and more certain yields of the bottom laritfs^ that are the depositaries of the soil 
from the denuded hillsides. At present the frequent occurrence, and some sea- ' 
sons recurrence, of freshets, renders crops precarious on many of the widest and ' 

most fertile valleys. ' •"•^••h^- 

_ Reforestation would tend to conserve the rainfall and make the flow of the-.— 
r^rs more even and at a greater average depth. 

( ^Th e physical features of South Carolina have been so accurately defined and- - 
(terribed in a publication issued by the Sta t_e in 18 83^- that all subsequent geogra- ^ 
phers have copied from it, almost in the eTAUt ISrigiiage of the original descrip- 
tion, and the regions as named in that publication will be briefly described for a 
correct understanding of the difference in climate of the eastern and western 
parts of the State. 

r* "There are seven well-defined regions, named in the order that they occur from 
rh€ coast to the mountains. 



♦Special Bulletin, Twelfth Census of the United States. See other chapters for later 
figures. 

tSouth Carolina — Resources and Topulation — Institutions and Industries. 



CLIMATOLOGY 



^7 



L "The^Xo^st—Rfigion 
inland a5out ten miles. 



^. fit i 
imate o 



a narrow border fringing the coast and extending 
ncludes the numerous sea islands and the extensive 



salt ma^shes^J The climate of this region is illustrated by the data for Charleston 

and Beaufoff^ the latter representing the sea islands. 

IL "T he Lower Pine^elt or— Savannah -Region," lying inland and parallel 

with the^coast region: 1 his Tegion has an average width of about fifty miles, 

and an average elevation of about 
150 feet. It includes the tidal 
estuaries of the rivers, and consid- 
erable coontry lying above tidal 
influence, fin this region there ar e 
e xtensive swamr)-;" lirifl undrninrd Inw 
lands. The land is generally flat, 
w'Ttli a few elevations rising to a 
maximum height of 250 feet. The 




average slope is 
feet to the mile, 
age difficult and 



two and one-half 
This makes drain- 
detracts from the 



CH.'^RLESTUN HOTEL. 



Otherwise exceedingly fertile soil, 
although along its western border lie 
the* regions of greatest productive- 
ness! of the entire StaflJ The climate 
of this region is shown by the data 
for Charleston, Blackville and Trial. 

III. "T hp TIp ppr Pine "Belt" lies S till further inla nd, between the lower pine 
belt and the sand and red mils, and has an elevation ranging from 130 to 250 
feet. Its surface is comparatively level but rolling, arjd it has good drainage, 
with an average slope of about five feet to the mile. (This region has the dis- 
tinction of including the best and most productive farm lands in the State, but 
its soil decreases in richness as the region merges into that of the red 
hill and sand hill regionsrjThe climate of this region differs but little from that 
of the lower pine belt, eJfcept that the proximity-pf the ocean is less apparent, 
and is shown by the data for Blackville and Society Hill. 

IV. "The Red Hill Region" is^irregular in outline and cpnsists of a series of 
det ached groups of hil ls on the 'northwestern border of tht upper pine belt, and 
among the sand hills. Its most northerly group is the "High Hills of Santee," 
in Sumter County. The red hills attain their highest elevation in Orangeburg 
County, with crests of from 500 to 600 feet above the sea. The. soil is a reddish. 
lo am that responds to fertilization, but in its natural state is not prodiirtive ana 
it-jeq«ire s skilful tillage. The climate is represented by the data for Stateburg. 

■ V. "The Sand Hill Kegion" stretches across the State from the Savannah 
River, opposite Augusta, Georgia, to the North Carolina line, where it inter.sects 
tJ>e -Great Pedee River, and includes the whole nr parts o f Aiken, Edgefield, 
Lexington, Richland, Kershaw, Lancaster, and Chesterfield Counties. Its great- 
est width is about fifty miles, in Lexington County. The sand liills attain an 
elevation of about 600 feet in Aiken County, and a maximum elevation of from 
700 to 800 feet in Lexington County. The streams that originate in the western 
p arts of the State have in this region an abrupt descent into the "low-country ," 
and artord numerous water-power sites, as in many places the descent is steep 
enough to form low falls and rapids, ifcjie soil of 
the sand hills is loose, rounded, sand, ^d is of 
l ow. ' fertility, except that the river botTt>ms a re 
u sually- fertile, their soil being of a ditfeTent t ex- 
ti ite^nd forrnation, being lormed by the" d eposi- 
ti ons of freshets and ovcrtlows ot the ""nuiddy 
streams that c arry the soil from the denuded hill - 
sl cfes of the ^p-coun try and leav e it in succ es- 
sive layers in the~mi3"dle and~^low -country" val- 
lejis. The sand hills are noted for their large 
commercial peach orchards, especially in the 
more southerly portions, but the soil and climate 
are so alike over the whole region that fruits of all kinds would attain the same 
early perfection, even to the North Carolina border. This region is justly 
famed for its salubrious winter climate, and contains widely known health and 
pleasure resorts, those best known being the Aiken and Camden, although tiie 
entire region shares in the climatic advantages of any part. The forests originally 




HdHRlKK INN, CAMDEN. 



68 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



consisted of long-leaf pine, but being nearly all cut for timber it has been suc- 
ceeded by the short-leaf pine, and scrub oak. The climate of this region can be 
studied from the data for Aiken, Columbia, and Society Hill. . • i 

VI '" Bnp Piedmont Region" includes the whole of ten and parts ot eight 
western Tbu^ties, and is the largest region in the State. The elevation ranges 
from about 350 to 1,000 feet. T his region has a dLversified soil, practically all 
capable of tillage, with an evenly distribut ed population. ^The cer eals grasses, 
a ftrl fruits otthe Nortl^ilTT States, as wHTas cotton rice, sugarcane , and hgs, all 
indigen ous to the South, here flourish side by side, and although neither t he 
'V^^^r nnr tt^P Iptfpr attain their maximum productiveness, tney yield piohlable 



r dgrns under proper cuitivatJOii. Pt;ili.iiJb no 

S'^ ■■ ■ 



rrrir 



TlTC~nrht)le UlTlted 



;s can compare m variety of crops commonly raised witn tins regiou, unless 



i t *6 e fa the northern portion of Georgia and Alabama, wlicit; Lliid Uiiii atic condi 
tions are similar. The climate of the Piedmont region is shown by the data 
for Trenton, Columbia, Santuck, and Greenville. 

VII "Tlie Alpi ne Region" comprises the foothills of th e Appalachian MQun- 
tains, 'a^ occupies the no rthwestern border of the btate. >he country is chilly 
and i^roken. with occasion ally small level tablelands capable of cultiv ation. The 
entire region would ah ord good pasturage||lor sneep and goats. Its elevation 




SUMMARY. 

Mean Annual Temperature 
for the whole State, 63°. 
Lowest 59°, at Greenville. 
Highest 67°, at Beaufort. 



Spring Mean. . 
Summer Mean. 
Autumn Mean. 
Winter Mean . 



63^ 
79° 

46° 



CLIMATOLOGICAL MAI'. 



ranges from 1,000 to 3,436 feet, the latter being the summit of Mount Pinnacle, 
in Pickens County, and is the highest point in South Carolina. Agricultural ly, 
this, re gion is of s light importanc e, but it contains unexploited minefaT^eal th 
of probab ly" great v al'u? ; and it is heavily 1 6¥cs t ed with hardwo od..±rees. it has 
a'^distinctiv ely mtTOntain climate, modified by its southerly latitude an d compara- 
tively low e levationT There is no data available to dehne its climate except that 
for Greenville' on its southern border. 

The above named physical regions have well-defined and definitely ascertained 
boundaries, and each has its peculiar climatic features, but it must not be inferred 
that the climatic and physical boundaries coincide, or that the former bears an 
unvarying relation to the latter throughout the year, or in any one season. There 
are times when the climatic boundaries disappear, especially during severe winter 
storms, and at times they present a reversal, more particularly in the summer 
time. In general, the coast and adjacent regions have the more equable tem- 
peratures, the western portions the widest range. The diflference between the 
annual mean temperature of Beaufort (the warmest place) and Greenville (the 
coldest) is 8 degrees. The spring and autumn seasons maintain this difference, 
while in summer it is only 6 degrees, and in winter it rises to 11 degrees. If an 
intermediate station is included in the comparison, Columbia, for instance, midway 



CLIM APOLOGY 



69 



between Beaufort and Greenville, it is found that Columbia's mean annual tem- 
perature (64 degrees) is 2 degrees lower than that of Beaufort, and 6 degrees 
higher than for Greenville; in spring the differences are 3 degrees and 5 degrees; 
in summer, i degree and 5 degrees; in autumn, 4 degrees and 4 degreed; and in 
winter, 4 degrees and 7 degrees. In other words, the whole of the ■eastern part 
of the State, or the so-called "'low-country," has. the more equable temperature. 
Ihe same relative differences appear when" more stations are included in the 
comparison. 

If, instead of the mean annual and mean seasonal temperatures, the mean, 
maximum temperatures are used in comparison, a much smaller differenc^^^ 
found to exist, Beaufort's annual mean maximum being 75 degrees, Colurrjaia 
74 degrees, and Greenville 70 degrees. The seasonal mean maximum tempt|a- 
tures are, in the same order, for the spring. 75 degrees. 74 dgrees, 70 degreesi 
for the summer. 89 degrees, 90 degrees, 85 degrees ; for the autumn, -j-] degrees, 
74 degrees, ~2) degrees ; and for the winter, 59 degrees, 57 degrees. 52 degrees. 
While this comparison corresponds closely with the annual and seasonaLmeans, 
it also shows that the central parts have higher day temperatures in the summer 
than either the coast or the highl^ds. The difference is slight between the 
center and the coast (one degree) pind very material between the center and 
Wfsi poiiion (,5 degrees). 



55^ 




PRECIPITATION MAP. 



SUMMARY. 

SEASONAL 
PRECIPITATION. 

Spring Av., 10.86 in. 
Summer Av., 16.94 '"• 
Autumn Av., 9.89 in. 
Winter Av., ! i.oi in. 
.Annual Av., 48.70 in. 



The mean minimum temperatures, both annual and seasonal, show less varia- 
bility, as well as wider ranges. The annual mean minimum for Beaufort is 59 
degrees, for Columbia 53 degrees, and for Greenville 47 degrees. The seasonal 
values, in the same sequence, are, for the spring, 58 degrees, 52 degrees, 46 
degrees; for the summer, 74 degrees, 70 degrees, 65 degrees; for the autumn, 
61 degrees, 54 degrees, 48 degrees ; and for the winter, 42 degrees, i"] degrees, 
28 degrees. This comparison is interesting, as it shows that on the coast the 
minimum averages at about the lowest temperature (during the winter) at which 
vegetation will grow ; in the central parts it is too low for growth, although well 
above freezing, while in the west the average nunimum is 4 degrees below freez- 
ing. At Santuck, in the eastern part of the Piedmont region, the winter mean 
minimum is 31 degrees; at Clemson College it is 30 degrees; at Aiken, 39 degrees; 
at Society Hill, 36 degrees; Trenton, 38 degrees; Trial, yj degrees. The low 
minimum at Trial cannot Ije explained by reference to its location, about fifty 
miles from the coast, but the rcnsnn undoubudiy is on ai-count of the level, low, 
swampy surrounding country. The annual mean maximum is 74 degrees at 



70 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



Trial, the same as at Columbia, but the annual mean mimium is i degree lower. 
The greatest differences in temperature between the extremities of the State are 
along a northwesterly and southeasterly line, rather than along a north and south 
line, although the distances are practically the same, showing the influence of 
the high elevations in the northwestern portion. 

Killing frosts are infrequent on the coast, although few, if any, years have 
been exempt. The average date of last killing frost of sprini? at Charleston is 
March 3d; at Beaufort, farther south, but in a more exposed and open locality, 
it is March 8th. The latest dates of killing frost in spring at those points are 
April 2d and ist respectively. Inland and westward, the average dates of last 
killing frost advance regularly, with one exception, to April 7th at Santuck and 
5th at Greenville. At Trial the date is as late as April 4th, and again illustrates 
the susceptibility of this locality to low temperatures. In passing, it should be 
noted that every section that has sandy soil exhibits the same susceptibility, 
especially where the sand is light yellow or nearly white. In the autunni the 
dates of first killing frost show the same march, except in an opposite direction, 
and with the same inconsistency at Trial as in the spring, being earliest at 
Santuck (September 30th), then at Trial (October loth), followed by dreenville 
(October 15th), and from then on regularly to the coast, on November 9th at 
Charleston and 7th at Beaufort. The average dates of first killing frost follow 
the same chronology as the earliest dates, ranging from October 29th, at Santuck, 
to November 30th, at Charleston, with Greenville and Trial having practically 
the same dates, November 5th and 6th respectively. These dates show an aver- 
age season without killing frost of 272 days at Charleston, 215 at Trial, 230 at 
Columbia, 205 at Santuck, and 215 at Greenville. In the sand hill region clear 
nights, in spring and autumn, are favorable for low minimum temperatures, but 
generally without frost formation. 

The extreme maximum temperatures vary but little in different parts of the 
State, although the central portions usually have the highest maxima. Temper- 
atures of 100 degrees 
or higher are of fre- 
quent occurrence in the 
central counties, rare 
along the coast, and are 
unknown in the west- 
ern parts. The high- 
est recorded in the last 
ten years was 107 de- 
grees at Darlington and 
Florence in 1902. Ex- 
treme minimum tem- 
peratures show a wider 
range. The lowest 
minimum recorded in 
the last ten years was 
II degrees below zero at Santuck and Shaws Fork (Aiken County) in February, 
1899. The average number of days with temperatures above 90 degrees ranges 
from 79 days at Blackville to 21 days at Charleston ; below 32 degrees the aver- 
ages are 80 days at Greenville, 9 at Charleston, 16 at Beaufort, 20 at Aiken, 34 at 
Trial, 28 at Stateburg, and 38 at Columbia. This shows an irregularity in distri- 
bution that may be attributed to local topography, soil, and elevation. 

The average relative humidity at different places is largely a matter of approx- 
imation, as observations have been taken for any considerable period at two 
places only, namely, Charleston and Aiken, and as the hours of observation were 
not the same, the results are not strictly comparable. These observations are 
not taken at voluntary observer's stations, and at Columbia cover not quite three 
years, a period too short for reliable means. These three years compare favor- 
ably with the longer period at Charleston. To institute a reliable comparison 
between Charleston and Columbia, the data for 1901-02-03 were reduced to 
means, and are given in the following table for January and July. The relative 
humidity data for Aiken at 7 A. M. and 9 P. M. is added to the table, and 
includes a period of twelve years. 




THE HAMPTON TERRACE HOTEL, NORTH AUGUSTA, S. C. 



CLIMATOLOGY. 



71 





JANUARY. 








8 A. M. 


8 A.M. 


8 P.M. 


8 P.M. 


Places. 


Tempt. 


R.H. 


Tempt. 


R. H. 




degrees. 


per cent. 


degrees. 


per cent. 


Charleston . 


.. 40 


79 


49 


75 


Columbia . . 


.. 38 


79 


46 


66 


Aiken .... 




68 




67 






JULY. 








8 A.M. 


8 A.M. 


8 P.M. 


8 P.M. 


Places. 


Tempt. 


R.H. 


Tempt. 


R.H. 




degrees. 


per cent. 


degrees. 


per cent. 


Charleston . 


• • 79 


79 


81 


78 


Columbia . . 


.. 76 


76 


82 


66 


Aiken . . . . 




70 


— 


67 







From the table it 
would appear that the 
interior is much drier 
during the evening 
than the coast, but 
that the difference in 
the relative humidity 
is slight during the 
morning hours. As- 
suming that the rela- 
tive humidity is from 
18 per cent, to 20 per 
cent, lower during the 
hottest part of the 
day, and this assump- 
tion is warranted,* it 
would also appear 
that the interior has 
a much wider diurnal 
range than the coast 
region. Exceedingly 
1 o w percentages of 
relative humidity, ranging from 15 per cent, to 25 per cent., occur at all seasons, 
but when associated with temperatures above 90 degrees they are harmful to vege- 
tation and prc^bably also to animal organism. In other than the hottest seasons, 
low relative humidity has no noticeable effects on either. Muggy days are not 
uncommon along the coast, and more than any other climatic feature render the 
summer season almost unendurable to the unacclimated. In the interior, muggy 
days are so rare, and their period of duration so short, that they do not detract 
from the healthfulness of the climate. Muggy weather is conducive to rapid 
growth of vegetation, and in that manner compensates for the discomforts it 
causes. 

The precipitation of South Carolina is well distributed, both geographically 
and by seasons. The season of heaviest rainfall is the summer time, when vege- 
tation is most in need of it. The mean annual amount is 49.0 inches, and the 
variations from this amount are comparatively small — Charleston, with the 
largest amount, having 53.4, and Stateburg 44.4, the smallest. The next smallest 
amount is 46.7, at Columbia. Omitting Charleston, Stateburg, and Columbia, 
whose lengths of record are 33, 20, and 16 years, and using only such stations 
whose years of record coincide and include the period from 1893 to 1903, it is 
found that the greatest average annual rainfall is 53.0 at Greenville, closely fol- 
lowed by Trenton, with 52.1 inches; the least is 48.0, at Santuck, with Beaufort 
only slightly greater, with 48.3 inches. This comparison would indicate that the 
different parts of the State have practically like amounts of precipitation. 

The average spring rainfall is 10.8 inches; summer, 17.0; autumn, lo.i; and 
winter, 11.6. The range in the spring is between 9.1 at Beaufort and 12.6 at 
Greenville; the summer range is between 13.6 at Santuck and 20.1 at Charleston; 
the autumn range is between 8.4 at Stateburg and 12.5 at Charleston ; and the 
winter range is between 8.2 at Beaufort and 14.2 at Greenville. This would indi- 
cate that the heaviest rainfall during the spring and winter is over the western 
parts of the State, and the heaviest summer and autumn rainfall is in the eastern 
parts, particularly the coast regions. The long record of Charleston and the 
shorter record at Beaufort both agree in the above conclusion, although the 
longer record shows the larger amount. The small annual rainfall at Stateburg 
is probably due to the peculiar location of that station on a spur of the "High 
Hills of Santee." A thirty-six years average at Camden, about twenty miles 
north of Stateburg, is even less, being only 43.3 inches. 

The average number of days with o.oi or more precipitation (excluding pre- 
cipitation from dew) ranges from 87 at Aiken to 119 at Charleston. The proba- 
bility of rainy days, therefore, ranges from .24 to .33. Stateburg and Blackville 
show the lowest rain intensity, with 0.40 at both places, while Aiken has an 
apparent rain intensity of 0.56; this is considered too high in comparison with 
surrounding stations. Records such as these cannot be made absolutely accurate, 
and have only an approximate value. Their accuracy depends too much on the 
personality of the observer, especially at voluntary observers' stations. The 
monthly, seasonal and annual values are more nearly correct than is that of any 



•Handbook of Climatology — Hann (1903). 



72 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

single rain, as the gage may or may not be visited and measured after each rain, 
but the contents will be added to the next rain and be included in the amount 
of it, with only the loss by evaporation to vitiate the record, while the rain 
intensity will be practically twice the amount it should be. 

Heavy rainfalls, in excess of 12 inches for the month, are not infrequent in 
South Carolina during June, July, and August, and are rare during the rest of 
the year. They usually occur in the southern parts. The heaviest monthly rain- 
fall at any stations occurred in August, 1898. when the totals at Port Royal 
(near Beaufort) and at Gillisonville (about thirty miles inland) were 24.7 and 
24.4 inches, respectively. These torrential rains occur only during the passage 
of West India hurricanes. In the western parts there are comparatively few 
days having rains in excess of 3.0 inches for any 24 consecutive hours. 

Hail storms are seldom of wide extent or destructive, although occasionally 
they do occur in May and June, seldom in July, and rarely in August, and are 
practically unknown during the rest of the year. Hail storms are most frequent 
in the north central and northeastern parts, and rarely occur in the southern- 
most parts. 

The diflferences in latitude and in elevation from the coast to the mountains 
have an appreciable influence on the occurrence of snow storms. The line mark- 
ing the absolute southern limit of snow does not cross or touch this State, 
although the southernmost part is practically exempt. During the occurrence 
of severe cold waves, snow falls in the vicinity of Charleston and the adjoining 
low country, but it is exceedingly rare that it accumulates on the ground, and 
almost invariably melts as it falls. On the contrary, in the northwestern and 
even the central parts, it accumulates to depths of from five to ten inches, and 
sometimes remains on the ground for from two days to a week. The average 
annual number of days with snow ranges from none at Charleston to five at 
Santuck. 

The late autumn, winter, and early spring precipitation is almost entirely due 
to the passage of cyclonic storms. The late spring, summer, and early autumn 
rains are, with few exceptions, of convectional type. The exceptions are of two 
kinds, the first being due to the occasional passage over this part of the country 
of cyclonic storms that originate in the southwest ; the second being the passage 
of West India hurricanes that originate in the tropics. The latter are of more 
frequent occurrence, especially in August and September, but seldom reach the 
westernmost parts. 

The extreme limits of probable annual precipitation, or the absolute driest and 
wettest years, are not well defined in the accompanying tables, owing to the 
shortness of the periods of observation, except at Charleston, where the range 
is between 29.7 and 78.4 inches. At Stateburg (twenty years) the range is be- 
tween 32.6 and 60.0; at Columbia (sixteen years) the range is between 39.7 and 
53.3; at Greenville (ten years) the range is between 42.5 and 77.8 inches. 

If a deduction is permissible from so short a record, it appears that the 
extreme parts of the State have a greater variability, while the central parts 
have a fairly constant precipitation from year to year. The percentages of vari- 
ability are much greater when the comparison is between seasons, and still 
greater between months of like name. The accompanying tables do not include 
this data, nor have the periods of greatest number of consecutive days without 
rain been calculated. 

Fogs are frequent along the coast and in the low country, and in the winter 
season in other parts. The sand hills are almost free from them, the average 
annual number being but one day each year. At Charleston the average annual 
number is twenty-six days. 

The record for prevailing winds is unsatisfactory, but there is so close an 
agreement between stations in the same parts of the State as to warrant the 
tentative statement that over the eastern parts the prevailing winds are from the 
southwest; in the north central parts from the northeast, and in the western 
parts from the west. Destructive high winds are of rare occurrence, and are of 
two kinds. The first, usually confined to the western parts, are tornadic ; along 
the coast and adjoining regions they accompany West India hurricanes. 

RELATION TO AGRICULTURE. 

The relation between the climate of South Carolina and its agricultural re- 
sources is complex, and the limits of this article will not permit an exhaustive 
discussion. Even a list of the flora indigenous to the State would require about 
all the space assigned. 

From the data in the accompanying tables it can be seen that the coast region 
has a semi-tropical climate; the upper portion has a temperate, or sub-temperate. 



CLIMATOLOGY. 



73, 



climate ; in the central portions there is a gradual blending of the one into the 
other. This makes it possible to raise practically every variety of crop known 
to the United States in some portion of South Carolina. The staple crops in 
the coast region are sea island cotton, corn and tobacco, as well as early truck 
crops, for which it is admirably adapted. Peaches, pears, and figs attain per- 
fection. Strawberries are an important commercial crop. Oranges and lemons 
have been grown, but are precarious crops. 

Tlie lower pine belt is adapted to tobacco, cotton, rice, and corn, with the 
fruits and berries that yield so well in the coast region. 

The upper pine belt is the region of greatest yields of cotton, corn, tobacco 
and melons, and is well adapted for raising fruits and berries of all kinds. 
Occasionally wheat is cultivated. Oats are one of the staple crops. 

The sand hills are peculiarly adapted for the cultivation of peaches and other 
fruits, but are otherwise of low agricultural value, although they are far from 
being barren. 

The red hils yield well of the staple crops, such as cotton, corn, and oats, 
under fertilization and intense cultivation. 

In the Piedmont region, cotton, corn, wheat, oats and rye, peas and other 
legumes are staple field crops. Peaches, apples, pears, cherries, and berries of 
all kinds do well. This region shares with the warmer portions of the State a 
wide adaptability for the cultivation of all varieties of garden vegetables known 
to the market gardener in any part of the United States, although as the season 
is later on the coast, truck farming is not so profitable in the Piedmont region. 
Truck raised in the western parts of the State would come into competition with 
that raised on the coasts of Virginia and Maryland. 




COLCNIA HOTEL, COLUMBIA. 



The enumeration of the different crops raised in this State is not complete 
with the mention of those herein made for the different regions, but minor crops 
for local consumption include a large numl)er of varieties. Chief among them 
may be named sweet potatoes, sugarcane, sorghum, peanuts, white potatoes, and 
ilie different kinds of root crops, cultivated mainly for forage. Tea is being 
successfully cultivated at Summcrvillc, and i)roniising experiments are being 
made to grow coffee trees. The abundance of wild flowers from earlj' in spring 
lo late in autumn makes the State an almost ideal one for the establishment of 
.ipiaries, a hitherto almost neglected industry. 

The long season during which pasturage is availal)le makes stock-raising and 
dairying economical, but the present production of neither beef nor dairy prod- 
ucts is equal to the consumption. Wheat, and its milled products, oats, corn, 
and hay are imported in large quantities, tiot because the climate and soil are 
not capable of producing these crops abundantly, but because the energies of 



74 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

the farmers are largely devoted to raising cotton, while other crops are corre- 
spondingly neglected. 

All parts of the State are habitable, but some portions are more desirable than 
others. Perhaps the coast and the lower pine belt regions are least desirable, 
and have the smallest population per square mile, owing largely to the physical 




^■i^l^s^'^f^!?^'^ 



PINE FOREST INN, SUMMERVILI.E. 



features of these sections, they being low, level, and have large swamps and 
marslies. Most of the land is reclaimable, but at considerable expense and 
necessarily under a comprehensive and extensive system of drainage canals. 

The slight difference in climate of the other regions does not materially affect 
their habitableness, but if any preference exists in regard to healthfulness it is 
m favor of the sand hill region. 



CLIMATOLOGY 



75 




Advantages 

TO THE 

Tourist 

By 

E. J. WATSON. 



IN THE FALL 



The advantages offered by South Carolina to the tourist are manifold, and 
there is no portion of the South possessing such rare opportunities for capitalists 
desiring to invest in winter tourist hotel properties. Below are briefly stated 
some of the exceptional reasons why this assertion is made : 

1. South Carolina has a climate that is unequaled by that of any other State 
in the United States, the mean annual temperature for the whole State being 
63°, the spring mean being 63°, and the winter mean 46°. This climate is of 
peculiar benefit to invalids, being bracing while sufficiently warm. It is a climate 
without a peer for persons suffering from tuberculosis, as the health records of 
the principal places in the 62-64° and 64-66°zones show. When these persons 
go to sanitariums maintained in the pines for their treatment, their friends and 
relatives like to be near, and would patronize good tourist hotels liberally. 

2. Until a few seasons ago tourists from the East made it the rule to go to 
Florida points, but now they are beginning to appreciate the value of the climate 
of the Middle South. The change from the bitter cold of the East and North- 
west to the tropical climate of Florida was too great, and an enervating effect 
on the system was experienced. This is not true of the climate here, and the 
difference was so much appreciated last season that hundreds of those heretofore 
Florida-crazed had to be turned away from the new Hampton Terrace at North 
Augusta, this State, and the Colonia at Columbia. These hotels scored during 
the season the most notable initial season's successes on record. 

3. The best evidence of South Carolina's peculiar fitness for tourist hotels 
may be found in the fact that the late W. C. Whitney made large investments in 
Aiken, where he erected his winter home and stables, and where he and quite a 
colony of exclusive Eastern people have been spending the winter for a number 
of years. It may be mentioned also that the rare climate of Aiken and Camden, 
which is duplicated at many other points, has attracted the attention of health- 
seekers from all parts of the world. 

4. Not alone in climate conditions does South Carolina excel as a location 
for winter tourist hotel properties; her location as to transportation facilities 
cannot be improved upon. The State is a perfect network of railroad lines, with 
the capital city, possessing the identical climate of Camden, as a hub of the 
wheel. Six of the spokes represent the three main trunk railroad lines, running 
from the North to the South, and the tourist is at all times less than twenty-four 
hours from New York. The service on these fast trains is almost palatial. 
Again, the tourist, using Columbia as his basic point, is within less than 40 miles 



76 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

of the Tourist Hotel at Batesburg; 84 miles of the Hampton Terrace and Bon 
Air Hotels at North Augusta and Augusta ; less than 65 miles from Aiken ; only 
about 30 miles from Camden; only 146 miles from the De Soto at Savannah; 
only 164 from the Battery Park and Kenilworth Inn at Asheville, N. C, in the 
Blue Ridge, and 194 miles from the Mountain Park at Hot Springs, N. C, in the 
Great Smokies, on the French Broad River; only 129 miles from Charleston, 
with historic memories, the sea and several high-class hotels; only 107 miles from 
Summerville, with the Pine Forest Inn, a noted health-seekers' resort in the 
pines; and within seven and one-half hours' ride of Jacksonville, Fla. This 
condition would enable a tourist desiring to visit all of the principal Southern 
resorts to do so at a small cost, and afford a variety in the course of one season 
that cannot be elsewhere obtained. Columbia is taken as a basic point because 
it happens to be in the exact center of the State and to have a first-class tourist 
hotel. What is shown as to Columbia, however, applies with equal force to 
dozens of splendid tourist resort locations within the ideal climatic zones named 
above. 

5. Another attractive feature of the South Carolina situation may be found 
in the variety of the scenery surrounding the number of resort places named, 
and in the model sand and clay public roads, giving ample opportunity for auto- 
mobiling and horseback riding in the greatest comfort and satisfaction. Again, 
there are fine hunting grounds almost within a stone's throw of all of the existing 
and possible locations. 

With such a combination of advantages as outlined above, any one looking for 
the opportunity to make paying investments can scarcely hesitate to decide upon 
the establishment of tourist hotel properties in South Carolina. The returns 
from some of the existing properties have been noteworthy, and the field is 
barely more than touched up to the present time. 




TIN MINING 



Chapter V. 

Geology and 

Mineral 

Resources. 

By 

EARLE SLOAN 

State Geologist 



PREFACE. 

The incomplete character of the geological survey of this State imposes limita- 
tions to an entirely satisfactory compliance with the request for a brief outline 
of the general geological subdivisions, and a summary of the mineral resources, 
of South Carolina. However, from careful field observations undertaken in the 
preparation of "A Preliminary Report on the Clays of South Carolina," "A 
Catalogue of the Mineral Localities of South Carolina," and of "The Marls and 
Other Coastal Plain Formations of South Carolina,"* much valuable informa- 
tion has been acquired, which is laid under tribute to the present undertaking, 
which largely comprises excerpts and adaptations from said re])orts. 

The related reports record due acknowledgment of obligations to partial 
co-operative services in the following connections : 

In Chemical determinations, to Dr. M. B. Hardin, Dr. R. N. Brackett, and Mr. 
B. F. Robertson, of Clemson College — 

In Paleontological discrimination, to Doctors Dall, Vaughan, Burns, .\rnold, 
Bassler and Stanton, of the Smithsonian Institution, and to Dr. T. H. Aldrich — 

In the Stratigraphic relations of the Crystalline Region, to Dr. Keith, of the 
United States Geological Survey — 

In Lithological investigations, to Prof. G. W. Corey. 

Earle Sloan. State Geologist. 
EXPLANATORY. 

In the conduct of the South Carolina Geological Survey each mineral or 
geological exposure of economic or scientific interest is accorded a number in 
accordance with the following summarized system: 



Drainage Area. 




Coastal Plain. 


Cry^t.nllinc 
Region. 


Savanr.ah 

Edisto 

Santee 

Pee Dee 


Comprises numbers from 
Comprises numbers from 
Comprises numbers from 
Comprises numbers from 


o to 250 
250 to 500 
500 to 750 
750 to 999 


1000 to 2500 
none 

5000 to 7500 
7500 to 9999 



Sub-Areas. — The lesser streams draining the respective exposures afford names 
for the sub-areas; other distinctive names arc applied to the latter in those cases 
where deposits occur immediately contiguous to the greater streams. 

Distances. — The distances indicated are approximate and along air lines. 

Lora/io)!.— Localities are generally indicated by the distance, and the approxi- 
mate azimuth, of an air line from the nearest point of transportation. 

Subdhisiuns. — In view of the tentative character of the geological subdivisions 
submitted in this report, a special system has been adopted, 'ihe subdivisions 
of the Crystalline Region are designated Zones, some of which comprise forma- 
tions pertaining to more than one epoch, 'i'he minor subdivisions of the Coastal 
Plain of South Carolina are herein designated Phases, each of which not only 
represents a characteristic formation or sub-stage exposed in one or more areas, 
but expresses an epoch or s"''r'ivision of geoloi'irnl time. 

•Uncompleted. 



78 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Preface 77 

Explanation of Survey Numbers and Illustrations 77 

Mineral Production for tlie Year 1906 79 

GENERAL GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS. 

DIVISION I. 

Chapter I. General Subdivisions op Crystalline Region — Petrographic 
Zonks : Ctiatooga, Chauga, Tunnel Hill, Poor Mt., Oconee Creek, Saluda, 
Anderson-Spartanburg, Cherokee, Abbeville- York, Edgefield-Chesterfield, 
Vaucluse, Hornsboro 79 

DIVISION II. 

Chapter I. General Subdivisions of Coastal Plain 83 

Chapter II. Cretaceous : Lower Hamburg Clays, Upper Hamburg Clays, Black 

Creek Shales, Burches Ferry Marl 87 

Chapter III. Tertiary : Black Mingo Shales, Congaree Shales, Warley Hill Marl, 

Santee Marl, Mt. Hope Marl, Ashley-Cooper Marls 88 

Chapter IV. Oligocenb : King's Creek Silex, Brier Creek Marl, Combahee Shale, 

Parachucla Marl and Shale 91 

Chapter V. Miocene : Mark's Head Marl, Edisto Marl and Phosphate. Salke- 
hatchie Marl, Goose Creek Marl, Pee Dee Marl, Waccamaw (Mio-Plio- 
cene) 91 

Chapter VI. Pleistocene (Fresh Water) : Cheraw Cobbles and Sands. Hampton 
Clays, Ten-Mile Sands ; Pleistocene (Marine) : Wadmalaw Shell Marl, 
Bohicket Marl Sands, Accabee Gravels 92 

DIVISION III. 

Economic and Industrial. 
Part I. Structural Materials : 

Granite 94 

Limestone. Marble and Dolomite 97 

Slates. Schists and Shales 100 

Quartz 101 

Road Building Materials 102 

Sands 103 

Part II. Non-Metallic Group (Crystalline Region) : 

Serpentine and Soapstone 103 

Asbestos 104 

Barytes 104 

Monazite 104 

Graphite 104 

Mica and Feldspar 106 

Corundum 107 

Gems and Gem Stones 107 

Part III. Metallic Group : 

Gold 109 

Nickel 114 

Copper 115 

Tin 116 

Lead . . . . 117 

Manganese 118 

Iron 119 

I'yrite 121 

Part IV. Non-Metallic Group (Coastal Plain) : 

Marl and Glauconite 121 

Fullers Earth 122 

Peat 123 

Sands 1 24 

Phosphates 125 

Clays 127 

MAP 138-139 

MINING REVIEW FOR 1906 140 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



79 



GENERAL GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS. 



CHAPTER I. 



An inspection of the physiography of South Carolina reveals two series of 
formations, widely differing in their topographical, structural and floral features, 
and separated by a meandering line, designated the "fall line," which crosses 
the greater streams at the head of navigation. This line, beginning at North 
Augusta, proceeds by Columbia and thence by Camden to the North Carolina 
State line, northeast of Cheraw. The area north of this line, designated the 
Crystalline Region, comprises the older crystalline rocks and is characterized 
along its upper limits by a somewhat serrated mountainous profile graduating 
southerly into intricately ribbed and undulating ridges with deeply sculptured 
valleys and rapidly flowing streams. South of the fall line we find the younger 
sedimentary beds, which overlap the crystalline rocks and extend thence to the 
sea, constituting a vast peneplain known as the Coastal Plain, which along its 
upper limit characteristically affords extensive plateaus incised with deep valleys 
in almost abrupt juxtaposition, the included rivers having slow velocities and 
navigable channels. 

Proceeding from the northwest part of 
the State along a line normal to the 
coast, we observe distinctive zones of ele- 
vation extending approximately parallel 
with the coast. First the Montaine Re- 
gion, with its serrated topography culmi- 
nating in 
above the 
irregularly 



MINERAL PRODUCTION OF 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

For the Year Ending Dec, 1906. 



Stone — Granite, Di- 
mension, Jetty and 
Crushed. 

Lime 

Monazite 

t.Mica 

tFeldspar 

Gold 

Silver 

*Tin 

Marl 

tFuilers Earth 

Phosphate Rock . . . . 

Clay 

Mineral Waters . . . . 

Phosphate Products... 

Clay Products 

Gas Coke, Gas, Coal 
Tar 



258,398 

34.719 

43,000 

1,000 



78,959 

62 

16,800 

9,450 

i,'l'l8,375 
175,351 
348,744 

7,945,955 
830,481 

228,817 

$11,090,111 



♦Mined but not shipped. 

tMine recently opened. 

The S. C. Geological Survey Is 
indebted to the U. S. Geological 
Survey for many items included 
in the above summary. 



peaks as high as 3,500 feet 
sea level, which rapidly and 
declines within thirty miles 
to the Piedmontaine Region, where the 
ridges afford elevations from 700 to 900 
feet, and the beds of the larger streams 
are from 500 to 700 feet above the sea level. 
This "Piedmont Region" gently graduates 
through the middle country to the fall line, 
where the crystalline rocks pass under the 
Coastal Plain formations at elevations 
above sea level, varying from 119 feet in 
the deeper valleys to 680 feet on the plateau 
between the Savannah and the Congaree 
Rivers, and 597 feet between the Wateree 
and the Great Pee Dee Rivers. Borings 
south of the fall line show the inclination 
of the surface of the crystalline rocks 
greatly increased, attaining in the Savan- 
nah area 54 feet to the mile and in the Pee 
Dee area 50 feet to the mile, but apparently 
less along the line between the two. 'I'he 
overlapping Coastal Plain formations, as 
exposed along the upper limits of their 
plateaus, as above indicated, attain a maximum elevation of 680 feet from which, 
through the intervening sandhill region, they decline within 20 miles to an 
elevation of 400 feet, and thence gently graduate through 80 miles of low country 
to the sea level at the coast. An examination of the structural and general 
geological features shows the Crystalline Region to be constituted of rock for- 
mations more or less hard, foliated and crystalline; often pitched at high angles, 
folded, faulted and otherwise dislocated, and flclicient in fossil remains. 

The Coastal Plain exposes loosely aggregated materials without distinct strati- 
fication, and some stratified materials with a gentle dip, the latter more or less 
rich in fossil remains, the former rarely affording biotic evidences. 

Accordingly, the geological features of South Carolina admit of systematic 
treatment under two general divisions, to wit : 
Division I. — The Crystalline Area. 
Division H. — The Coastal Plain. 



8o SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

DIVISION I.— THE CRYSTALLINE AREA 

CHAPTER I.-GENERAL SUBDIVISIONS 

The Crystalline Region aflfords natural subdivisions which are exhibited in 
successive groups of rocks exposed along zones trending chiefly in a north- 
easterly and southwesterly direction, or approximately parallel to the Appa- 
lachian System, with conspicuous local exceptions. 

In view of the irregularly exhibited succession of the geological groups in 
the crystalline area of South Carolina, and in the absence of sufficient data to 
warrant their definite discrimination in accordance with the accepted system of 
chronological grouping, it will suffice for the purpose of system to view each 
individualized belt of rocks with its characteristic economic minerals as a vmit 
or "zone." To facilitate reference, these "zones" are designated by associate 
local names, which are herewith tabulated in the order of their geographic suc- 
cssion, or as the zones are encountered upon proceeding southeasterly from the 
northwest corner of the State, this direction being normal to, or across, the 
strike of the zones. The geographic succession tlius afforded does not uniformly 
conform to the geologic order of age of the related formations, for \vhereas 
some of the original formations of the crystalline area are largely constituted of 
igneous rocks and their altered forms, all of which, except some of the intrusive, 
pertain perhaps to the oldest subdivisions of the Archean time as exhibited in 
this State, there are on both sides of these older Archean formations several 
groups of highly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, some of which represent 
later phases of the Archean, some Algonkian. some Cambrian, and some pos- 
sibly are of even later origin in the Paleozoic time; but no Carboniferous meas- 
ures have been observed. 

The Mesozoic period finds expression in an ancient trough beginning in the 
upper part of Chesterfield County and extending thence northerly ; it is filled 
with Jura-Trias rocks highly deformed by numerous intrusions of igneous dikes. 

GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS OF THE CRYSTALLINE REGION 

Probable Age 
Petrographic Subdivisions. Equivalents. 

Chatooga Zone Archean. 

Chauga Zone Cambrian ( ? ) . 

Tunnel Hill Zone .Archean. 

Poor Mt. Zone Cambrian (?). 

Oconee Creek Zone Archean. 

Saluda Zone Archean. 

Anderson-Spartanburg Zone '. . Archean. 

Cherokee Zone (Lower) Cambrian (?). 

Cherokee Zone (Upper) Cambrian (?). 

Abbeville- York Zone .Archean. 

Edgefield-Chesterfield Zone Algonkian (?). 

Vaucluse Zone Archean. 

Hornsboro Zone Jura-Trias. 

Disturbance, deformation and surface obscuration have been so great that 
these zones are rarely characterized by sharp definite lines of separation. 

Some of these zones, although widely separated geographically and therefore 
designated by different names, are similar in age and character ; others will 
probably be further subdivided by the results of future observations. 

CHAPTER II.— ZONE DESCRlPTIO^S 
ANDERSON-SPARTANBURG ZONE. 

The Anderson- Spartanburg Zone probably represents the most prominent body 
of the oldest phase of the Archean exposed in South Carolina, to which all 
other rocks in this State are probably junior, excepting tongues of tlic corre- 
sponding Carolina Gneiss series which occupy portions of tlie adjacent zones. 

It comprises a wide belt bounded on the west by tlic iyger Zone along a line 
which irregularly extends from the 82° longitude on the North Carolina line to 
Brown's Ferry on the Savannah River; on the north liy the State line; on the 
east by an irregular line which extends from a point approximately one mile 
east of Grover, along the Whitaker's Mt. Ridge, to the mouth of Buflfalo 
Creek, thence immediately north of Gaflfney to Thicketty Station, thence 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 8i 

slightly west of Thicketty Creek to West Mt., thence by Graycourt Knob, thence 
near Wares Shoals (Saluda River), thence north of Abbeville and immediately 
south of Lowndesville, whence it proceeds along Rosses Creek to the Savannah 
River, up which the boundary extends to Brown's Ferry. It includes the upper 
part of Cherokee, the greater portion of Spartanburg, the lower half of Green- 
ville, the lower three-fourths of Anderson and a narrow northerly strip of 
Abbeville Counties. 

Rocks. — It is largely constituted of the Carolina Gneiss series and subordi- 
nately of the Roan Gneiss or hornblende series, and intrusive granite, diabase 
and diorite. The rocks comprise granite, granitite, gneissoid slates, mica schists 
and slates, hornblende schists, graphite schists, etc. Pegmatization has been 
extensive. Many of the rocks are garnetiferous. 

Economic Deposits. — Granite, soapstone, mica, feldspar, asbestos, graphite 
schists, corundum, beryl, amethyst, garnet, zircon, monazite, columbite, magne- 
tite, hematite, gold, tin, lead. Peat and brick clays appear as more recent 
deposits. 

This constitutes the great monazite belt which extends from Cherokee to 
Anderson Counties. 

Industrial. — Monazite is extensively mined in Cherokee, Spartanburg and 
Greenville Counties, and to a limited extent in Anderson County. Mica is mined 
in Greenville and spasmodically in Anderson Counties, with feldspar (and col- 
umbite) as an incidental product in Greenville County. Asbestos is extracted' 
in exploration. Tin is mined in Cherokee County. 

TYGER ZONE. 

The Tyger Zone (Archean) is not conspicuously separated from the Ander- 
son-Spartanburg Zone, excepting that in addition to the Carolina Gneiss series 
it comprises the very prominent development of the Roan Gneiss or hornblende 
series. This zone comprises an irregularly shaped tract bounded on the west by 
the Saluda Zone, along a line extending southwesterly from Gap Creek towards 
Pendleton and thence to the Tugaloo River near the point where intersected by 
the 83° of longitude; on the north it is delimited by the North Carolina line; 
on the southeast by a meandering line from a point of the North Carolina State 
line (near 82° of longitude) to the Savannah River near Brown's Ferry; the 
latter river and the Tugaloo River complete the boundary to the 83° of long- 
itude. 

Rocks. — It is constituted chiefly of the Carolina Gneiss series with a prominent 
development of the Roan Gneiss series, and some Table Rock Granite. It com- 
prises granite-gneiss exposed in successive belts (coarse porphyritic prominent) ; 
granite; feldspar; porphyry; granitite; gneissoid slates; mica slates and schists; 
hornblende schists; graphite schists; dikes of granite, pegmatite, diabase, and 
diorite. Many of the rocks are garnetiferous. 

Economic Deposits. — Granite, soapstone, mica, feldspar, asbestos, graphite 
schists, corundum, beryl, amethyst, garnet, zircon, monazite, columbite, mag- 
netite (iron ore), hematite (iron ore), gold. Peat and brick clays appear as 
more recent deposits. 

CHATOOGA ZONE. 

The Chatooga Zone (Archean) comprises narrow parallel belts of the Carolina 
Gneiss series and of the Table Rock Granite, and thin bands of the Roan Gneiss 
series. It includes the narrow belt between the Chatooga River and a line ex- 
tending southwesterly from a point on the North Carolina line, about half way 
between the Toxaway and Whitewater Rivers, to the Tugaloo River, slightly 
above its confluence with Brasstown Creek. • 

Rocks. — The northwesterly belt of this zone exhibits a granite similar to the 
Table Rock granite of the Saluda Zone, which is slightly schistose in structure, 
but granitic in texture, the color being a "pepper and salt" gray. 

The southeasterly belt, which sharply abuts the limestone series (Chauga 
Zone), consists of higlily schistose gneissoids, granites, mica schists, etc., of the 
Carolina Gneiss series; it includes pegmatites, peridotites, etc. 

Thin lines of the Roan Gneiss (hornblende series^, are observed in this area. 
This zone is essentially Archean. 

Economic Deposits. — Feldspar, mica, graphite, corundum, soapstone. galena, 
gold. 

Industrial. — No mines now in operation. Gold and lead mines formerly 
worked. Corinidum and mica formerly mined. 

0— H. I{. 



82 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

OCONEE CREEK ZONE. 

Oconee Creek Zone (Archean) comprises a belt bounded on the northwest by 
the Poor Mt. Zone; on the southwest by the Tugaloo River; on the northeast 
by the North CaroHna line from a point intermediate to the Horsepasture River 
and Toxaway Creek to a point about two miles east of Sassafras Gap; on the 
southeast by a line from the latter point extending to the Tugaloo River, near 
the confluence of the Chauga River. 

This zone consists chiefly of granite and granite-gneiss derived from porphyry. 
Its most characteristic form consists of repeated thin wavy bands of quartz, 
biotite and muscovite with fine crystalline texture, separated by eyes of pink 
feldspar (microcline). It probably pertains to Keith's Henderson Granite, of 
which characteristic exposures may be seen at "The Tunnel," in the Tunnel Hill 
Zone, and oti Oconee Creek immediately below the dam at Lays mill. A granite 
similar in its petrograpic relations may be observed in the Vaucluse Zone at a 
small quarry o.i mile north of the jail at Edgefield. The Oconee Creek series 
is regarded as junior to the Carolina Gneiss series. 

Economic Deposits. — Granite. This stone with its staggered eyes aflfords at- 
tractive architectural effects. 

TUNNELL HILL ZONE. 

Tunnel Hill Zone (Archean) comprises a narrow belt bounded on the north- 
west by the Chauga Zone and on the southeast by a line extending from the 
Tugaloo River near the mouth of Barton Creek, immediately north of Rich 
Mt., north of Horse Shoe Bend, and thence northeasterly. It constitutes a 
narrow tongue between the Chauga and the Poor Mt. limestone zones. 

Rocks. — Porphyritic granite-gneiss, and gneissoids. T*robable equivalent of 
Keith's "Henderson Granite," assigned to the Archean. Abundant strain effects 
prevail. This rock appears to have resulted from the granulation and re-crystal- 
lization of a porphyritic granite. (See Granites, Sur. No. 1402-I-2). 

Economic Deposits. — The Tunnel Hill granite-gneiss is a very hard rock com- 
prising thin bands curved to enfold rounded crystal individuals of pink feldspar 
(Kleine augen gneiss). 

Industrial. — No deposits along this zone are mined. 

Tunnel Hill gneiss is susceptible of attractive architectural effects. 



SALUDA ZONE. 

Saluda Zone (partly Archean) comprises an irregularly shaped area bordered 
on the northwest by the Oconee Creek Zone, from the Tugaloo River to the 
North Carolina line ; this State line constitutes the northerly limit of this zone 
to the head of Gap Creek (near Saluda Gap). It is separated from the Tyger 
Zone on the southeast by a line extending from Gap Creek southwesterly near 
Pendleton, and thence to the Tugaloo River near longitude 83° (above Hattons 
Ford), whence the Tugaloo River completes the westerly boundary to the initial 
point. 

Rocks. — Granite, granite-gneisses (some porphyritic), granulite, gneissoid slates 
and schists, hornblende slates and schists (very prominent), peridotite, dikes of 
granite, diorite (occasional), pegmatite. 

Economic Deposits. — Granite, gneiss, feldspar, mica, asbestos, corundum, ser- 
pentine, soapstone, gold, magnetite. Tertiary cobble-stones exposed at several 
localities. 

Industrial. — Cochran Gold Mine, Hagood Asbestos and Mica Mines and the 
Leroy Mica Mine are spasmodically worked; Beverly, Pendleton and Westmin- 
ster granite and gneiss quarries, and Fairview Soapstone Quarry are intermit- 
tently operated. 

ABBEVILLE-YORK ZONE. 

Abbeville- York Zone. This area is very wide along its northerly boundary 
which is constituted by the State line, but is narrow along its southwest 
boundary formed by the Savannah River. It is bounded on the northwest 
by the Cherokee and by the Anderson-Spartanburg Zones ; on the southeast by 
a line which proceeds southwesterly from a point on the State line, 1.5 miles 
northwest of Hornsboro, thence crossing Lynches River 1.8 miles above the 
mouth of Rocky Creek, thence to Heath Springs, thence below Peays Ferry 



GEOLOGY AND MIXERAL RESOURCES. 83 

(Wateree River) by Longtown, thence to the head of Sawneys Creek, thence 
across Broad River (above its confluence with Little River), thence south of 
Little Mt., thence north of the Culbreath Mine, thence north of Meeting Street 
(2 miles), and thence direct to a point near McCormick, whence it continues 
to the Savannah River, south of the mouth of Little River. 

Marble, of seeming upper Cherokee equivalence, appears along the upper limit 
of the Abbeville- York Zone interruptedly from the east side of the Enoree River 
to the east side of the Saluda River. 

Rocks. — Gneissoids, granite, syenite, quartz, mica and hornblende schists and 
slates, quartzite, gabbro, trachyte, porphyries, sericite schists, quartz monzonite 
schists, diorite slates, diorite, trachyte, pyroxenite, amphibolite, felsite, soap- 
stone. 

Economic Deposits. — Enormous beds of superb granite, syenite, porphyry, ser- 
pentine, soapstone, quartzite, quartz, felsite road metal (local "chert"), biotite, 
corundum, polishing sands, hematite, magnetite, manganese, copper, nickel, gold, 
marble. 

Industrial. — Granite, fine and medium coarse grained, is extensively quarried 
in Fairfield. Newberry and Lancaster Counties ; to more limited extent in Lau- 
rens and York Counties ; extensively prevails in upper Kershaw County. Por- 
phyritic granites (pink feldspar — "Scotch granite") quarried in Greenwood 
County; occur also in Fairfield and Kershaw Counties; "chert" (felsite) quar- 
ried in Newberry County (occurs at various points). Barytes intermittently 
mined in Cherokee County. Marble is quarried at Masters Kiln for neighbor- 
hood uses. Manganese being explored in Abbeville County (near McCormick). 
Nickel, with gold, in process of exploration in Saluda County. Gold actively 
mined in York, Union, Abbeville and Lancaster Counties. 



VAUCLUSE ZONE. 

Vaucluse Zone. The Vaucluse area is bounded on the northwest by the 
Edgefield-Chesterfield Zone; on the southwest by the Savannah River; the 
delimiting line on the southeast is highly irregular by reason of the variable 
distribution of the overlapping coastal plain sands ; the line which interruptedly 
connects the tongued projections of this area on the southeast, beginning near 
Hamburg, extends by Vaucluse, Miles Mill, Fox Bridge (Chinquepin Creek), 
Quattlebaum Mill (Lightwood Creek), thence by Red Bank Creek to Granby; 
beyond which this formation is obscured to Granny's Quarter, whence it is suc- 
cessively observed at the old Sumter Quarry, at the Taxehaw 40-acre Rock, 
and at the North Carolina line, near the Great Pee Dee River. 

Rocks. — The rocks of this area comprise granite, granite-gneiss, gneissoid 
slates, mica schists, hornblende slates, quartzite, and kaolinized schists. 

Economic Deposits. — Granite and gneiss ; kaolinized schists. 

Industrial. — Granite quarried at Parkhill and in the town of Edgefield. The 
kaolinized schists have been long used to bond the more refractory clays from 
the Cretaceous in the manufacture of crockery-ware and refractory wares. 



EDGEFIELD-CHESTERFIELD ZONE. 

Edgefield-Chesterfield Zone (Algonkian?). Bounded on the northwest by the 
Abbeville-York Zone; on the north by the Hornsboro Zone and the State line; 
on the southeast by a line proceeding from the point where Whites Creek enters 
South Carolina (Marlboro County) along said creek to the Pee Dee, thence by 
Catarrh, thence south of Granny's Quarter, thence crossing the Wateree River, 
near Camden, thence up Rice Creek and down Crane Creek, and thence crossing 
the Broad River three miles north of Columbia, thence across the Dutch Fork 
and by Half Way Swamp, to a point near Edgefield, whence it proceeds south- 
westerly to the Savannah River (near Scotts Ferry), the river completing the 
boundary on the west. A division extends southwesterly by Edgefield by reason 
of the granite anticline uplift, which diverts a sub-zone of these schists, and 
a part of the slates towards Hamburg with a southeasterly dip. 

Rocks. — Slates derived from the alteration of basic igneous rocks constitutes 
the main mass; along both sides of the argillites the sericite schists interruptedly 
prevail. It appears that the sericite schists originated in the alteration of the 
tuffs and porphyries which interruptedly occur along the southerly line of the 
Abbeville- York Zone, with a corresponding but more limited belt along the 
opposite side of the Edgefield-Chesterfield Zone. 



84 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

Economic Deposits. — Gold, fair grades of slate, sericite. 

Some of the slates of this zone are excellently adapted to the manufacture of 
common and vitrified bricks. 

Industrial.— Gold mining, quarrying of slate for neighborhood structural uses. 

CHAUGA ZONE. 

Chauga Zone (Cambrian?). This zone comprises a narrow band bounded on 
the northwest by the Chatooga Zone; and on the southeast by a line extending 
from near the point where the Toxaway River enters South Carolina to the 
Tugaloo River, slightly below its confluence with Brasstown Creek. 

Rocks. — Fine grained dark shimmering quartz schist, mica schists, graphite 
slates, limestone, etc. This group probably corresponds to Keith's "Brevard 
Schist," assigned to the Cambrian. 

Economic Deposits. — Limestone, graphite, gold. 

Industrial. — Limestone quarries operated during "the fifties," now idle. 

POOR MT. ZONE. 

This formation is exposed along Rich Mt., Poor Mt. and Potato Top Mt, 
which establishes the southeasterly limit of the prominently elevated region of 
Oconee County. The soluble character of the limestone has largely caused its 
disappearance from the depressed areas intermediate to the successive knobs of 
ridges, where it has been rapidly drained it has persisted. The exposure of 
this series from a high point on Poor Mt. to a low point on a dale of Rich Mt., 
indicates a moderate dip to the southeast. 

Rocks. — Narrow belt of Carolina Gneiss series underlying the Poor Mt. series, 
which comprises : Dark calcareous slates, marble, thin hornblende schists, ottre- 
lite (?) schists, sandstones, itacolumite. 

The white dolomitic marble of this zone grades to a dark green pyroxenic 
mass, in places altered by dynamo-metamorphic action to hornblende. This 
series probably pertains to Keith's "Brevard Schist," assigned to the Cambrian. 

Economic Deposits. — Marble, limestone. 

Industrial. — Marble quarried in desultory manner for neighborhood uses. 



CHEROKEE ZONE. 

Cherokee Zone (Cambrian?). This zone comprises a small area bounded on 
the southeast by a line which extends southwesterly from the point where King's 
Creek crosses the North Carolina line, by Silver Mt., across Broad River, and 
thence across Thicketty Creek below the mouth of Limestone Creek to a point 
west of their confluence, where it encounters the Anderson-Spartanburg Zone; 
which zone thence bounds it on the west and northwest to the North Carolina 
line; the State line constitutes the boundary on the north. 

Some corresponding formations of probable equivalence are interruptedly ex- 
posed in a narrow, much obscured band which extends towards the Saluda 
River, along the line which separates the Anderson-Spartanburg Zone from the 
Abbeville- York Zone, across Laurens County; exhibited at Frenchman's Creek, 
at Mahaffey Kiln, at Masters Kiln and at Raysors Kiln. 

Rocks. — Siliceous slates (slightly carbonic), quartzite, hornblende slates vari- 
ably merging to limestone and marble; ottrelite schists; itacolumite; slates inter- 
bedded with hematite ; lithia granite ; gneiss ; black slates ; mica slates ; meta- 
morphosed igneous magnesian rocks with lenticles of magnetite and bodies of 
asbestos ; siliceous and micaceous hematite, and specular iron ores intercalated 
with slates; massive fine grained gray mica slates; intrusive diabase (distinctly 
foliated). 

Economic Deposits. — Marble, limestone, dolomite, flagstone, quartzite, mag- 
netite, hematite, specular iron, siderite, lead, gold, extensive residual deposits of 
fire clays, etc. 

Industrial. — Limestone and marble beds are extensively quarried near Gaffney 
for conversion into lime; marble quarried at Masters Kiln (Laurens County). 
Former extensive utilization of iron deposits suspended on account of charcoal 
impossibilities. Clays for fire and face brick extensively extracted. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 85 

HORXSBORO ZONE. 

Hornsboro Zone (Jura-Trias). This formation is bounded on the north by 
the North Carolina line, from a point about three miles east of Hornsboro to 
a point about 1.2 miles west of Hornsboro; the delimiting line then proceeds 
southeasterly about one (i) mile, thence easterly 5 miles and thence to the 
initial point on the North Carolina line; from the easterly half of this area a 
narrow strip has been removed through erosion by the Clay Creek waters, which 
expose the underlying Edgefield-Chesterfield slates. 

The Hornsboro rocks comprise brown-red and gray sandstones, varying in 
places to a purple-brown indurated clay. Numerous intrusive masses of diabase 
have greatly disturbed, and partly metamorphosed to secondary forms, portions 
of the red sandstones. 

The bodies exhibited in this State are not sufficiently homogeneous to afford 
valuable quarries. In North Carolina, where these beds attain much greater 
thickness, as in the Jupiter area, workable beds of coal are included by the 
Jura-Trias. In many places the coal seams have been disconnected by the 
diabase intrusions, and exhibit so much pyrite that profitable mining is impos- 
sible. 

The close of the Jura-Trias in South Carolina was characterized by the intru- 
sion of a vast series of diabase dikes, prominent in the Jura-Trias and in the 
Edgefield-Chesterfield formations, but progressively less towards the Piedmont. 

DIVISION II.— COASTAL PLAIN 

CHAPTER I.— GEOLOGICAL SUBDIVISIONS OF COASTAL PLAIN 

The successive ages of the Coastal Plain formations of South Carolina, with 
their respectively characteristic life forms, or mineral and lithological individu- 
alities, afTord three main divisions or groups, which, cited in the order of 
seniority, are "The Cretaceous," "The Tertiary," "The Pleistocene," and a sub- 
ordinate group, "The Recent," each of which through characteristic variations 
affords minor subdivisions or stages, indicated as Type Beds. 

The Coastal Plain of South Carolina afifords natural subdivisions of its older 
formations, roughly concentric to St. Helena Sound, to which an area east of 
the Pee Dee River constitutes an irregular exception. The component forma- 
tions comprise an extensive series of sedimentary materials of clastic character, 
some of which have been indurated by chemical solutions at the normal tempera- 
tures which successively prevailed. There is no schistosity nor foliation due to 
intense crustal movements or heat; such parting planes as are observed are 
bedding planes due to successive changes in the character of sedimentation. 
The change in the character of the materials was determined by variations in 
the depth of the water, and periodic changes in the velocity of its currents; 
or to successive elevations and depressions, through which the shore line has 
irregularly advanced and receded (chiefly by reason of orographic movements), 
sometimes as a consistent whole, at others with a barrier of islands or an archi- 
pelago remaining superior to the ocean level and therefore above the influence 
of the sediments or marls, which characterized the surrounding formations, which 
were subsequently deposited in the submerged areas. Therefore some portions 
of the older formations of the Coastal Plain are exposed unencumbered by 
junior formations; always excepting, however, the loose sands and clays which 
at the close of the Lafayette phase covered the entire Coastal Plain and a large 
portion of the Crystalline Region. 

Fossil or life forms, which in the older crystalline area were more primitive 
and more restricted in varieties and numbers, and which were probably almost 
entirely destroyed by the intense heat and other metamorphic influences which 
periodically prevailed during the earlier history of the earth, have survived in 
numerous varieties and species in the Coastal Plain formations. 

In the geological sequence of the South Carolina formations a vast gap exists 
along the fall line, which separates the crystalline area from the Coastal Plain; 
here logically belong the Upper Silurian, with its vast fossiliferous iron ore 
beds, and the Carboniferous with its coal measures, which characterize the Bir- 
mingham and other districts west of the line of the Blue Ridge Mountains; 
east of which line the conditions appear to have been unfavorable; or, if they 
obtained, the associate formations were subsequently effaced or submerged be- 
yond the depths hitherto explored by borings, and therefore beyond economic 
consideration. 







TENTATIVE SUB-DIVISIONS OF 






SOUTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS 






SERIES 


PERIODS OR GROUPS 




SO. CA. TYPE BEDS 


SYN 


SYM 












COAST SANDS 


RC 


® 








RECENT 




RIVER BOTTOMS 
SEA ISLAND SANDS 


RR 
PS 


® 
















WANDO CLAYS 


PWo 


® 












COLUMBIA SANDS, Etc 


PC 


© 












ACCABEE PHOS-GRAVELS 


PA 


s 








PLEISTOCENE 




BOHICKET MARL SANDS 
WADMALAW SHELL-MARl 
•TEN-MILE SANDS 
HAMPTON CLAYS 
CHERAW COBBLES, Etc. 
WACCAMAW MARL 
PEE DEE MARL 


PB 
PW 
PX 
PH 
PL 
MW 



© 
® 
® 
o 
o 








z 


o 




UJ 


PLIOCENE^ 




MP 


< 

_l 



N 





z 

UJ 






GOOSE CREEK MARL 


MG 


o 




o 
o 

UJ 


MIOCENE 




•SALKEHATCHIE MARL 
EDISTO MARLS AND PHOS. 


MS 
ME 




_l 
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z 

lU 




z 






MARKS HEAD MARL 
PARACHUCLA SHALE 


MM 

OP 


® 




H 


o 


> 








PARACHUCLA MARL 


OP 


9 


(0 




(£ 








^ 


OA 




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1- 




OLIGOCENE— 




COMBAHEE SHALE 


OC 


© 













BRIER CREEK MARL 


OB 


O 






Ul 








KINGS CREEK SILEX 


OK 


(S> 












•ASHLEY-COOPER MARLS 
MT. BOPE MARL 


E-0 
EMt 


€ 








UJ 

z 


UPPER 










o 






BARNWELL BUHR SANDS 


EB 


^ 








o 

UJ 


MIDDLE 
LOWER 




SANTEE MARL 
WARLEY HILL MARL 
CONGAREE SHALES, Etc 
BLACK MINGO SHALES 


ES 
EW 
EC 
EM 








UPPER 




BURCHES FERRY MARL 


KBF 


Q 









CRETACEOUS 




BLACK CREEK SHALE 


KB 


® 







CRETACEOUS 






MIDDENDORF CLAYS, Etc 
UPPER HAMBURG CLAYS 


KM 
KH 


® 
® 




N 



LOWER 






(0 
lU 




CRETACEOUS 




LOWER HAMBURG CLAYS 


KH 


® 




JURASSIC 












z 
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TRIASSIC 


JURA-TRIAS 




HORNSBORO SANDSTONE 


JT 






i PERMIAN 

CARBONIFEROUS 
( DEVONIAN 




CD 
lU 


GAP? 




UJ 

z 

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PALEC 


DZOIC? 




SYMBOL 


1 


o 


POOR MT. 
CHALGA 




e 

£ 




CHEROKEE UPPER 
CHEROKEE LOWER 




1- 
<n 
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cc. 
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I 
bff, 






A 




EDGEFJELD-CHESTER 
VAUCLUSE 


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TUNNEL-HILL 




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ARCH 


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a. 


CHATOOGA 
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ANDERSON-SPARTANBURG (ARc) 






tS aspect e(i 


Position. 'Position Uncertain. 





D. P Co. 479E9 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 87 

ECONOMIC DEPOSITS OF THE COASTAL PLAIN FORMATIONS 

Recent. — Thin beds of sands and clays in sections subject to recent inundation. 
Economic products : Structural sands and some brick clays. 

Pleistocene. — Eolean sands, Lafayette clays, loams, sands, shell marl, cobbles. 
Prominently developed across the upper part of the Coastal Plain. Eco- 
nomic products: Sand supply for locomotives, molding sand; cobblestones 
for road construction and railway ballast ; marl. 

Pliocene, Miocene and Oligocene. — Marls, clays and sands. Economic prod- 
ucts : Fullers earth, brick clays, sevi'er pipe and tile clay; phosphate rock; 
marl, adapted to the manufacture of cement and lime; marl and green- 
sand for agricultural purposes. 

Eocene. — Dark laminated clays, sands, ferruginous sandstone, Eocene grit, buhr- 
rock ; fine-grained yellow Sienna and purple sands and loams ; shells, 
greensand, marl, siliceous clay inclosing layer of buhr-rock, coarse fos- 
siliferous sands, sandy loams, lignitic clay. Occupy approximately the 
median two-fourths of the Coastal Plain, irregularly parallel to the fall 
line. Economic products: Fullers earth; potters clay; structural and 
mill stones ; lime marl ; greensand and marl for agricultural purposes. 

Cretaceous. — Burches Ferry. — BufT-colored high grade marl; greensand marl. 

Black Creek. — Soft shales, black clay. Economic products : Lime marls ; 

agricultural marls ; soft shales and black clays suited to the manufacture 

of brick. 

Middendorf. — White sands (25 feet), bed of dense white and drab kaolin 

with waxy luster (fossiliferous) ; harsh sands; vari-colored cross-bedded 

fine grained sands ; thin seams of colored clay interlaminated with sands ; 

gravel. Economic products : China clays ; paper stock clays ; "glass sand." 

Hamburg. — From nil to eighteen feet of fine white kaolin white sand in 

micaceous kaolinitic matrix ; vari-colored banded sands ; arkose ; purple 

and white kaolin; arkose; sub-angular bowlders and fragments of quartz, 

slate and gneiss in arkose matrix. (Beds of lignitic clay and arkose 

revealed by borings below the valley lines probably are the equivalents 

of the Potomac or basal member of the Cretaceous.) Economic products: 

China clays, paper stock clays, potters clay, "glass sand." 

CHAPTER n.— CRETACEOUS 

Lower Hamburg. Black Creek. 

Upper Hamburg. Burches Ferry. 

Immediately south of the fall line occurs the Cretaceous, or lowest and oldest 
member of the Coastal Plain series of formations, which in length is co-exten- 
sive with the fall line, but varies much in the width exposed. Thus its exposure 
begins with a narrow belt in Aiken County and increases in width as it extends 
easterly, afifording its greatest width of exposure along the Great Pee Dee River, 
where it is observed with its extreme limits ninety miles apart, but probably 
with two Tertiary tongues breaking its continuity. 

The Cretaceous formations are interruptedly exposed by the Savannah River 
from the mouth of Foxes Creek to the mouth of Hollow Creek (21 miles) ; by 
the Edisto River from its source to its confluence with Cedar Creek (22 miles) ; 
by the Congaree River from the Saluda River to Buckingham Bluff on the 
Santee (36 miles) ; by the Wateree River from Sanders Creek to Buckingham 
Bluff (35 miles) ; by Black River along its tributaries in Kershaw County and 
(with a wide intervening area of the Tertiary) from Perkins BlufiF (Williams- 
burg County) to the confluence of Black Mingo (Georgetown County) ; along 
Lynches River from near Catarrh to the railway bridge near McBee (below 
which the Cretaceous is obscured to the mouth of Sparrow Swamp), and from 
the confluence of Sparrow Swamp to the Great Pee Dee River; by the Great 
Pee Dee River from its confluence with White's Creek (Chesterfield County), 
interruptedly to Lower Topsaw Landing (91 miles) ; and by the Waccamaw 
River interruptedly from the North Carolina line to Conway. 

Lower Cretaceous. 

The Lower Hamburg and Upper Hamburg and the Middendorf Phases com- 
prise sands, clays and arkose which arc exposed in the upper three-fourths of 
Aiken County, in the greater part of Lexington Coimty, in the lower part of 
Richland County, in the body of Kershaw County, in the lower part of Lancaster 
County, and in the northerly part of riicstcrfield Coimty. 

Economic Deposits. — China clay, paper stock clay, fire clay. 



88 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

Upper Cretaceous. 

The Black Creek Shale is exposed along Black Creek in Darlington and Flor- 
ence Counties, and along the Pee Dee Valley interruptedly from near Society 
Hill to Jeffries Creek, where it passes under the Burches Ferry marl. Its prob- 
able equivalent extends easterly through Marion County, where it is exposed 
in the bed of the Little Pee Dee tributaries. 

Burches Ferry Marl is exposed in Florence County, south of Jeffries Creek, 
and thence along the Great Pee Dee to Topsaw Landing; it is interruptedly 
exposed along Lynches River from Old Effingham to its confluence with the 
Great Pee Dee; along Black Mingo from Indianfield Church to Black River; 
along Black River from Perkins Bluff to the confluence of Black Mingo ; along 
the Waccamaw from North Carolina to a point near Conway. 

Economic Deposits. — The Black Creek shales represent a fair grade of brick 
material ; the Burches Ferry marl is adapted to agricultural uses. 

CHAPTER III.— TERTIARY PERIOD 

Lower Eocene. Middle Eocene. Upper Eocene. 

Geographic Limits. — Exclusive of the area of the Lower Cretaceous forma- 
tions which constitute an irregular band south of, and co-extensive with, the 
fall line, and exclusive of portions of the Black Creek and Burches Ferry Cre- 
taceous areas, duly noted, the surface of the Coastal Plain is occupied by the 
Tertiary formations; the latter underly a coastal band, and an irregular all- 
pervading superficial mantle, consisting of Pleistocene and recent materials. 

The line delimiting the Tertiary (Eocene) on the north extends from near the 
confluence of Hollow Creek and the Savannah River, in Aiken County, by Beech 
Island, Aiken, Perry, Horseys Bridge (North Fork Edisto River), and Gaston 
to the vicinity of Congaree Bluff (with tongues approximately extending re- 
spectively to Vaucluse, Seivern, Leesville and to the head of Congaree Creek). 
Thence it proceeds down the western scarp of the Congaree River, and the 
embayments of its tributaries to Lang Syne and Warley Hill (with a narrow 
broken belt extending along the western scarp of the Wateree Swamp, and 
capping such prominent elevations as Cooks Mt., as far north as Black Mt.). 

From Warleys Hill the littoral line crosses the Santee River at the mouth of 
Fullers Earth Creek and proceeds thence by Wedgefield to Catchall, whence it 
is largly obscured northeasterly to the eastern division of the Tertiary. Near 
Sumter a second littoral line probably obtained with one branch extending north- 
easterly, and the other southerly to probably surround the Carolina Ridge. 
From Sumter it probably passes slightly east of Cades and curved around the 
Carolina Ridge east of Georgetown, and thence entered the eastern division; 
this, however, is indefinite. 

The line delimiting this division on the north probably proceeds from Catchall 
by Bishopville, thence up the eastern scarp of Lynches River towards Stokes 
Bridge, and thence northeasterly by Society Hill, whence it probably proceeds 
south of Naked Creek to the North Carolina line. 

Physiography and Geognosy. — The Tertiary formations of South Carolina are 
largely composed of bedded sands, shales, marls, phosphate rock, glauconites, 
clays and pebbles. The Tertiary period affords in the variable succssion of 
materials and in the advance and retreat of the shore lines of its successive 
phases, evidences of great oscillations ; sometimes due to regional movements 
in the level of the earth's surface of either secular or sudden character, and 
sometimes possibly to a general secular elevation of the level of the ocean. 

In the western areas of the South Carolina Tertiary the littoral plane of the 
Tertiary period (Lafayette excluded) gradually ascends from the valley lines 
to constitute tongues overlapping the Cretaceous formations (at elevations vary- 
ing from 300 to 530 feet) ; the eastern area of the South Carolina Tertiary was 
not afforded the final amount of elevation which characterized the former, the 
maximum elevation probably does not exceed 400 feet M. L. T. 

The western Tertiary and the eastern Tertiary divisions of the South Caro- 
lina area correspond through a very limited range of phases. The several series 
of thick Eocene marls which characterize the Santee Tertiary are apparently 
entirely rnissing in the eastern area. In the eastern area the sea bottom appears 
not to have been sufficiently depressed during the Eocene to admit waters of 
sufficient depth to form marls ; at the period of maximum Eocene depression 
this division responded to the extent of admitting thin beds of shales and sands. 

As the Eocene period closed, its formations gradually emerged superior to the 



GEOLOGY AXD MINERAL RESOURCES. 89 

level of the sea ; its life forms yielded to the transitional character expressed 
in the Oligocene. 

In the westerly division of the Tertiary a pronounced depression extended 
from the St. Georges anticline westerly, including a large portion of the adja- 
cent Coastal Plain of Georgia. The Oligocene waters pertaining to this area 
first abounded in coral forms now observed in the Kings Creek Silex, which 
were succeeded by a compact marl typically exhibited immediately west of the 
Savannah River in the Brier Creek Zone. Extensive beds of silt which are 
supposed to have been derived from the Mississippi embayment through the 
Suwanee Straits deposited over this depressed area and gave origin to the Com- 
bahee shales, of the Oligocene. Brief interference with silting admitted the 
formation of the Parachucla marls. Resumed silting continued the formation 
of the Parachucla shales. This Parachucla group inclines in its faunal relations 
more to the Miocene than to the Eocene. 

The general depression which inaugurated the Miocene period included both 
the eastern and western areas and afforded their characterizing marls, glau- 
conites. etc. The gradual emergence of the land along the Dorchester Ridge 
advanced the Miocene shore line seaward and afforded successive phases of 
Miocene marl, progressive!}^ increasing in the percentage of modern life forms. 



Lower Eocene. 

Black Mingo Shales. — The Black Mingo formation is exposed along the Black 
River from Brewington Lake in Clarendon County to the mouth of Black Mingo 
Creek, up which it is exposed to a point between Rhems and the General Marion 
Bridge. It comprises laminated shales separated by thin layers of very fine 
micaceous sands, the whole being partly silicified; also a thin layer of marl. 

Economic Deposits. — Fullers Earth. 

The Lower Eocene in the eastern Tertiary division finds no definite expression 
below Dewetts Bluff, above which the probable equivalent of the Lower Eocene 
is, with wide intervals, exhibited near Cains Landing, Mill Creek, at Myers Hill, 
McCorkle Bluff and at Mars Bluff (base excluded) ; along the south side of 
Black Creek it probably returns towards Sumter. 

These beds comprise thin laminated shales interstratified with sands, partly 
indurated and fossiliferous, but not yet definitely discriminated as between the 
Black Mingo and Congaree phases. 



Middle Eocene. 

The upper marginal line of the Middle Eocene in South Carolina conforms 
to the littoral line indicated for the Tertiary. Its tongues, which extend up the 
underlying Cretaceous ridges, attain the approximate limit of the fall line. 

The lower limit of the Middle Eocene, as inferred from the greatly obscured 
line along which it disappears below the valley lines, extends from the vicinity 
of Wadboo Creek (Berkeley County), northerly by Hell Hole Swamp, and 
thence east of Bonneau, whence it curves southwesterly along the Four Plole 
Ridge to a point near Givhams Ferry (whence the Edisto River channel exposes 
a tongue of the Warley Hill marl as far south as Sullivan's Bridge). From the 
point near Givhams Ferry the line probably proceeds westerly by the head 
waters of the Ashepoo River and thence passes north of Fairfax, whence it 
proceeds to the Savannah River near Johnson's Landing in Barnwell County, 
south of the mouth of the Lower Three Runs. 

Congaree Shales. — The Congaree phase exhibits its littoral line in .A.iken 
County along Hollow Creek, near tlie Savannah River, and extends easterly with 
occasional tongues forming tlie shore line indicated for the Tertiary. It is 
delimited on the south by a line extending from tlie mouth of Hollow Creek 
(Aiken County) along Tinkers Creek north of Kennedy's Bluff by Binnaker's 
Bridge (South Fork Edisto River), by Springfield, by Orangeburg, by Jenkins 
Hill, by Warley Hill, and by Fullers Earth Creek. From this point the forma- 
tion apparently constitutes narrow bands whose respective lines around the Caro- 
lina Ridge and by Catchall and Naked Creek probably follow the littoral line 
indicated for the Tertiary in the general description. 

The materials consist of unconsolidated conglomerates, shales, silicified arkose, 
chalcedony, bubostone and altered glauconites. 

Economic Deposits. — Fuller's earth, marl. 



90 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

Warley Hill Phase. — The compact harsh gray-green glauconitic marl of this 
phase is extensively exposed in the Edisto drainage area, but more characteristi- 
cally in the Santee area, and quite subordinately in the Savannah area. 

In the Santee area, where it is most instructively exhibited, its littoral line 
extends more northerly than the succeeding Santee marl. In the Savannah area 
the Santee marl overlaps the shore line of the Warley Hill marl. In the Edisto 
area the Warley Hill marl constituted a ridge on which the Santee marl feath- 
ered to nil. 

In the Santee area Warley Hill, on Stouts Creek, affords the type locality, 
south of which the Warley Hill marl is observed near Weeks Landing (on the 
Santee River), at Creston, at Cave Hall, on the scarp of the Santee Swamp and 
at Whaleys Mill on Poplar Creek. 

In the Edisto area it is exposed near Orangeburg, and approximately conform- 
ing to the low water level of Edisto River from Tuckers Ferry (near Branch- 
ville) to Sullivans Bridge (about 14 miles north of Jacksonboro). 

The seeming equivalent of the Warley Hill marl is observed in the Savannah 
area underlying the Santee marl in the bed of Lower Three Runs at Usserys 
Bluff (Barnwell County), also west of Shell Bluff, Georgia. 

The characteristic materials consist of pea-green shales and marls, soft slate- 
colored shales and harsh, hard glauconitic marls. 

Economic Deposits. — Agricultural marls containing potash and phosphoric 
acid, in useful quantities. 

Santee Phase. — The marl of this phase was deposited in two troughs respect- 
ively east and west of the Edisto River ridge, or St. Georges anticline. 

West of the Edisto River the upper limit of the Santee marl extends from 
Shell Bluff on the Savannah River to Kennedys scarp on Tinkers Creek beyond 
which it curves southeasterly to Lemon Swamp near Bamberg; the southerly 
limit extends from the mouth of Lower Three Runs by Usserys Bluff and thence 
is obscured, by the oligocene materials, to Lemon Swamp. 

East of the Edisto River the upper limit of the Santee marl extends fron-. 
Jenkins Hill at the head of Lime Creek successively by Bell Broughton (near 
Creston), Cave Hall and Whaleys Mill (Poplar Creek), to Pinckneys Landin-^ 
on the Santee River ; east of which a small area extends along Potato Creek 
southerly. From Pinckneys Landing this marl is interruptedly exposed along 
the west bank of the Santee River to the vicinity of Eutaw Springs, notably in 
high bluffs at Tates Landing and Vance's Ferry. Near the mouth of Eutaw 
Creek the littoral line passes to the east of the Santee River and is largely 
obscured as far as Wittee Lake, where it is again prominently exposed. 

The materials of the Santee phase consist of high grade marls of a yellow- 
white color and compact texture. 

Economic Deposits. — Marl adapted to the manufacture of lime and hydraulic 
cement ; agricultural marl. 

Barntuell Phase.- — The littoral line of the Barnwell phase irregularly overlaps 
the upper margin of the Santee marls, which extend from Shell Bluff easterly 
by Tinkers Creek, Orangeburg, Keitt Ravine and thence southerly along the 
eastern ridge of the Santee River; along some ridges this littoral line extends 
almost to the fall line. 

The area along the Savannah River extends southerly to Johnson's Landing, 
where it passes under the King's Creek Silex, which near Cohens Bluff passes 
under the Brier Creek marl (explored on the Georgia side along Brier Creek 
by Lyell and by Vaughn). From Johnson's Landing the line of the southerly 
exposures of this formation passes near Fairfax, and thence probably curves, 
in the obscurity of surface sands, towards Scotchmans Bluff; but it has been 
conclusively discriminated nowhere near the St. Georges anticline south of 
Orangeburg. 

The materials consist of silicified shells, and decomposed glauconitic sands, 
partly indurated to sandstone. 

Upper Eocene. 

Mt. Hope Phase. — Overlying the Santee marls the Mt. Hope marl is exposed 
along a narrow belt extending from Eutaw Springs by Pond Bluff and Mt. Hope 
(on the Santee River to a point on the Santee Canal near Pooshee. It consists 
of a matted mass of the spines of echini, fragments of corals, and a few oyster 
and other shells (80 to 90 per cent, carbonate of lime). 

AsJiley-Cooper Phase. — The line which delimits the exposure of the Cooper 
marls probably starts near the head of Owendaw Creek in the eastern part of 
Charleston County and proceeds northerly by Hell Hole Swamp and north of 
Bonneau. where it curves and proceeds along the Four Hole Ridge to the Edisto 
River. From the Edisto River the margin of the Cooper phase is obscured by 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 91 

sands, loams and Oligocene shales. Its southwesterly limit, along which it 
passes under the Oligocene, is not susceptible of sharply drawn discrimination, 
but it appears to pass from Givhams Ferry southwesterly to the head of Che- 
chessy Creek (middle branch of Ashepoo River), beyond which it passes below 
the level of tide, which also affords the approximate southwest limit. The south- 
erly limit of exposure of the Cooper River marl is generally obscured by sands, 
and by Miocene marls, and by the overlapping margin of the Ashley marl. The 
easterly marginal line of the Ashley marl probably extends along the westerly 
slope of the dividing line between the drainage systems of the Cooper and Ashley 
Rivers. This marl extends along the Ashley River from Bees Ferry to Schultzes 
Lake. From the Ashley River it passes southwesterly under the Miocene and 
Oligocene formations. The upper portion of the Ashley-Cooper marls exhibits 
suggestive Oligocene aspects. 

The materials consist of high grade marls, the Ashley or upper portion of 
which is high in phosphoric acid (15 per cent, calcic phosphate). 

Economic Deposits. — Marls for the manufacture of lime and hydraulic cement ; 
agricultural marls. 

CHAPTER IV.— OLIGOCENE 

King's Creek Silex ; Brier Creek Phase; Combahee Phase; Parachucla 

Phase. 

Along the Savannah Rive*- this formation is interruptedly exposed, chiefly on 
the Georgia banks, from Johnson's Landing (S. C), near the mouth of Lower 
Three Runs (S. C), to a point north of Purysburg (S. C). Proceeding east- 
erly from the Savannah River this formation passes under the sands and clays 
(as exhibited by borings), and again in part appears along the banks of the 
Big Salkehatchie River near the Barnwell line (formation extends down river 
to tide level) ; it thence extends to the Edisto River below Raysors Bridge, and 
thence perhaps within the narrow confines of the strait which extended north- 
easterly. 

The southeasterly and southerly line of delimitation extends, greatly obscured, 
from below Raysors Bridge southerly along the Walterboro ridge, and beyond 
Ashepoo Ferry; below which the tide level delimits it at Huspa Creek Bridge 
(near Sheldon) and at Dawsons Landing (Coosawhatchie River), beyond which 
it proceeds to a point north of Purysburg (Savannah River) ; and thence to 
Porters Landing, where the typical Parachucla beds are observed. 

The materials comprise King's Creek Silex or silicified marls, Brier Creek 
marls, lower Combahee shales, Parachucla marls and Parachucla shales. 

Economic Deposits. — Shales and marls. 

CHAPTER v.— MIOCENE 

Marks Head Phase; Edisto Phase; Salkehatchie Phase (?); Goose Creek 
Phase; Pee Dee Phase; Waccamaw Phase (Mid- Pliocene). 

Bounded on the north by a line proceeding from Hudson's Ferry (Savannah 
River), successively by Raysor's Bridge (Edisto River), Mt. Hope (Santee 
River), Mayesville (Black River), Sparrow Swamp (Lynches River), Darling- 
ton (Black Creek), Hodges Mill (Little Pee Dee), and thence by Little River 
to the Atlantic Ocean. 

The southerly line shows near tide level at the mouth of Little River, and 
along the Waccamaw River the Mio-Pliocene extends from the State line to 
Nixon's Landing; a gap thence prevails to the Pee Dee River, near Allison's 
Ferry, west of which the delimiting line extends successively by Evans Bluff 
on the Black River, by the head of the Sampit River, along the Wando River, 
up Goose Creek to Yeaman Hall, across the Charleston Neck by the Cohen 
place to Accabee Flats on the Ashley River, thence along the Stono River from 
Wappoo Cut to Cherokee Flats, whence it curves obscured to the Edisto River 
(at The Dividers) ; and thence above Ashepoo Ferry it curves southerly by 
Morgan Island, and thence westerly by Port Royal to Broad River, where it 
disappears under the ocean. The marls which capped the Parachucla shales 
near Porter's Landing afford the only observed exposure of the Miocene imme- 
diately west of this area. 

Marks Head Phase. — The line. n<^signcd to the assumed Dorchester Strait, 
which extends from Hudson's Landing (above Marks Head, on the S.nv.iimah 



92 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

River), by Raysor's Bridge, and thence below Mt. Hope (Santee River), north- 
easterly by Muldrows, by Sparrow Swamp, by Darlington, and thence easterly 
by Mullins to the Atlantic Ocean, constitutes the northerly limit of the Miocene ; 
and the zone along which the Marks Head (Miocene) soft blue marls probably 
extend with greatly broken continuity. 

Edisto jP/m^^.— Proceeding from the Dorchester Strait southeasterly over the 
Dorchester Ridge and the upper (ecphora) marls, the Edisto phase is observed 
in compact yellow-white beds (very high in the content of Calcium Carbonate), 
which rarely exceed the thickness of three feet. This is the phase of the Mio- 
cene which has been phosphatized where favorably situated for the accumulation 
of the Salkehatchie oozes. This Edisto phase appears circumscribed in the 
western Tertiary by a line extending from the mouth of the Wando River by 
Charleston, Church Flats, Port Royal, Parachucla, Givhams Ferry, Bacon's 
Bridge and thence back to the head of the Wando River. In the eastern division 
of the Tertiary the sea waves, along Myrtle Beech, cast upon the shores frag- 
ments of the equivalent marl, from the bed of the present ocean. 

Salkehatchie Phase.— Duriug a phase of gradual land elevation, which probably 
immediately succeeded the Edisto phase (but as yet with the admitted possi- 
bilities of much later origin), the Salkehatchie phase, which comprised a deposit 
of phosphatic sediments, oozes and glauconites with numerous vertebrate re- 
mains, extended over the shoal areas of the Edisto (ecphora Miocene) marls, 
and contributed to their conversion into the great economic beds of phosphate 
rock. These deposits also extended over the Oligocene shales along the Salke- 
hatchie and Combahee Rivers, and over the Ashley-Cooper marls along the 
upper drainage area of the Ashley and Cooper Rivers. 

Goose Creek Phase.— During the Miocene time the gulf waters coursing 
through the Florida archipelago scoured the coast of Carolina along a shore 
line, a portion of which extended north of the present sites of the Wadmalaw 
and Stono Rivers to the Cherokee Mines and thence south of Bees Ferry (on 
the Ashley River), by Yeaman Hall (Goose Creek), and thence along the 
Cooper River to the Grove, whence it proceeded easterly along the Wando River 
above Cainhoy. Along this shore line the marl was deeply incised to a com- 
paratively abrupt escarpment along a portion of which the thin marl pertaining 
to the Goose Creek phase was more prominently deposited. This marl also 
formed along the southwesterly margin of the embayment of the eastern Ter- 
tiary division, where it was succeeded by the Pee Dee phase, which extended over 
depressed areas as far north as Sparrow Swamp. 

In the eastern Tertiary division the Goose Creek type of marl interruptedly 
appears along the Pee Dee River from Bostick to Allison's Landing underlying 
the Pee Dee marl. 

Pee Dee Phase (Lower). — Probably confined to the Pee Dee area prominently 
exposed along the westerly bank of the Great Pee Dee River from Myers Land- 
ing to Allisons Ferry; subordinately along Lynches River. Exhibited in two 
layers; the lower layer comprises three feet of a tough, porous yellow marl con- 
sisting of a matted mass of shells of chama, congregata, area, incile, etc.; the 
upper layer comprises about six feet of a semi-crystalline yellow-white marl, 
including numerous shells of the pecten eboreus, etc. 

Pee Dee Phase (Upper) extends chiefly along the Dorchester Strait and com- 
phises numerous species of the latest miocene shells in a sticky blue matrix. 

Waccamaw Phase. — With the close of the Miocene the Carolina Ridge emerged 
and advanced the shore line of the eastern division of the Tertiary, to the line 
of Waccamaw River. 

This final calcareous phase through which the Miocene yielded to the Pliocene 
is exhibited along the Waccamaw River and consists of a mass of shells im- 
bedded in granular yellow marl with an aggregate thickness of 12 feet, which 
rests on the Cretaceous marl (Burches Ferry Phase). 

It is apparently a transition phase comprising many of the characteristic forms 
of both the Miocene and Pliocene. 

CHAPTER VI.— PLEISTOCENE 

Fresh Water. Marine. 

Cheraw (Lafayette) Phase. Wadmalaw Shell Marl. 

Lafayette Sands. Bohicket Makl Sands. 

Lafayette Cobbles. Accabee Gravels. 
Hampton Clays. 
Ten Mile Sands. 

The formation designated the Cheraw Cobbles, the equivalent of the Lafayette, 
has been variously assigned to the Pliocene and to the Pleistocene. It has 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 93 

apparently resulted from vast fresh-water floods which extended over a great 
flat, constituted by the median three-fifths of the Coastal Plain, the character 
of whose waters excluded life forms from its deposits. These waters also 
extended up the greater valleys to the foot of the Blue Ridge Mountains. 

The inauguration of the great floods is marked in favored places by the sur- 
vival of enormous deposits of more or less stratified sands, which followed the 
shore line as it retreated inland ; then appear the cobbles and pel^bles, which 
were deposited high on the scarps of the inclosing ridges of the Savannah, the 
Congaree, the Wateree and the Great Pee Dee Rivers, along their courses from 
the mountains to and beyond the fall line. But let it be carefully observed that 
there are no marginal beds of cobbles along either the Edisto or Black Rivers, 
whose waters originated in the Coastal Plain. 

Coarse sands, Lafayette cobbles and the Lafayette red sands, and then the 
mottled red and white and yellow clays, all successively followed the extension 
of the shore line up the Coastal Plain ridges which confined the flood streams. 

In the quiet waters, remote from the inner or fresh-water shore line, the 
fine argillaceous silts deposited to form the white clays of the Hampton type, 
in favored localities, which constituted a broken belt extending from Garnet 
by Walterboro, by Summerville and thence easterly. While in the western area 
the Hampton clays occur chiefly along a high ridge (60 to 100 feet M. L. T.) 
the eastern area affords somewhat similar matter, but as third bottoms, and in 
depressed basins on the plateaus, at approximately corresponding elevations. 

Closely identified with the white clay a more extensive mantle of clay, mot- 
tled in highly contrasting pink, red, white and yellow designs, is substantially 
co-extensive with the Lafayette series south of the littoral line; it roughly con- 
forms to the pre-established topographic irregularities. Its extent may be 
observed from a point near Jamisons in Orangeburg County to Ladsons in Berke- 
ley County, a distance of approximately 69 miles. At this stage it is probable 
that the Marine Pleistocene beds were forming along the ocean beaches. 

While these white clays accumulated in good bodies in elevated spots, along 
a favored zone, the argillaceous silts which were deposited more southerly appear 
in places interbedded in thin seams with fine vari-colored sands, aggregating 
from 20 to 40 feet in thickness. This appears to have been associated with the 
formation of an outer reef, barrier, or ridge, designated the Ten Mile sands, 
on the seaward slope of which the Marine Pleistocene deposited. The Ten 
Mile sands include a capping of reddish loam, which probably represented the 
terminal expression of the Hampton red clays. Very fine grained pure white 
eolean sands accumulated over the Ten Mile sands. 

Economic Deposits. — The Fresh Water Pleistocene beds afford : Brick clays, 
clays for plating sand roadbeds, cobbles, cement gravel, sands adapted to the 
manufacture of sand-brick. 

MARINE PLEISTOCENE. 

Wadmalaw Shell-Marl. Bohicket Marl Sand. Accabee Gravels. 

Wadtnalaw Shell-Marl. — Immediately overlying the Edisto marl (upper 
ecphora Miocene), which, in the localities where phosphati/^ed, constitutes the 
great economic body of phosphate rock, there occurs a bed of loosely matted 
post-Pliocene shells varying from nil to four feet in thickness. This phase is 
exhibited south of Bees Ferry, at the Faber place, and along the northerly shore 
of the Stono and Wadmalaw inland waterway, at the Cherokee, Bolton and 
St. Andrews phosphate mines, and at the base of Simmons BluflF; also in 
sundry depressions on Edisto Island. 

Economic Deposits. — Shell beds afford good source of supply for agricultural 
marl. 

Bohicket Marl Sand. — Immediately overlying the Wadmalaw marls and ex- 
tending over the Wadmalaw shell-marl into which it erades. there occurs a bed 
of exceedingly fine grained sands about five feet thick. However, it overlaps 
the typical Wadmalaw shell-marl and extends over a great portion of the phos- 
phate rock area as far north as Ten Mile Hill. 

The color is rendered gray-green and yellow-red, probably by fine glauconitic 
inclusions, portions of which have been more or less weathered with the effect 
of rendering the mass semi-plastic with residual clay; the iron has in part leached 
out, and cemented, to "hard pan," a thin portion of the material immediately 
above the phosphate rock. 

Accahee Gravels. — Resting on the Bohicket marl sands a bed of coarse gravel 
(^ inch diameter) occurs, and embraces rounded lumps of phosphate rnck and 
numerous quartz pebbles (2") ; its littoral line overlaps, and extends more 



94 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



northerly than, the Bohicket marl-sand. Along its northerly exposures it attains 
the elevation of i6 feet (M. L. T.). This bed, which is generally missing 
attains in places the thickness of four feet; it affords the irregular seam ot 
phosphate rock known to the miners as "flying rock." 

Economic Deposits.— Affords in places limited supplies of phosphate rock. 



DIVISION III.— ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL 

PART I.— STRUCTURAL MATERIALS 



GRANITES. 
GRANITOID ROCKS. 



Gneiss. 

Gneissoid Slates. 



Granite. 
Granite-Gneiss. 

South Carolina exhibits bodies of granitoid rocks respectively comprising 
Biotite Granite, Muscovite Granite, Augite Granite, Protogene Granite, Horn- 
blende Granite, Syenite and the various intermediate forms which depend upon 
various combinations of the characterizing accessory minerals above indicated. 




U. S. government dry dock AT NAVAL STATION AT CHARLESTON, 
CONSTRUCTED OF WINNSBORO GRANITE. 



The prevailing prejudice against the term gneiss exacts brief notice in con- 
nection with the usage of the word in this report. The gneisses in the respect 
of both chemical and essential mineral composition are similar to the granites 
and they are similarly qualified, in part, by the corresponding characterizing 
accessory minerals; thus we may have biotite gneiss, muscovite gneiss, musco- 
vite-bearing biotite gneiss, hornblende gneiss, protogene gneiss, etc. The dis- 
tinction between gneiss and granite is in the main structural or petrographic ; 
the minerals in the gneissoid rocks exhibit a parallel or dimensional arrange- 
ment, frequently so obscured as to require the microscope for discrimination. 
In many instances the distinction, otherwise obscure, may be afforded by the 
bedded character which distinguishes gneissoids of sedimentary origin which 
occur in stratified layers. But, while the granites of intrusive origin were all 
massive and unstratified, metamorphic action has long affected portions of the 
older granites and thereby caused a parallelism in the arrangement of the com- 
ponent minerals, which gives origin to the term granite-gneiss as employed in 
this report. Frequently the same bed will exhibit both granite-gneiss and typical 
granite structure, by reason of differential metamorphic action. 

In South Carolina the granites rank first, the granite-gneisses second, and the 
stratified gneisses third, in the scale of superiority exacted by the industrial arts; 
in estimating the worth of a bed of stone the fact that granite-gneiss consti- 
tutes the surface rock does not necessarily imply that other available parts of 
the same bed may not represent a superior granite. 

The oldest granitoid rocks of prominence are successively exhibited in the 
Anderson-Spartanburg, Chatooga, Tunnell Hill, Saluda and Tyger Zones. Enor- 
mous bodies of granite-gneisses and granites occur in the Saluda Zone. 

The younger granites, which were extruded from the earth's interior, and in 
many instances effused over the previously prevailing rock of the country, have 
not been subjected to the metamorphosing influences which affected the older 



96 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



granites. They comprise the great commercial beds of South Carolina granite 
which are so conspicuously developed in the Abbeville- York Zone, notably near 
Winnsboro. 




granite quarry opposite columbia. 

List of Granite Quarries Regularly Operated. 

Survey 
No. Quarry. Address. 

1635 Beverly Quarry Beverly, S. C. 

2250 Edgefield Quarry Edgefield, S. C. 

5265 High Point Quarry High Point, S. C. 

5574 Leitzsey Quarry Newberry, S. C. 

5650 Entrekin Quarry Graycourt, S. C. 

6597 Lipscomb Quarry Columbia, S. C. 

6688 Winnsboro Granite Co. Quarry Rockton, S. C. 

6740 Winnsboro Granite Co. Quarry Rockton, S. C. 

7355 Excelsior Granite Co. Quarry Heath Springs, S. C. 



1096 
1306 
1335 
1872 

5195 
5203 
5482 
6075 
6078 
6520 



List of Granite Quarries Intermittently Operated. 

Westminster Quarry Westminster, S. C. 

Shelor Quarry Walhalla, S. C. 

Pendleton Quarry Pendleton, S. C. 

Bordeaux Quarry Bordeaux, S. C. 

Benjamin Quarry Quarry, S. C. 

Bauman Quarry Greenville, S. C. 

Bates Quarry Batesburg, S. C. 

Keystone Quarry Spartanburg, S. C. 

Johnson Quarry Pacolet, S. C. 

Blairs Quarry Blairs, S. C. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 97 

Survey 
No. Quarry. Address. 

6530 Strothers Quarry Strothers, S. C. 

6605 Bowling Green Quarry Bowling Green, S. C 

6615 Whitesides Quarry Yorkville, S. C. 

6626 Happerfield Quarry Yorkville, S. C. 

6690 Leiper Davis Quarry Columbia. S. C. 

7645 Oro Quarry Chesterfield, S. C. 

For descriptions of the individual properties see "A Catalogue of the Mineral 
Localities of South Carolina." 

LIMESTONE-DOLOMITE-MARBLE. 

Beds of these stones occur in the Chauga, Poor Mountain and Cherokee Zones. 

The Chauga Zone affords strata of blue limestone separated by black slates 
(Sur. Nos. 1065, 1070, 1410) ; quarried to supply lime prior to 1850; no quarries 
are in operation. 

The Poor Mountain Zone exhibits a bed of very white coarse grained dolo- 
mitic marble, attaining in some places the thickness of 30 feet (Sur. Nos. 1300, 

1302, 1425). . . ,. . -^ J 

The Cherokee Zone presents successive beds of blue limestone interstratined 

with hornblende slates (Sur. Nos. 6223, 6335), and a more recent bed of thick 

blue limestone capped with a white dolomitic marble (Sur. No. 6129). 

In the upper blue stone dynamo-metamorphism has constrained a dimensional 

arrangement of the particles of limestone, which structure determines planes of 

rift parallel to the bedding. 

The upper phase (marble) of this zone apparently extends interruptedly from 

Cherokee County through Union and Laurens Counties (Sur. Nos. 5675, 5240, 

5189, 5187). . ... 

In Cherokee County the limestone has been quarried to a depth of 75 feet at 
the quarry of the Limestone Springs Lime Works (Sur. No. 6129), in connec- 
tion with which four large continuous kilns are operated with an annual output 
of approximately 100,000 barrels of lime. 

Two small kilns are intermittently operated north of Blacksburg, respectively 
at the Ettres (Sur. No. 6410) and the Hardin (Sur. No. 6413)) quarries. For 
descriptions of tlie individual properties see "A Catalogue of the Mineral Local- 
ities of South Carolina." 

MARBLE. 

Uses of Marble {and Limestone) . 

Monumental, statuary, general decorative and refined structural work ; manu- 
facture of lime, and hydraulic cements; manufacture of carbonic acid gas; whit- 
ing; flux in various smelting processes; agricultural adjunct; road metal. 

SLATES, SCHISTS, "SHALES." 

Geographic Limits. — A broad belt of "clay slates," schists, "shales," etc., 
extends along the fall line from the North Carolina line (near the point of 
entrance of the Pee Dee River) to the Savannah River above North Augusta. 
It comprises portions of Chesterfield, lower Lancaster, upper Kershaw, lower 
Fairfield, upper Richland, upper Lexington, lower Saluda, Edgefield and upper 
Aiken counties. The average width of this Edgefield-Chesterfield Zone is ap- 
proximately 18 miles. Granite and other igneous intrusions have obliterated the 
slates in many parts of this area, while some other parts have been largely 
obscured by the overlapping Coastal Plain sands. 

Good bodies of these slates, of value to the brick industry, are exposed in 
Chesterfield County along the scarps of Little Westfield Creek (near the Che- 
raw-Hamlet Railway), also near Chesterfield, near Ruby, and near the Brewer 
Gold Mine; in Lancaster County near the Haile Gold Mine; in Fairfield County 
along Sawneys Creek ; in Kershaw County along Rice Creek ; in Richland 
County along Crane Creek, along Gill's Creek and along the Broad River eastern 
scarp; in Lexington County along the Dutch Fork; in Saluda County near the 
Culbreath Mine; in Edgefield County along Turkey Creek and Stevens Creek, 
notably near Plum Branch, and near the confluence of the Savannah River. 

7— H. B. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 99 

Physiography and Geognosy. — The Edgefield-Chesterfield slates do not repre- 
sent true shales such as are typified by the sedimentary beds of the Carbonifer- 
ous, which are so extensively utilized in the manufacture of paving materials. 
Their origin involved an inverted process. The true Carboniferous shales rep- 
resent sediments deposited by large bodies of water and subsequently partly 
indurated by heat and pressure. The Edgefield-Chesterfield slates, on the other 
hand, represent a vast mass of igneous porphyries, of very much greater age, 
which have been subjected to strains which have produced the slaty cleavage 
which characterizes these rocks ; they still retain some of the original igneous 
forms of mineral. 

This material is dark gray in color, breaks in rhomboidal blocks, and is mod- 
erately hard. See analyses Sur. Nos. 7527, 75So(a) and 7S5o(b). It burns to a 
gray-ialack vitreous body (between 1,800° and 2,000° F.), which is very dense 
and smooth. 

Meta-Chemic changes near the surface have modified the composition of many 
of the slates and enabled them to incorporate water of crystallization, and 
induced a softer physical condition, which has rendered them more subject to 
the disintegrating effects of weathering forces. The result of these changes has 
afforded a material which in chemical composition is for practical purposes sim- 
ilar to shales. A prominent belt of such material comprises pale, dirty green 
slates occasionally observed weathered to brown, red and yellow colors. (See 
Table of Analyses of Edgefield-Chesterfield Slates, Sur. Nos. 2280, 7665, 7735)- 
These shales afford : Specific gravity 2.8, plasticity 20 to 30, tensile strength 30 
to 40 pounds. They burn to a dense vitrified body at a temperature varying, 
with the character of the slate, at from 1,900° to 2,100° F. 

Within each side of the Edgefield-Chesterfield Zone occurs a marginal body 
of highly siliceous matter, which probably represents volcanic tuffs, now altered 
to a soft unctuous mass of extremely fine texture. Tongues of this material 
invade the main body of the slates. (See Table of Analyses of Edgefield-Ches- 
terfield Slates, Sur. No. 7550.) 

Economic. — The slates of the Edgefield-Chesterfield Zone afford some fair 
grades of flagstone, and some fairly good beds of roofing slate ; the latter in 
Fairfield County, near the Lamar Mine, and in Edgefield County along Stevens 
Creek. 

The greatest value of these slates is recognized in the excellence of the mate- 
rial which they offer for vitrified wares, such as paving brick, sewer-pipe, etc. 
In many places, however, disseminated grains of pyrite destroy the value of 
these slates. 

SEWER-PIPE OR VITRIFIED BRICK MATERIALS. 

The following are the approximate limits of the constituents required of these 
clays, as determined by analyses of the materials successfully used in the manu- 
facture of vitrified wares : 

Clay base — 45 to 60 per cent., with an average 52 per cent. 

Quartz impurities — 20 to 45 per cent., with an average 13 per cent. 

Fluxing impurities — 8 to 20 per cent., with an average 13 per cent. 

It is observed that they are lower in the scale of fusibility than the potter's 
clays, between which and the tile or brick clays they constitute a connecting 
link. The clay body for the required wares has been heretofore derived from 
shales or from recent deposits of alluvial pipe clays, or, more ordinarily, from 
a mixture of the two. The shales ordinarily employed approximately conform 
to the limits above indicated. 

The principal difficulty restricting the use of shales alone is found in the 
expenditure of power necessary to reduce them to such a degree of fineness as 
develops the proper plasticity, where the minimum tensile strength should exceed 
fifty pounds; it has been found more expedient to incorporate with tlie coarse 
ground shale a plastic clay, of high tensile strength. A very serious difficulty 
results from the small margin between the points of vitrification and viscosity, 
endangering over-burning to the prejudice of strength, shape and color. There 
should be a margin of 145° F., or more, between these points. This, however, 
is rarely realized, and it becomes necessary to mix with these shales a clay of 
a different degree of fusibility, such as a high grade pipe clay or a fire clay, so 
as to increase this margin. Clays thus required to be mixed with shales arc 
approximately represented within the following limits of composition : 

Clay base 40 to 65 per cent. 

Quartz impurities 20 to 55 per cent. 

Fluxing impurities 4 to 10 per cent. 




MONOLITH COLUMNS — 22 TONS EACH. SOUTH CAROLINA GRANITE. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. loi 

The combined tensile strength consistent with best practice should not be less 
than fifty pounds to the square inch, although some clays are worked of inferior 
strength. 

The dry shale is first ground in a dry pan machine to a degree of fineness 
varying from 1-16- to 3-32-inch mesh. After screening it is mixed with clay in 
the proportion of about 3 to i (varying with character of clay, etc.), and the 
mixture is tempered in a horizontal pugging mill ; whence it passes through the 
usual process of molding, repressing and drying; the burning is ordinarily 
efifected in a down-draft kiln at temperatures varying with the requirements of 
the material from 1,700° F. to 2,000° F. 

Vitrified wares are sometimes salt glazed ; the clays in such cases should have 
sufficient silica to ensure uniform combination over the entire surface, with the 
sodium of common salt. 

It is to be noted that shales are accredited with much larger proportions of 
fluxing impurities than they respond to, in their fusion points. Iron oxide ordi- 
narily constitutes exceeding half of these impurities, and it possibly occurs in 
the form of fine, hard grains of magnetite, or hematite, which are probably not 
readily affected by the solvent action of slightly vitrified slags. Grains of iron 
sulphide are objectionable by reason of the blistering action of the sulphuric 
anhydride and sulphurous acid formed at higher temperatures and through the 
formation of blotches incident to the action of the vitreous matrix on the porous 
oxides at these temperatures. The sulphates of the alkaline earths are also 
objectionable on account of their blistering effects at high temperatures, the 
sulphuric anhydride becoming disassociated. 

Properly vitrified wares should not absorb more than two per cent, of their 
weight in water, after an immersion of twenty-four hours, as otherwise they 
become subject to the dangers of freezing. They should furthermore be able 
to resist a crushing strain of not less than eight thousand pounds to the square 
inch, in order to insure proper toughness and strength. A brick vitrified to a 
glassy texture, or with a glazed surface, is objected to as a paving brick, by 
reason of its slippery surface. The extreme loss of weight by the attrition of 
the rattling test should not exceed twelve per cent. 

COPIES OF ANALYSES (OHIO GEOL. SURVEY, VOL. VII, P. I33). 

Shales and Shale-Clay Mixtures used in the manufacture of paving materials 
in Ohio : 

1234 

Shale. Shale and Shale. Shale and 

Elements. Clay Mixture. Clay Mixt 

Lime .29 .43 .44 .62 

Magnesia 1.22 ."j"] 1.57 .98 

Alumina 21.06 24.34 20.89 22.47 

Oxide of Iron 7.54 6. 11 5.78 5.63 

Soda 39 .09 .34 .42 

Potash 3.27 3.00 4.68 3.08 

Silica 57.45 55.60 58.38 58.20 

Water (comb) 5.90 6.75 7.53 6.15 

Moisture 1.90 2.65 1.65 

Total 99.02 99.74 99.61 99.20 

No. I — Shale from the Ohio Paving Company, Columbus, Ohio, mined at 
Darlington, Ohio, on Lower Kittanning Horizon. Average sample (Lord, 
Chemist). 

No. 2 — Shale and Fire Clay Mixture, from the A. O. Jones Company, Zanes- 
ville, from the Kittanning Horizon. (Lord, Chemist.) 

No. 3 — Shales from Columbus Sewer Pipe Company, from Huron Shale Hori- 
zon. Average sample. (Macpherson, Chemist.) 

No. 4 — Shales and Fire Clays mixed, from the T. B. Townsend Brick Com- 
pany, Zanesville. Freeport Shales and Kittanning. Fire Clays. (Lord, Chemist.) 

QUARTZ. 

Some of the veins of barren quartz which are variably distributed throughout 
the crystalline area present very large bodies of pure silica. In some cases these 
quartz bodies constitute local phases of pegmatite intrusions, whose extension» 



102 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

vary through micaceous to feldspathic; others represent deposits from solution, 

segregations, etc. o i j /-.u -r 

Large veins of quartz occur at many locahties, notably near Saluda Old iown 

(Sur. No. 5440) ; Ridgeway (Sur. No. 6755) ; Kings Creek (Sur. No. 6463). 

Uses rf Quartz. , , , . j ■ ,.1, 

Reduced to a fine state of subdivision, pure quartz, or tlint, is used in the 

manufacture of pottery and glass; also as a low grade abrasive and polishing 

material. Lump quartz is used as a packing for Glover Acid Towers. 

ROAD BUILDING MATERIALS 

Road-Bed Material — Road-Dressing Material. 

The materials in South Carolina which are suited for road metal consist of 
trap, granite, gneiss, limestone, slate, novaculite (chert), cobblestones and grav- 
els; Tertiary clays and marls afford valuable cements for plating sand roads. 
Trap and Other Igneoits Dikes. , . , j- . 

The great toughness of these rocks, which renders them valuable for road 
metal, imposes such high cost in quarrying and crushing as to have prohibited 
their general use. 

The highly basic traps or amphibolites are subject to the objection of weath- 
ering more readily than the more siliceous diorites. 

These rocks occur most extensively distributed through the Abbeville- York 
Zone and subordinately in all other zones of the Crystalline area. 
Granite and Gneiss. 

Granite and gneiss constitute the most generally distributed and one of the 
best roadbed materials in the Crystalline area. The varieties containing the 
greater amounts of quartz (free silica) generally constitute the better road 
metal, the highly feldspathic and micaceous varieties being more subject to 
weathering influences. Granites and gneisses suitable for road material occur 
more or less abundantly exposed by the streams north of the Edgefield-Chester- 
field Zone, and subordinately in the Vaucluse Zone. (See Granite Division.) 
Limestone. 

This rock constituted the "pioneer" material in the "macadamizing" of roads. 
The ease with which it is reduced to a dust which forms a sticky mud has 
largely caused its displacement as a top dressing; however, it constitutes fine 
material for a roadbed, but should be top dressed with chert. 

Limestone occurs in Oconee, Cherokee, Union and Laurens Counties. (See 
Limestone Division.) 
Slates and Shales. 

The more siliceous and sandy shales or slates constitute a very fair grade of 
road metal ; they pack hard and wear well. On the other hand, the varieties 
high in alumina weather to a clayey mass; they are best adapted to sand roads. 

Slates constitute the main body of the Edgefield-Chesterfield Zone, which 
extends from the Savannah River to the North Carolina line, where the Pee Dee 
River enters South Carolina. These slates border the "Sand Hill" region, along 
which they could be utilized to great advantage. 
Novaculite — "Chert." 

Bodies of novaculite consisting of quartz and feldspar afford considerable 
variation in the proportion of these minerals. The highly siliceous varieties 
represent one of the best roadbed and road-dressing materials observed in South 
Carolina ; they afford compact, hard roadways comparatively free from dust and 
mud. The highly feldspathic varieties respond more freely to weathering influ- 
ences with the attendant disadvantages of dust or mud. 

The novaculites constitute a very extensive series of rocks throughout the 
Abbeville- York Zone; the greater number of observed exposures represent the 
more highly feldspathic varieties. 

COBBLESTONE AND CEMENT GRAVELS. 

The Lafayette cobbles and pebbles afford respectively the best roadbed and 
road-dressing materials available in this State. They constitute a marginal 
fringe to the scarps of the greater streams in the Crystalline area, and appear 
in beds covering broad plateaus where these streams penetrate the coastal plain. 
The latter area affords beds of great economic importance on the high plateaus 
of the Pee Dee near Cheraw ; along the scarp delimiting the basin at the con- 
fluence of the Wateree and Congaree rivers, notably along the line of the Gar- 
ners Ferry road from Columbia ; along the high ridge, on the east of the Savan- 
nah River, interruptedly from North Augusta to Luray. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 103 

The cement gravels, which represent Lafayette pebbles which were scoured 
down from the high scarps and deposited with clay in the valleys, during the 
Columbia phase, occur as a capping to the "second bottoms" of the Savannah 
River near Beach Island, and thence interruptedly to the mouth of Lower Three 
Runs ; they also appear in beds of economic importance immediately south of 
Camden. 

For roads across the sands and sandy-loams of the coastal plain, Lafayette, 
Eocene, or Pleistocene clays are mixed with sands in the proportion of 6 to 4 
and applied in a layer about ten inches thick; the clays high in the content of 
iron afford the best results. The soft upper Eocene marls which abound in 
Charleston and Berkeley counties also constitute an excellent binding material 
for sand roads. 

The very hard crystalline marl of the Mt. Hope phase exposed along the 
Santee River should afford a good grade of metal for roadbeds. 

SAND. 
Sand- Brick Sand; Molding Sand; Building Sand. 

Crystalline Area. — In the Crystalline area important deposits of sand are found 
mainly in the beds of streams, and along such associate flats as are subject to 
overflow by storm currents ; these sands are suitable for the manufacture of 
sand brick, and for mixing mortar and cement. 

Some extensive bodies of fine grained sand represent disintegrated sericite 
schists and itacolumites ; some bodies of this material afford a good molding 
sand. This material occurs in the Cherokee Zone; along the upper part of the 
Abbeville- York Zone; along the Edgefield-Chesterfield Zone. 

Analysis : Lime, 0.60 per cent. ; Magnesia, 0.50 per cent. ; Alumina, 5.70 per 
cent. ; Soda and Potash, 0.80 per cent. ; Iron Oxide, 6.80 per cent. ; Silica, 80.00 
per cent. ; Moisture, 0.60 per cent. ; Ignition, 5.00 per cent. ; Total, 100.00 per 
cent. 

PART II.— CRYSTALLINE REGION 

NON-METALLIC GROUP 

SERPENTINE^ SOAPSTONE (sTEATITE). 

These successive products of alteration of magnesian rocks occur variably 
distributed over the crystalline region from the fall line to the mountain-tops, 
wherever the magnesian eruptive rocks have been extruded, and exposed to 
appropriate metamorphic influences. 

A great number of these bodies appear to have resulted from the alteration 
of pyroxenite. In the Chatooga and Saluda Zones alteration of the peridotes 
affords the main occurrences of soapstone, of which some masses have graded 
to chlorite schist. (Sur. No. 1517 and others.) 

The alteration of pyroxenite through amphibolite to serpentine and soapstone 
has afforded the prevailing number of bodies of soapstone, notably in the Abbe- 
ville-York Zone, where extensive masses occur (Sur. No. 1856 and others). In 
many cases the alteration has been largely confined to the superficial parts of 
the rock body ; in others the change has extended deep, and over areas of 
several acres. 

The quarrying of these materials in South Carolina has been confined to 
supplying neighborhood domestic uses. 

Uses of Serpentine, Soapstone, Talc. 

For decorative purposes ; variety denominated "verde antique" is in good 
demand, especially for interior artistic purposes. 

A gray variety is extensively worked into electric switchboards, washtubs, 
sinks, taljle slabs, etc. 

The bulk of this material is ground to a fine pulp and utilized as a sizing 
for worxl-jmlp i)apcrs ; also used in tiie nianufacluic of wall plasters, paint, 
and a special marine paint, for the hulls of vessels, for which it is said to afford 
excellent protection, 'ihe pulp is used as an adulterant in soap. 

The commoner grades of soapstone are used for furnace and stove linings, 
bed-warmers, etc. 

The fine while grades, designated talc, are used in the manufacture of toilet 
powders, shoe powders, slate pencils, crayons, tailors' chalk, gas tips, and as a 
sizing for the finer grades of paper. 



104 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

ASBESTOS. 

This mineral occurs at several localities in the Saluda, Anderson-Spartanburg, 
and Abbeville- York Zones. It appears associated with chlorite schists, talc 
schists, steatite and serpentine, all of which represent alteration products of the 
peridotes, pyroxenite and other magnesian silicates, both foliated and unde- 
formed. 

The asbestos, frequently with the composition of crysotile, extends its bunches 
of crystal fibers from wall to wall of the numerous small fissures (rarely 
exceeding 8 inches in diameter) in the compact magnesian rocks; the separation 
of which in mining imposes burdensome cost. Intense metamorphism in some 
instances has resolved the original magnesian rock to chlorite schist, magnetite, 
and large clustered masses of true asbestos, with lustrous long white fibers. 
(See Iron, Sur. Nos. 6340-6342.) Asbestos (including false) occurs in Pickens, 
Spartanburg, Cherokee, Anderson and Newberry counties. (Sur. Nos. I368(?), 
1522, 1570, 1 6 10, 5430, 5667, 5892.) ... 

In some cases asbestos appears to have resulted frorn metasomatic_ action, in 
others from aqueo-igneous segregation. The metasomatic asbestos veins do not 
appear to extend to great depths. Asbestos is not mined in South Carolina. 

In the undeformed rocks the asbestos is obviously the junior in origin; where 
the asbestos occurs undeformed in rocks that are deformed the asbestos is not 
necessarily junior to the period of deformation, because the forces which created 
foliation probably operated to irregularly crystallize the asbestos, which often 
appears in an intermediate uncrystallized form, which grades to the fibrous 
crystal ; the intermediate amorphous condition of the asbestos probably repre- 
sents the result of aqueo-igneous action prior to the exercise of the forces which 
deformed the associate rock. 

For descriptions of the individual properties see "A Catalogue of the Mineral 
Localities of South Carolina." 

Uses of Asbestos. 

Sectional covering for boilers, steam pipes, hot water pipes and gas engine 
pipes ; packing for steam and gas engines ; lining for furnaces and gas stoves ; 
general heat and electric insulation ; fireproof cloth ; fireproofing for buildings, 
safes and roofing. Improper sizing for silks. In the manufacture of asbestos 
leather and asbestolith. 

BARYTES. 

The occurrence of this mineral appears along the Kings Mountain Range in 
the Abbeville- York Zone, where the rock formations have been greatly foliated 
and more or less deformed. The barytes appears to have been deposited from 
solution in the fissures of hard mica schists, now weathered above the valley 
line to the unctuous hydromica form. 

A sample of good grade of barytes from the vicinity of Rossville in Chester 
County has been examined ; but the character of the deposit is as yet unknown. 

For descriptions of the individual properties see "A Catalogue of the Mineral 
Localities in South Carolina." 

Uses of Barytes. 

Used as a substitute for white lead or zinc oxide in paints ; but frequently 
as an adulterant. 

As a legitimate pigment the best form is "Blanc-fixe" (artificial barium 
sulphate). 

Special pigment known as Lithophone, consisting of barium sulphate, 68 per 
cent.; zinc sulphide, 24.85 per cent.; zinc oxide, 7.28 per cent. 

As an adulterant in putty. 

For sizing paper, and affording undue weight to same. 

Used as an enamel in the ceramic arts ; especially in connection with the 
"jasper-ware." 

To a limited extent in pyrotechny. 

Affords basis of several laboratory reagents. 

MONAZITE. 

Geographic Limits. — While some occurrences of monazite appear in the zones 
northwest and southeast of the Anderson-Spartanburg Zone, the great economic 
monazite belt occurs in the latter. 

The northwesterly limit of this belt extends southwesterly from a point on 
the North Carolina line near the Islandton Ford road ; with a highly irregular 
line it extends south of Greers, south of Roper Mountain, and proceeds thence 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 105 

near and beyond Piedmont southwesterly. The southeasterly limit begins at 
the North Carolina line, near Bovvens River, and extends southwesterly along 
Bowens River Valley to Nesbitts Island, and thence to a point three miles north 
of Gaffney, whence it proceeds successively by Spartanburg, Simpsonville, and 
south of Pelzer, to and along the headwaters of Rocky River. 

A subordinate parallel belt is suggested by widely separated occurrences of 
monazite on the South Carolina branches of Crowders Creek (York County), 
on Walnut Creek near Wares Shoals (information), and one mile east of 
Donalds on a branch flowing to the Saluda River ; also at Honea Path. 

Sands containing a little monazite have also been received from the Saluda 
Zone, near Walhalla. 

Physiography and Geognosy. — The extreme width of the main belt, viewed in 
the light of heretofore recognized deposits, varies from ten miles in Cherokee 
County to five miles near the Greenville- Anderson line ; southwest of which it 
proceeds diminishing in width and in the number of economic deposits. It 
must not be conceived that this extreme width represents an unbroken area of 
monazite formations. 

The rocks in which the monazite and cerium minerals appear to have formed 
consist of groups or irregularly repeated series of pegmatite bodies (var. ortho- 
clase-quartz) with some mica, intimately associated with dark graphite (?) 
schists of extremely fine texture, mica schists, aplite gneiss, and other gneissoids, 
including in some localities hornblende slates ; each group represents one of a 
roughly parallel series. These groups in South Carolina occupy remotely suc- 
cessive belts ; thus one prominent group occurs southeast and another north- 
west of the Thicketty anticline. 

The monazite occurs principally in the pegmatite mass as small crystals. and 
grains imbedded in the clear feldspar and as intergrowths with the mica (both 
biotite and muscovite) ; the pegmatite mass exhibits a distinct development of 
crystalline graphite, and furthermore exhibits in some specimens an interbanded 
distribution of accessory minerals with thin pegmatite, probably of aqueo-igneous 
origin. The more conspicuous primary minerals associated with monazite in 
this State are magnetite, ilmenite, tourmaline, zircon, corundum, rutile and beryl ; 
The secondary minerals comprise an abundance of garnets and epidote and 
occasionally staurolite. Under the protracted process of weathering, degradation 
and erosion the monazite-bearing rocks have been disintegrated, and while the 
softer and lighter materials have been separated and removed in suspension by 
water, the harder and heavier minerals have been scoured into the beds of 
streams and into the neighboring valley depressions, and there accumulated as 
wide gravel beds. These gravel beds were subsequently covered with a variable 
overburden, portions of which irregularly contain small quantities of monazite. 
When the monazite gravel beds were formed the conditions differed widely 
from such as now prevail ; violent rain storms appear to have continuously 
denuded the rocks of their surficial, loose and soil-forming parts; and flowing 
water appears to have at least occasionally prevailed in wide sheets in each 
valley. By these joint agencies the lighter products of erosion were borne far 
away while the gravel monazite and other heavy minerals accumulated to mark 
the former water beds. 

With a full supply of water a placer deposit which will afford a pound of 
monazite from a barrow-load of gravel is considered a "good proposition," 
provided the overburden is nominal. The depth of overburden permissible 
within the limits of profitable work varies with the thickness and richness of 
the underlying monazite gravels ; the latter will rarely average twelve inches in 
thickness, ordinarily much less. 

Monazite deposits are mined along the belt north of Gaffney; along the belt 
west of Thicketty Mountain; most actively along the belt in Greenville County 
extending from Gilders Creek southwesterly by Mauldin to Anderson County. 
In this latter area a modified Wilfley table is utilized to great advantage in 
concentrating the monazite sands; in all other sections the primitive scrcened- 
head sluice box is still in use for this purpose. The product thus concentrated 
at the mine will vary in the content of monazite from 20 to 85 per cent.; the 
impurities consist chiefly of mechanically admixed garnets and quartz sands, 
with one or more of the other accessory minerals enumerated above; all of 
which are separated by the magnetic concentrator. 

The South Carolina monazite thus recovered contains from 3 to 7.25 per cent. 
of thoria (Th O2) and exceeding 60 per cent, of tlie mixed oxides of cerium, 
lanthanum and didymium; all of which afford values to the industrial arts. 
Thoria is principally valuable for its incandescent properties, which are utilized 



io6 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

in the Welsbach incandescent mantles. The cerium is hkewise valuable for the 
purpose. 

(Near Shelby, N. C, a "ledge" through which monazite is liberally dissemi- 
nated, is quarried, crushed and mechanically concentrated, and the resultant 
product subjected to the magnetic concentrator. Ledges admitting of this treat- 
ment are not of frequent occurrence.) 

For descriptions of the individual properties see "A Catalogue of the Mineral 
Localities of South Carolina." 

Uses of Monazite. 

The contained thorium and cerium are separated in the form of nitrates and 
utilized for their incandescent properties, notably in the manufacture of Wels- 
bach mantles. 

GRAPHITE. 

The hydromica schists of the Chatooga, Saluda, Tyger and Anderson-Spar- 
tanburg Zones comprise occasional occurrences of graphite, interstratified with 
the foliated schists, and apparently connected with the original sedimentation to 
which the related slates owed origin. 

The most persistent band of these graphite schists extends along the south- 
erly part of the Anderson-Spartanburg Zone with exposures in Cherokee County 
along the Whitakers Mountain ridge (Sur. Nos. 6332, 6362. 6403). 

These exposures are constituted of bands of highly pitched schists, variably 
interlaminated with graphite, in zones from 12 to 30 feet in width. An analysis 
of an average sample across the face of an exposure afforded 3 per cent, of 
carbon. 

A consistent belt of these graphite schists extends along the Rocky River 
Valley in Anderson County, with exposures interruptedly extending to the 
Savannah River, near the old Crafts Ferry. One body of this material was 
worked to a limited extent during the eighties (Sur. Nos. 1185, 1761, 1780). 

A subordinate belt of graphite schists extends along the Chauga Zone near 
the older limestone in Oconee County (Sur. Nos. 1020, 1022, 1065) ; the per- 
centage of contained carbon in the slate mass rarely exceeds r per cent. 

Uses of Grapliite. 

Most extensive use is for the manufacture of refractory crucibles. Dynamo 
brushes ; arc-light pencils ; superior grades used for pencils and crayons. 

Lubricants ; steam packings ; coating for insulated electric wires ; stove polish ; 
in electrolytic and electrotype processes ; fireproof paint. The invention of arti- 
ficial graphite has seriously affected the value of the natural article for which 
it is a substitute in most of its uses. 

The low grade graphites are used in connection with foundry facings. 

MICA AND FELDSPAR. 

These minerals in sizes available to the useful arts occur as the determining 
constituents of pegmatite in the Chatooga Zone, the Saluda Zone, and the 
Anderson- Spartanburg Zone. They represent pegmatite masses included by 
mica schists and the gneissoid rocks. In the Chatooga Zone a fine body of 
feldspar in pegmatite extends from the Georgia side. (Sur. No. 1009.) 

In the Saluda Zone west of Pickens a good grade of feldspar appears in 
conjunction with a fairly good body of mica (Sur. No. 1590). 

In the Anderson- Spartanburg Zone, below Greenville, a fine body of mica, 
feldspar and flint has recently been opened to a depth of 60 feet (Sur. No. 
5215). Peculiar interest attaches here to the associate occurrence of columbite 
(south of this locality a fine mica prospect occurs (Sur. No. 5225). Southwest 
of Anderson several bodies of pegmatite have been mined for the contained 
mica (Sur. Nos. 1140, 1173, 1175), the work has been essentially surficial and 
without system, but excellent material has been obtained and marketed. In the 
Saluda Zone a good mica prospect occurs in Oconee County (Sur. No. 1527). 

Numerous prospects of subordinate promise occur in the Saluda and Ander- 
son-Spartanburg Zones. 

The Miller-Teague Mine (Sur. No. 5215) is the only active producer of mica; 
this mica is of good dimensions and is associated with a fine grade of feldspar. 

For descriptions of the individual properties see "A Catalogue of the Mineral 
Localities of South Carolina." 

Uses of Mica. 

Finest sheets required for covers for compasses and other mathematical 
instruments. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 107 

Sheet mica is used to afford translucent spaces in furnaces and stoves; also 
for insulation of electric machines; also for lamp shades. Scrap mica is ex- 
tensively used in electric insulation; also as a lubricant; fireproof coating; sizing 
for wall paper; bronze powder; in the manufacture of "Micanite," or scrap 
sheets cemented by a flux under high temperature and pressure. Used in the 
manufacture of sectional coverings for steam pipes, coverings for boilers, etc. 
Uses of Feldspar. 

In the manufacture of pottery and glass; glazing ceramic wares; soap manu- 
facture ; dentistry. 

CORUNDUM. 

Corundum occurs in the Chatooga Zone, the Saluda Zone, the Anderson- 
Spartanburg Zone, and in the Abbeville- York Zone. 

In the Chatooga Zone it appears in chlorite schists, which appear to have 
resulted from the alteration of p^ridote, along the zone of contact with the 
gneissoid rocks. The corundum, in grains and small crystals, often appears as 
nuclei to small indurated masses of chlorit° schist, out ordinarily the corundum 
and chlorite, without parallelism of arrangement, occur in distinct layers. Actin- 
olite, as a secondary mineral in acicular crystals, is associated with the corun- 
dum in the Chatooga Zone. The bodies of corundum observed in this zone are 
not extensive (Sur. Nos. 1090, 1407, 1460). 

In the Anderson-Spartanburg Zone corundum appears largely confined to the 
thin surface beds of hydro-mica slates and schists, the degradation of which 
has left the hard corundum scattered over the surface in the form of grains, 
tabular pieces, and modified prisms attaining as much as three and a half inches 
in length. 

Such occurrences are conspicuous in Laurens County, but they rarely present 
economic quantities of corundum. (Illustrative localities, Sur. Nos. 1776, 5250, 
6300). 

In the Abbeville- York Zone (near Nanny's Mountain, Sur. No. 7025) corun- 
dum occurs along the contacts of gneissoids and mica slates, pitched at high 
angles, in close proximity to a prominent dike of plagioclase porphyrite, which 
at the distance of 1.5 miles (S. W.) appears in contact with an extensive body 
of limonite and pyrrhotite. 

For descriptions of the individual properties see "A Catalogue of the Mineral 
Localities of South Carolina." 

Uses of Corundum. 

For abrasive purposes; emery wheels; to limited extent in the manufacture 
of aluminum. 

Comprises valuable gems: Sapphire (blue); oriental emerald (green); ori- 
ental ruby (red) ; oriental amethyst (purple) ; topaz (yellow). 

GEMS AND GEM STONES. 

The Gems and Gem Stones of South Carolina occur chiefly in the Anderson- 
Spartanburg Zone, along which they extend from the North Carolina line to 
the Savannah River, notably in association with the rocks of the monazite belt. 
These rocks comprise hydromica slates, mica schists, graphite schists, aplite, 
granulite, greisen and pegmatite. 

Garnets. — The garnets occur disseminated through mica schists, aplite gneiss, 
and other gneissoids, chiefly as isolated crystals and grains of common alman- 
dine, which occasionally appears in the precious form. While it is of very wide 
distribution, no bodies of garnet of economic importance have yet been observed. 

Lieber (III, 63) reports massive garnet in lower Pickens and submits the 
following analysis by Dr. Genth : Silica, 37.62 per cent.; Alumina, 19.19 per 
cent. ; Ferric Oxide, 2.66 per cent. ; Ferrous Oxide, 19.95 per cent. ; Manganous 
Oxide, 9.89 per cent.; Magnesia, 3.50 per cent.; Lime, 7.01 per cent.; Total, 
100.82 per cent. 

(Sur. No. 1775) Lee Shoals. Anderson County. A deep red massive garnet 
is irregularly distributed in a feldspathic matrix, associated with pegmatite, and 
inclosed by mica slates. 

An appreciable quantity of garnet, chiefly in fragments, is separated from the 
monazite sands, partly on the screens and partly by the magnets, at the con- 
centrating plants; this by-product has not yet been utilized. 

Beryl, Emeralds, etc. — While specimens of beryl are rarely found in the north- 
eastern half of the Anderson- Spartanburg Zone, good crystals occur in the 
pegmatites in the southwestern portion, notably in Anderson County, where 



io8 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

hio-h orade gems have been obtained. The fine grained mica slates and pegTna- 
tit'es associated with the bervl are indistinguishable from the rocks m which 
the monazite occurs. Beryl has been noted at the following localities : Alex- 
ander (T. B.) place (Sur. No. 1176), 3-2 miles S. W. of Iva; McConnell 
(J. M.) place (Sur. No. 1755), E. of Anderson; Anderson City, near Harrison 
Springs (Sur. No. 1758). . . ^. .,-01 ■ r- 

(Sur. Nos. 5148 to 5155). The monazite section adjacent to Pelzer, in Lrreen- 
ville and Anderson counties, has furnished some fine specimens of aquamarine, 
beryl (and tourmaline). . r . , r j • ^u 

(Sur. Nos. 6300 to 6315). Occasional specimens of beryl are found m the 
monazite sands in Cherokee County. 

material: emerald (and topaz?). survey no. 1755. 

Area: Savannah. Sub-Area: Rocky River ; Beaverdam Crk. Br. 

Location: Anderson County; McConnel place; 3.5 miles N. 26° E. of An- 
derson. 
Address of Ozvner or Representative (?) : J. M. McConnel, Anderson, S. C. 

OBS— The country rock consists essentially of mica slates of extremely fine 
texture; the biotite in some instances is so fine that in softened masses it 
affords the appearance of graphite. Numerous masses of pegmatite are infolded 
by the mica schists. The formation is very similar to the monazite-bearing 
formation near Gaffney. 

The pegmatites include some mica of fair grade, and crystals of beryl, and, 
it is said, occasionally topaz. The beryl crystals are very clear, and of an 
excellent shade of green; stones cut from these crystals can with difficulty be 
distinguished from the oriental emerald. The beryl chiefly occurs in prisms 
penetrating the feldspar. 

CORUNDUM SERIES OF GEMS (aND ZIRCON ). 

Crystals of the corundum series occur along the monazite belt sparsely dis- 
seminated in widely separated patches of mica slates. At the two most prom- 
ising localities the corundum is associated with zircon. 

material: corundum, gems (and zircon). survey no. 6300 TO 6320. 

Area: Santee. Sub-Area: Broad River; Bowen River. 

Location: Cherokee County. 
Address of Owner or Representative (?) : Andrew Moore et al, Gaffney, S. C. 

OBS— Hornblende slates, mica slates and pegmatite formations, hydromica 
slates, quartzitic slates, and various highly feldspathic rocks (average strike 
N. 30° E., dip 20° S. 60° E.) 

(Sur. No. 6316). A bold igneous dike, striking N. 53° E., cuts through be- 
tween the hydromica slates and hornblendic slates. _ The hydromica slates in 
this vicinity expose, where disintegrated, scattered zircons. 

(Sur. Nos. 6300 to 6320). The feldspathic or pegmatite series has afforded 
several good sapphires, and, it is stated, one fine oriental emerald from the 
vicinity of Porters Hill (Sur. No. 6309). 

Many of the branches, tributary to Bowens River, which originate in this 
section afford deposits of monazite of variable extent. Scattered specimens of 
corundum appear. While no systematic exploration for gems has been under- 
taken, a number of small sapphires, some of which came under the observation 
of this survey, have been found in the Bowen River section (one sapphire sold 
for $75.00) ; a valuable oriental emerald is said to have been found here (and 
sold in Charlotte, N. C.) ; numerous small oriental (?) topaz crystals are said 
to have been found (Sur. Nos. 1776-1777) . The Thompson and Jackson places 
(see Corundum 1776-1777) afford some fine crystals of corundum in delicate 
shades of pink and blue; associated with zircon; no pronounced gems yet 
observed. 

Numerous localities in Laurens County afford scattered crystals of corundum 
(see Corundum), but none have been observed suitable for gems. 

AMETHYST. 

North of the Abbeville- York Zone veins of quartz assume in spots the ame- 
thystine type. Superior grades of crystals are found in Cherokee, Anderson and 
Abbeville counties. 

(Sur. No. 1225). McCalla place, Abbeville County, east of. Lowndesville. 
Specimens of superior amethyst were received from this locality. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 109 

(Sur. No. 1380) Sherard (W. T. A.) place, Anderson County, near Mof- 
fettsville, south of Iva. Amethyst of exquisitely clear color occurs in crystals, 
both individual and clustered. The Smithsonian Institution purchased some 
fine specimens from this locality. It occurs in narrow, and apparently discon- 
nected, pockets in the mica slates. 

(Sur. No. 1395) Barnes place. Abbeville County, 1.8 miles N. of Lowndesville. 
Specimens of superior amethyst. 

(Sur. No. 6301) Bowen River basin, Cherokee County. Fine crystals of 
amethyst occur in small veins in the mica slates. 

SUNDRY GEM FORMS 

Rutile occurs chiefly in the Anderson-Spartanburg Zone in connection with 
the monazite belt. Fleches d'amour is the characteristic form. Specimens of 
crystal masses have been received from the vicinity of Prosperity. 

Tourmaline appears in sundry localities north of the Abbeville- York Zone; 
it occurs disseminated through the gneissoids and mica schists, and in quartz 
veins. A few crystals with a fairly clear blue-green color have been found 
near Pelzer. 

Cyanite. — This mineral occurs very extensively distributed in the metamor- 
phosed rocks, but none suited for gems has been observed. An interesting type 
occurs in Greenville County. It consists of a coarse granular aggregation of 
white crystals with a faint tint of green, due to minute flakes of a material 
resembling talc, which is probably fibrolite, colored with a trace of some silicate 
of iron. The cyanite individuals have a brilliant pearly pinacoidal cleavage with 
transverse parting. 

Thin section reveals the presence of both sillimanite and cyanite. Both, are 
colorless ; they display brilliant interference tints. The cyanite, which pre- 
dominates in quantity, extinguishes at considerable angles to the cleavages, while 
the sillimanite extinguishes parallel to the cleavages in the principal zones. The 
brilliantly polarizing matted aggregate, resembling talc, is probably fibrolite. 

Chemical analysis shows: Silica, 39.23 per cent.; Alumina, 58.74 per cent.; 
Ferric Oxide, 1.04 per cent.; Lime, trace; Magnesia, trace; Water at 120° C, 
0.24 per cent.; Water at red heat, 0.17 per cent.; Total, 99.42 per cent. 

FROM THE COASTAL PLAIN 

Amber. — Occasional rounded lumps of crude amber appear immediately super- 
imposed on the phosphate rock. The quantity is too small to be of economic 
importance. 

Chalcedony. — The King's Creek Silex (Oligocene) includes nodular masses 
of chalcedony ranging through dull white, pink, and blue colors. Some speci- 
mens exhibit fossil coral. 

Formerly extensively utilized by the aborigines in the manufacture of arrow 
and spear heads; the former "chipping ground," near Kings Creek landing on 
the Savannah River, comprises more than an acre, the soil of which abounds in 
chips of this material, and numerous fragments of arrow heads. 

PART III.— CRYSTALLINE REGION 

METALLIC GROUP 
GOLD. 

The gold formations in South Carolina pertain to three main types (with 
intergrading phases), to wit: The Tyger, the York, and the Lancaster types. 
Each of these three types afifords placer or gravel deposits of gold. 

Tyger Type of Gold Vein. — Gold veins of this type are chiefly observed in 
the Chatooga, Tunnel Hill, Saluda, Tyger and Anderson-Spartanburg Zones, 
and in subordinate numbers in other zones. The Tyger type comprises veins, 
stringers and stockwcrke of gold-bearing pyritic quartz, which ramifies the 
gneissoids and schists, or irregularly extends along their planes of contact, or 
planes of contact with rocks of pyroxene derivation. The country rocks are 
gneissoids and schists, of both mica and hornblende types; intrusive granite and 
basic igneous dikes are respectively observed in the proximity of some of the 
ore-bodies. 

Some of these veins perhaps originated as the final gold-bearing pegmatite and 
quartz apophyses of granite intrusions, which were thus licked-out in narrow 
flame-shaped tongues into the overlying or contiguous rocks, the inclosing walls 
of which in rare instances exhibit signs of igneous mctamorphic action; but the 
predominant number of these veins appear to have been deposited from solution, 
and have in a measure impregnated the inclosing rock with portions of the 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 




LOW GRADE GOLD ORE. 



mineral contents of the original solutions. Many of the pegmatite bodies appear 
to have resulted from the slow consolidation of pasty aqueo-igneous matter. 

These veins, with possibly few exceptions, have shared with the schists in the 
contorting and foliating effects of such orographic movements and other 
dynamo-metamorphic forces as have prevailed since their formation; they are 
very old. 

Type veins may be observed at the old Lawton (Sur. No. 1323) ; Lay (bur. 
No 1430); Cheohee (Sur. No. 1460); Cureton (Sur. No. 57io) ; McBee (Sur. 
No. 6715); Schlegel Milch (Sur. No. 6481); Magnolia (Sur. No. 6483); and 
the Brown (Sur. No. 6485) mines. 

York Type of Gold Vein.— Veins of the York type occur principally m the 
Abbeville- York Zone, typically in York and Cherokee counties. The inacces- 
sible character of the underground aspects of many abandoned mines of this 
type greatly restricts the premises for an entirely satisfactory classification. 
Numerous microscopic investigations have been undertaken in connection with 

a detailed study of the 
geognosy of some of the 
more prominent ore- 
bodies of this class, and 
whereas these investiga- 
tions up to this time are 
not definitely conclusive, 
the preponderance of ev- 
idence impresses the 
writer with the proba- 
bility that these ore- 
bodies represent the 
aqueo-igneous recrystal- 
lization of elements of a 
magma (afiforded by ig- 
neous intrusions) into 
new forms, which appear 
to have segregated in 
successive and repeated 
♦ irregular zones of more 

or less limited extent, and in irregularly intertwined clusters and numerous dis- 
connected lentiform masses. In some cases the complete envelopment, or want 
of physical connection, of crystals of sulphides and other minute ore-bodies 
encased in the core of huge metamorphosed igneous masses, of dense, hard, 
uninterrupted crystalline angular texture, precludes any reasonable theory of 
metasomatic replacement by extraneous solutions as insufficient. In other words, 
the York type of gold vein appears to be of the aqueo-igneous, or pneumatolitic, 
type, the principles of which have been elucidated by Daubree, Arrhenius and 
others. Through these principles it might be conceived that the component and 
accessory minerals of heated igneous rocks, in the presence of super-heated 
aqueous vapors, far below the melting point of the rock body, partly resolve 
themselves into new combinations which were impossible at the point of fusion, 
and which more or less segregate in accordance with the strength of their 
respective affinities ; and at the same time exude solutions taken into circulation 
by vein waters to be concentrated or precipitated in fissures, cracks, pores, part- 
ing planes, or other openings where conditions are favorable; or to enter the 
various forms of replacement. 

Primarily this class of vein involves two or more kinds of associate intru- 
sive rocks, in contiguous narrow bands, pitched at moderately steep angles and 
rarely aggregating more than 100 feet in thickness, but frequently of consider- 
able lineal extent, although sometimes appearing as mere bosses. Pyroxene now 
altered to amphibolite appears essential ; and diorite, varying to quartz-diorite, 
often forms part of the mass which is usually flanked by a quartz-sericite schist, 
apparently derived from a porphyry, perhaps quartz monzonite. Each of the 
three is impregnated with gold-bearing sulphides, but the amphibolite prepon- 
derantly so. Gold-bearing pyrite, some chalcopyrite, and rarely niccolite, in dis- 
seminated grains, crystals and masses, constitute the material of value, they are 
more or less associated with quartz, the latter frequently as a mere film, but 
occasionally in large sulphide-bearing bodies. 

The ore-bodies in the amphibolite occur in irregularly distributed lenticular 
masses with their longer axes parallel to the line of outcrop ; these bodies vary 
in size from rnicroscopic to 50 feet long, and as much as 10 feet in width; 
successive bodies are often without apparent connection ; they occur along 
diverse parallel planes, often without suggestion of sequence. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. in 

Distinctly isolated crystals of gold-bearing pyrite are observed, encased in 
dense masses of foliated amphibolite, without signs of strain in the surrounding 
particles; and without suggestion of channels for the circulation of a menstruum 
essential to provide supply and eliminate waste in replacement processes (de- 
pending on extraneous solutions), for the amphibolite exhibits sharp unrounded 
angles. 

Some replacement has doubtless occurred ; some co-ordinately with other 
features of aqueo-igneous action ; but the more extensive changes such as the 
alteration to calcite, etc., might have occurred much later. Ilmenite, magnetite 
and chlorite are observed as secondary minerals. 

The ore-bodies in the diorite masses generally occur in the portion adjacent 
to the amphibolite; the ore consists of disseminated grains and small crystals 




CHEMICAL REDUCTION I'LANT HAILE GOLD MINE. 



of sulphides (pyrites), with but little quartz, and whereas gold values prevail 
they are not high. 

The sulphides in some instances appear sparsely disseminated through a wider 
range in the diorite than in the amphibolite, the segregative action having appar- 
ently served to condense much of the ore matter in bundles in tlic altered 
pyroxene mass. 

'ihe quartz-sericite schist is often pyritic, but very low in gold values; if 
replacement were the determining principle in the genesis of the ore-body the 
essential character of this portion of l!ie rock formation should incline us to 
expect more liberal action. 

In thin section foliation is exhiljited very strongly, emphasized in both the 
amphibolite and the quartz-sericite schists, and sul)ordinalely in the diorite. 

In some cases the diorite and altered pyroxene intcrgradc along a liighly 
pyritic zone, in others there is a mere suggestion of a plane of division ; but 
insufficiently conclusive evidence of requisite igneous metamorphic action along 
these planes has been observed to require the assumption that these igneous 



112 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

masses represent successive contiguous intrusions. The fact that the amphibo- 
lite is more foliated than the diorite does not necessarily establish greater age, 
because the character of amphibolite probably yields more readily to such paral- 
lelism of arrangement, under both dynarno-metamorphic and aqueo-igneous 
forces. 

Insomuch as igneous magmas have a well recognized original capacity for 
gold-bearing pyrite, chalcopyrite, niccolite, etc., it is conceivable that magmatic 
segregation, incident to the process of cooling, caused the original magma to 
resolve itself into rock zones varying from predominantly basic to acidic, with 
these sulphides diffused through the mass, but with a rude concentration in and 
adjacent to the more basic material ; and that the ore-producing matter in the 
more susceptible pyroxenic material -might in some cases have exercised new 




OPEN-CUT MINING, BEGUELIN PIT — HAILE GOLD MINE. 



affinities in the incipient fluid state, produced in the magma by intense aqueo- 
igneous forces ; in consequence of which the ore matter has accumulated in 
lenticular masses about the respective nuclei which dominated successive areas 
in the semi-fluid magma, by virtue of the well recognized tendency of like matter 
to assemble in such state. Corresponding principles of origin and concentration 
might, of course, apply with equal force if the igneous intrusions should repre- 
sent successive events. 

It might, of course, be assumed in either case that the mineralization subse- 
quently proceeded from solutions from unseen or remote pre-Cambrian or later 
granites, which solutions have preferentially penetrated these hard, dense, tough 
igneous rocks (infolded by fissile gneissoid slates and schists) and permeated 
their interstitial pores to replace here and there particles of the igneous rock 
with a crystal of sulphide and quartz and at the same time eliminate the 
replaced matter. 

Lancaster Type of Gold Vein.- — The existence of this class of vein deposits in 
South Carolina appears to have depended upon igneous intrusions which did not 
necessarily contain within themselves th' -netalliferous vein stuff or gangue, 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



113 



but which by virtue of contained and associate heat stimulated the deep circu- 
lation of the great solvent water, which highly heated ascended passages or 
trunks in the proximity of the dikes. These heated waters, in passing through 

more or less deep-seated mineral beds, dis- 
associated and dissolved certain constitu- 
ents such as the alkalies, sulphides, silica, 
gold, etc., according as they were present; 
upon ascending to the zone of fracture 
near the surface these solutions penetrated 
the fissures, the cracks, and the fine parting 
planes of schists (accentuated by surficial 
influences) and the interstitial spaces of 
porous rocks, where the minerals in solu- 
tion were variably deposited, with the 
gradually changed rate of cooling, or 
where certain of the minerals in solution 
were precipitated either by gases or by the 
chemical character of the invaded rocks. 
The rate of cooling probably constituted 
the most prolific factor in the deposition 
of the vein matter, but each of the other 
causes operated in relative degrees, vary- 
ing with the individual conditions which 
prevailed at the respective localities. 

These deposits having originated as late, 
perhaps, as the Jura Trias, have not been 
subjected to the protracted degrading ac- 
tion to which the older veins have been 
subjected, and therefore the 3'ounger de- 
posits exhibit more of the original highly 
fractured and porous surficial rock which 
received the greater volume of the ore 
deposits; for it will be appreciated that with increased depth the schistose 
partmgs have been less accentuated by weathering, and that the rocks are more 
dense and less permeable, and that apart from the fissures or cracks inclosed 
with sharply defined hard walls and apart from such openings as occur along 
the contacts of the dike and the inclosing walls of rock, that the capacity of 
the deep-seated rocks for vein matter is much more limited. 

The Haile (Sur. No. 7550) and the Dorn (Sur. No. 1885) mines pertain to 
the Lancaster type, and have, with the Brewer (Sur. No. 7635). constituted the 
great gold producers of this State; the Lamar (Sur. No. 7295) also is of this 
type. 

The Haile is still continuously and extensively operated, and treats about 
60,000 tons of ore each year. Other gold mines, some of which have been regu- 
lar and others intermittent producers during the past two years of survey, are: 
Blackmon (Sur. No. 7527) ; Brown (Sur. No. 6485) ; Magnolia (Sur. No. 6483) ; 
Darwin (Sur. No. 6476) ; Brassington (Sur. No. 7547) ; Gregory (Sur. No. 
7360) ; Calais-Douglas (Sur. No. 1949) ; Schlegal Milch (Sur. No. 6481) ; 'Alli- 
son (Sur. No. 6610); Ferguson (Sur. No. 6450); Ophir (Sur. No. 5936). 




HAILE PIT. 



PLACER DEPOSITS. 

All gold veins and stringers which have come to the surface have suflFered 
more or less weathering, degradation and erosion, which has resulted in the 
accumulation of the disrupted particles and nuggets of native gold in the neigh- 
borirg depressions, flats, and stream beds. The softer or more saprolitic rocks 
yield to a larger extent to these forces and consequently afford the greater 
placer beds. 

The more prominent observed deposits of this type have been developed at 
the following properties: Lawton (Sur. No. 1323); Cheohee (Sur. Nos. 1445, 
[460) ; Westmoreland (Sur. No. 5610) ; Wolfe & Tyger (Sur. No. 5712) ; McBee 
(Sur. No. 5715; Martin (Sur. No. 6474); Haile (Sur. No. 7550 ) ; Gregory 
(Sur. No. 7630) ; Brewer (Sur. No. 7635)- 

Where the greater streams course through auriferous zones long-continued 
erosion has scoured particles of gold into the stream channels, where they have 
accumulated in the deeper parts, at the foot of the successive rapids, 'ibis class 
of deposit appears somewhat prominent in the bed of the Catawba River where 
it crosses the Abbeville- York Zone. Dredges have been operated for these gold 
gravels with varying success on this river. 

8- -II. li. 



114 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



Another class of placer deposit was afforded during the Lafayette time by 
violent floods, which wore away the soft saprolitic gold-bearing rocks and con- 
centrated the included gold in part in depressions along the high plateaus. This 
character of deposit was worked in Chesterfield County, near Westfield Creek 
(Sur. No. 7700), where the gold was mingled with the Lafayette Cobbles. The 
Tanyard placer deposit, high on the Brewer Mine ridge, possibly originated in 
somewhat similar causes (Sur. No. 7635)- 

For descriptions of the individual properties see "A Catalogue of the Mineral 
Localities of South Carolina." 
Uses of Gold. 

Pure gold extensively used for gilding, especially in the ceramic arts; Wagner 
states that the Staffordshire potteries alone consume $300,000 worth annually. 
Also used in dentistry. 




BEGUELIN PIT, SHOWING HOIST-WAY — HAILE GOLD MINE. 

Alloys. — Most extensive consumption of gold is in the manufacture of alloys 
with copper or silver for coinage, for jewelry, and for other ornamental 
purposes. 

Chemically. — Cassius-purple employed for coloring ; salts with soda and potash 
employed in photography, and in medicine. 



NICKEL AND COBALT. 

Nickel associated with copper and gold, and inclosed by a prominent igneous 
intrusion, occurs at the Culbreath Mine in Saluda County (Sur. No. 547°) • 
Chalcopyrite and perhaps niccolite with gold are in a degree concentrated along 
a zone, which in the igneous mass affords a strong probable instance of mag- 
matic segregation ; cobalt is also associated in very small quantities. 

Dana (1878) reports the occurrence of cobalt mixed with manganese near 
Silver Bluff in Aiken County with the following composition: cobalt oxide 24 
per cent., manganese oxide 76 per cent. This, perhaps, represented a local 
aspect of the Barnwell phase of ferruginous sandstones which were consolidated 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



115 



b}' cementing solutions and oozes of various composition, which also occasionally 
filled insignificant pockets in the sandstone. The locality indicated is confined 
to Cretaceous sands and clays, and to Eocene shales, sandstones and sands. 

For descriptions of the indii'idnal properties see "A Catalogue of the Mineral 
Localities of South Carolina." 
Uses of Nickel. 

Small coins ; nickel plating. 

Alloys.—German or nickel silver. Tiers-argent. Nickel steel, extensively used 
for armor plate, propeller shafts, connecting rods, etc. Cobalt is usually asso- 
ciated with nickel. 
Uses of Cobalt. 

Pigment for blue paints ; coloring porcelain wares and glazes ; neutralizing 
yellow color in ceramic wares; various chemical reagents. 

COPPER. 

Copper appears in the Abbeville- York Zone more prominently than elsewhere 
in South Carolina. It occurs subordinately in various zones, more or less 
sparsely disseminated in the form of chalcopyrite (or its decomposition prod- 
ucts), as an accessory mineral to many of the vein bodies, of both replacement 
and fissure types. In quantities of economic promise, it occurs in York and 





Yk 


-^^ ''^jMOHl 






'''i^9S^i»H^^^^^IHH 


iJbCiftjB 


-^"^^hEhB 


mhhhi 


^^^1 


wSmr^^^^^ 




;j|^B 


a^^^f,; 




j^i„^_^:^B 




j;_ 



TIN MINING. 



Saluda counties. In the latter chalcopyrite and gold are associated with nickel 
(and described thereunder, Sur. No. 5470) ; the ore-body is apparently the result 
of magmatic segregation. In York County it occurs at the Mary Mine (Sur. 
No. 6820), the records of which indicate that the ore-body consists of a fissure 
filling, and at the Big Wilson (described under gold, Sur. No. 6818), where 
chalcopyrite of deep occurrence, associated with supernatant pyrite and gold, 
are enveloped in a mass of altered pyroxenite; no final opinion was possible, 
as the deep artificial exposures were under water, but the quality of copper ore 
exhibited from the 102-foot level was good. 

No ores of copper are mined, for copper, in South Carolina. 

For descriptions of the individual properties see "A Catalogue of the Mineral 
Localities of South Carolina." 
Uses of Copper. 

Metal. — Sheet copper; sundry utensils; wire; conductors of electricity; copper 
plate engraving; tubes; nails; rivets. 

Alloys. — Bronze, comprising: bell-metal; gun-metal; statuary bronze; alumi- 
num bronze; brass; muntz-metal ; German or nickel silver; Sheffield plate; 
copper-amalgum. 

Chemical Compounds comprise: Blue vitriol (or bluestone), employed as 
insecticide; germicide, notaljly in relation to the typhoid germ in water supplies; 
for pigments and in various dyeing and printing processes ; as a cauterant in 
surgery. Various laboratory reagents. 



ii6 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



Copper Pigments.— Brunsvj'iQk green; Bremen green; Bremen blue; Cassel- 
mans green; Scheeles (or mineral) green; Schweinfurt (or emerald) green; 
oil blue; Genteles green; verdigris. 

The natural carbonates of copper (Malachite and Azurite) extensively utilized 
in the manufacture of articles for ornamental purposes, such as vases, table 
slabs, etc., etc. 

TIN. 

Veins of tin ore occur near the Cherokee Zone on the line of the Anderson- 
Spartanburg Zone. At the locality prominently exploited the tin ore (Cassi- 




AT THE MOUTH OF THE INCLINE- — ROSS TIN MINE. 

terite) occurs in a mass of pegmatite (var. quartz and oligoclase) which has 
been intruded through pyroxenite (var. augite) and along the contact plane of 
the latter with its foot wall (aplite gneiss). A fibrolite schist resembling talc, 
and inclosing cyanite and sillimanite, constitutes the matrix of the cassiterite 
near the surface, oligoclase is the matrix at greater depths ; and occasionally 
quartz. The pegmatite mass, which incloses the tin ore appears expanded in 
places to nine feet and constricted in others to less than a foot in_ diameter. 
The tin ore has irregularly assembled in clusters of individuals varying in size 
from grains to three inches in diameter, many of which present at least one 
crystal face ; some single clusters yield as much as a half ton of ore each. 

The cassiterite as concentrated yields about 70 per cent, of metallic tin sin- 
gularly free from prejudicial associate metals. Approximately 130 tons of this 
ore have been mined from the Ross property, near Gaffney, in the process of 
exploration. 

Amphibolite, hornblende, brown mica, muscovite, chlorite, calcite, fibrolite, 
cyanite, sillimanite and garnets occur as associate products of metamorphic 
action. Magnetite, apatite and pyrrhotite occur as accessories in those portions 
of the pyroxenite which have been altered to amphibolite. 

The tin-bearing pegmatites extend from Gaffney, interruptedly exposed, to 
and beyond the North Carolina line (Sur. Nos. 6105, 6245), but the Ross Mine 
(6245) affords the only observed instance of tin-bearing pegmatite inclosed by 
pyroxene. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



117 



For descriptions of the individual properties see ''A Catalogue of the Mineral 
Localities of South Carolina." 

Uses of Tin. 

Block tin is used in the manufacture of pipe and other articles required in 
the laboratory, and in the chemical industries. Foil comprises both pure and 
alloyed tin. 

Alloys. — Bell-metal, gun-metal and statuary-metal constitute the bronzes. Ger- 
man silver (some forms) ; Britannia-metal, pewter and anti-friction metals. 

The most extensive use of tin is for "'tin plate," or sheet iron which has been 
immersed in molten tin. 

The salts of tin: Mosaic gold; tinsalt, used in dyeing and calico printing; 
physic (or nitrate of tin) and pinksalt (or double chloride), used in the manu- 
facture of dyes ; stannate of soda, used for dyeing and calico printing. 




'>1^Mc9«k<e(-« 







MILL AND CONCENTRATING PLANT — HAILE GuLU MINE. 

The oxide of tin is used in the ceramic arts in producing white enamels, 
opaque glasses, etc. 

Basis of some laboratory reagents. 



LEAD. 

This metal occurs in South Carolian as galena in small quantities in quartz 
veins cutting the gneissoids and to a limited extent in barytes at Kings Creek 
Station. 

The Kuhtman vein (Sur. No. 1465), located in Oconee County near the head 
of Cheohee Creek, was worked to a limited extent during the early "sixties"; 
it exhibited a small quartz vein carrying crystals of galena, the country rock 
being gneissoid. 

The Cameron Mine (Sur. No. 6135), situated in Cherokee County on Lime- 
stone Creek, was operated during the exigencies of the Civil War. It presented 
near the surface a carbonate of lead which graded with moderate depth to 
galena; at a greater depth Siderite (carbonate of iron) predominated. 



ii8 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



Uses of Lead. 

Pipes and fittings for plumbing; sheet lead for acid chambers, and for roof- 
ing; shot. 

Alloys. — Solder; type-metal; babbit-metal, and other anti-friction alloys; pew- 
ter; organ-pipe metal. Compounds used in glass-making, and in medicine. 

Pigments: white lead; red lead; chrome yellow; Naples yellow; Pattersons 
white, and the white sulphate. 

MANGANESE. 

Manganese occurs in subordinate bodies in various zones; in deposits of eco- 
nomic promise it appears in the Abbeville- York Zone. It is observed inter- 
calated with the slates extending along the northerly slope of the Kings Moun- 
tain ridge (Sur. No. 6434) ; immediately south of Smiths Mountain (Sur. No. 
6285), near Drayton Mountain; and near the Tyger River, south of Glenn 
Sprmgs (Sur. No. 5765)- 




CHEMICAL REDUCTION PLANT — HAILE GOLD MINE. 



Beginning west of New Market (Sur. No. 2005) a second belt extends south- 
westerly with exposures west of Breezewood (Sur. No. 2050) and immediately 
south of McCormick (Sur. No. 1886). The bed near McCormick is of excellent 
promise; the hard ore affords 53.60 per cent, of metallic manganese combined, in 
part, to form 71.56 per cent, of manganese dioxide; the soft ore contains 32.34 
per cent, of manganese in part combined to from 31.78 per cent, of manganese 
dioxide, which is valuable in bleaching, to which purpose the monoxide is not 
adapted. 

No manganese ores are mined in South Carolina. 

For descriptions of the individual properties see "A Catalogue of the Mineral 
Localities of South Carolina." 

The Uses of Manganese. 
In the manufacture of steel. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. iiQ 

"Spiegeleisen" contains manganese in varying proportions up to 30 per cent.; 
"ferro-manganese" contains manganese in proportions varying from 30 to 92 
per cent. 

In the manufacture of oxygen. 

Manufacture of bromine, iodine and chlorine (more recent method now pre- 
vails in the manufacture of chlorine). 

For coloring glass, pottery and enamels. 

In colors for calico printing. 

Preparation of permanganate of potash and other manganese salts. 

For making dryers for paints and varnishes. 

For variegating face bricks. I 

As disinfectant. 

Leclanche battery. 

The value of manganese ores depends : 

I. In the manufacture of steel, on the amount of metallic manganese contained 
and on its freedom from associate phosphorus, sulphur and titanium. 

II. In the manufacture of oxygen, chlorine, bromine and iodine, the value 
depends on the percentage of combined oxygen in excess of the amount com- 
bined as monoxide (MnO) ; in other words, on the quantity of free oxygen 
it is capable of yielding (difference in amounts of MnO and Mn02). 

IRON. 

Iron ores occur in bodies of subordinate importance irregularly distributed 
throughout the Crystalline Region, and to a limited extent in the Eocene for- 
mations of the Coastal Plain. The ore-bodies of economic susceptibilities occur 
principally in the Cherokee Zone, in the Anderson-Spartanburg Zone, and in the 
Abbeville- York Zone. 

Where the hematites prevail the dip of the strata varies from approximately 
flat to highly inclined ; where the specular ore prevails the strata are pitched at 
high angles ; where the principal magnetites prevail the strata are greatly con- 
torted. 

Cherokee Zone. — The principal iron ores in this zone are of three classes: 
Hematites; Specular Schists; Segregated Magnetites.. 

While numerous bodies of iron ore in this zone occur in sedimentary rocks, 
there are no iron ore beds of unquestioned sedimentary origin. Highly foliated 
rocks of probable sedimentary origin infold numerous beds of intercalated 
specular schists (including Lieber's itabefite), which were derived from pyrite 
of uncertain origin ; many of these ore beds grade to pyrite, with perhaps some 
pyrrhotite, below the valley lines. Lieber reports that at one of these localities 
(Sur. No. 6273) barytes is intercalated with the schists. 

I. About one-half mile northwest of, and parallel to, the main limestone out- 
crop an irregular and interrupted belt of iron ore occurs which chiefly com- 
prises hematites intercalated with fine grained mica schists. While observed at 
numerous points along this line, the Hardin ore bank, which comprised red 
hematite, is the only observed ore-bed of even modest prominence ; it strikes 
N. 60° E. and dips 40° N. W. ; it skirts the base of Whitaker's Ridge and is 
included in the northwesterly monocline of the Kings Mountain uplift. 

II. Specular Schists.— Specular schists infolded by mica schists occur in sev- 
eral highly tilted zones, some of which attain the thickness of 40 feet, along 
the strike of a series of rocks probably 1,500 feet wide. 'Jhe associate rocks, 
in addition to the white, yellow, pink and brown quartz-mica schists which 
embody extremely fine grained quartz, and which weather slightly friable, com- 
prise dark and dirty green hard slates with strikes varying from N. 43° to N. 
63° E., and dips ranging from 56° to 70° S. E. They are limited on the north- 
west by a foliated green gneissoid rock inclosing pyrite, etc. 

The specular ore extends northeasterly about seven miles along a zone parallel 
to, and east of, the Catawberite belt; the two being one-half mile apart. This 
zone crosses Broad River immediately south of the mouth of Doolittle Creek, 
and thence proceeds beyond People's Creek, where the strike curves from south- 
west to northerly, which ciiange in strike is maintained by the associate strata 
several miles along the western side of People's Creek, in a belt about 1.2 miles 
wide. This northerly curving of the strata appears to represent the terminal 
southwesterly expression of the Kings Mountain uplift, which was probably 
caused by a vast uplifting force, the more prominent effects of which extended 
from People's Creek northeasterly along the line of the Blacksburg Valley. 

The specular schist ccfnsists of scales of specular iron mixed with subordinate 
magnetite grains, and intercalated with a very fine grained mica schist, which 



I20 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

becomes friable on exposure. When the scales of the iron ore are small the 
texture is granular and the color iron gray, it comprises a small amount of 
magnetite. Where the scales are large the gray becomes darker and assumes 
a silvery lustre, very little magnetite is present in macroscopic form. 

Lieber predicated a distinction on the relative amounts of specular iron and 
magnetite present in an ore ; where the former prevailed he designated the ore- 
bodies specular schists, where magnetite prevailed he denominated the ore mass 
itaberite. The itaberite comprised mixtures of magnetite with subordinate 
specular iron, and a little quartzose matter; texturally it is granular, structurally 
schistose; it is decidedly magnetic. The color of a freshly fractured surface 
is gray; in the streak, red. The general color of the mass is brown and red 
above the valley line, and red below. Some of these beds have been observed 
grading to pyrite, with perhaps some pyrrhotite below the valley levels. Along 
the approximate line separating the magnetites from the specular schists, about 
1.2 miles southwest of Blacksburg, a recently dug well exhibits the following 
gneissoid rock : 

"Color dull green-gray. Fine uniform grain with foliated structure ; breaks 
with a flat fracture. Abundant inclusions of cube-octahedrons of pyrite. In 
thin section : Quartz in angular grains. Abundant chlorite ; apparent alteration 
product of biotite; in ragged shredded flakes and aggregates wrapping around 
the harder minerals ; green, weakly pleochroic ; contains extremely minute grains 
of magnetite in abundance. Feldspar constituent of this gneiss is a much granu- 
lated acid plagioclase, free from weathering; includes apatite." 

III. Segregated Magnetite. — The segregative beds appear to have been derived 
from the aqueo-igneous alteration of a vast intrusive mass of ferro-magnesian 
rock, possibly pyritic, the southerly exposure of which is approximately delimited 
by People's Creek. From this point it is traceable northeasterly about 5 miles, 
crossing the Broad River above Cherokee Ford and about 3,500 feet south of 
and parallel to the line of outcrop of the principal limestone formation ; north- 
east of Blacksburg this magnetite formation becomes obscure. It consists of 
lenticular bodies of magnetite crowded in chloritic schist, pitched at high angles, 
attaining in places the width of 30 feet and extending to depths as yet unde- 
termined. The sorted ore in large lots exceeds 50 per cent, of metallic iron, 
and is free from objectionable association excepting in the matter of the mag- 
nesian gangue, which adds somewhat to the difficulties of fluxing. The expo- 
sures of this ore adjacent to the Broad River are the most prominent and most 
favorably situated for development. 

The original basic ferro-magnesian rock and its inclusions have been resolved 
into three main forms, to wit : 

(a) Greatly contorted dark gray-green schist, with submetallic lustre, (Silica, 
30.56 per cent. ; Alumina, 13.70 per cent. ; Magnesia, 31.32 per cent. ; Ferric 
Oxide, 3.48 per cent.; Ferrous Oxide, 3.98 per cent., etc.); in some localities 
this chlorite schist consists of flakes of chlorite arranged with the parallelism 
affording fissility; in the other localities the chlorite appears under the micro- 
scope as a matted mass of parallel shreds, inclosing magnetite in irregular 
grains. Epidote, garnet and limonite occasionally occur as accessories. 

(b) The iron has been separated in clustered grains of magnetite segregated 
in large lenticular masses in eschelon, and in other forms of irregular dis- 
tribution. 

(c) Irregularly distributed bunches of asbestos (Silica, 56.62 per cent.; Mag- 
nesia, 23.37 per cent.; Lime, 13.16 per cent.; Ignition, 1.62 per cent.) attain the 
occasional diameter of two feet. 

These magnetite ores aggregate large quantities of high grade iron ; the 
amount of gangue matter involved in the mining of these ores, and the neces- 
sity for sorting, or other concentration, involve serious items of cost, as against 
which their otherwise very high grade must perforce prevail upon the exhaustion 
of the high grade steel ores in other sections. 

The magnetic ore or Catawberite, afforded a peculiarly superior iron, close 
grained and soft, yet tough, which was extensively employed in the manufacture 
of the Confederate ordnance. Furnaces and rolling mills were operated for this 
purpose adjacent to the Cherokee Ford on the Broad River. Specular ore was 
also employed in mixtures, and alone, for the production of superior pig metal 
for castings. Itaberite, a low grade arenaceous magnetite, also afforded good 
pig metal for castings. 

Anderson-Spartanburg Zone. — Two miles north of Gaffney beds of brown 
hematite ores occur in pockets in mica slates associated with much clayey mat- 
ter. The available ore, which was quite shallow was freely drawn upon by the 
old Cowpens and Pacolet furnaces. The mica slates -strike northeast and dip 
southeast. These beds find their counterpart about six miles north of Gaffney, 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 121 

where slates with similar strike dip to the northwest, indicating a former inter- 
mediate anticline whose crest has been degraded, thereby exposing the upturned 
edges of the strata, consisting of hornblende and mica slates, including much 
pegmatite ; monazite occurs between GaflFney and Thicketty Ridge in the pegma- 
tites and fine mica slates ; intermediate to the two zones which carry the hema- 
tite ores. 

A promising prospect of hematite occurs in Anderson County one mile west 
of Starr (Sur. No. 1378). 

Abbeville-York Zone. — Hematites and magnetites occur in this zone. 

The principal bodies of magnetite represent extensive segregated deposits in 
the basic eruptives, notably in Abbeville (Sur. No. 1858). This magnetite con- 
tains too much titanium to be available as an iron ore, in the present light of 
technical knowledge. Numerous narrow veins of magnetite occur, but they are 
generally high in titanium (Sur. Nos. 1720, 1765). 

Hematite occurs in subordinate deposits at many localities. Nanny's Moun- 
tain, in York, contributed its ores to small furnaces during the eighteenth cen- 
tury; the ore consists of the eisenhut of an extensive bed of pyrrhotite (Sur. 
No. 7030). Near Wolfe Creek the McCaw property exhibits a promising bed 
of compact crystalline hematite of an excellent grade (Sur. No. 6470). 

For descriptions of the individual properties see "A Catalogue of the Mineral 
Localities in South Carolina." 

The Uses of Iron. 

Many of the very extensive uses of iron are too generally known to require 
enumeration. 

The pure red oxide has attained great prominence in its connection with 
"thermit." Pigments : Indian-red, Venetian-red, minium, metallic paint and 
ochre grade from pure oxide of iron to mixtures containing as low as 33 per 
cent. Red ochre consists of red hematite mixed with clay. Yellow ochre con- 
sists of limonite (yellow oxide) mixed with clay. Umber and Sienna represent 
ochres with the natural or artificial mixture of oxides of manganese. 

In various combinations iron affords numerous salts, which are used in dyeing 
and calico printing, such as Prussian-blue, Antwerp-blue, Leitchs-blue, Alex- 
andria-blue. 

The sulphate of iron, or copperas, is employed as a mordant in dyeing and 
calico printing; in the manufacture of ink; as a disinfectant; in the precipi- 
tation of gold. 

Iron constitutes the base of various pharmaceutical compounds, and labora- 
tory reagents. 

Scrap metallic iron is used for precipitating metallic copper from its solutions. 

The principal impurities which prejudice the value of iron ores are sulphur, 
phosphorus, titaniiim. 

PYRITE OR IRON PYRITES. 

Uses of Pyrite or Iron Pyrites. 

Formerly pyrite was extensively used in the manufacture of sulphur, which 
was thus further used in the manufacture of gunpowder and matches, and as 
an insecticide. 

Principal consumption now afforded in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. 
The residual cinder affords an acceptable iron ore when the sulphur is reduced 
to less than one per cent.; also ground to afford a crude pigment; abusively 
used as a "filler" in the manufacture of commercial fertilizers. 



PART IV.— COASTAL PLAIN 

NON-METALLIC GROUP 

MARL — GLAUCONITE. 

Marl is invested with great importance in its relation to prospective manufac- 
turing enterprises in the production of portland cement, lime, and sand brick; 
also in its application to the improvement of agricultural lands, and to the 
betterment of roadways. In depth and areal distribution the beds of marl in 
South Carolina are vast; in physical condition they range from the softness of 
plastic clay to the hardness of the best limestone; in quality they comprise 
grades exceeding 90 per cent, of Calcium Carbonate. Soft, lino grained and 
almost gritless varieties occur which contain over 70 per cent, of Calcium Car- 
bonate, no Magnesia, and almost sufficient Alumina to constitute a natural 



122 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

cement limestone; soft grades high in lime, phosphoric acid, and potash, offer 
an excellent fertilizer with which to effect an economic regeneration of the 
lands adjacent to these beds; deposits high in both lime and magnesia, and 
therefore of value to the cereals, also occur. 

These marls have greater potentialities for the permanent improvement of 
lands than has been realized from the chemically treated products oi the phos- 
phate beds, which are active but ephemeral and ever require expensive renewals 
of application. In New Jersey the judicious application of marl to lands has 
resulted in the most remarkable increase in productiveness and enhancement of 
values. In these respects her lands, at one time poor and almost valueless, now 
excel the lands of some of our most favored agricultural sections. 

At Bostick and other points in South Carolina where fields were judiciously 
marled more than forty years ago, the advantages of such fields over their 
unmarled neighbors, separated by no more than twenty feet, are obvious. 

Marls in South Carolina occur in parts of the Cretaceous, Eocene, Oligocene, 
Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene formations. Their exposures are principally 
along the rivers and their tributaries, within the lower two-thirds of the coastal 
plain, and increasing within certain limits as they approach tide water. Thus 
the Edisto, Ashley, Cooper, Santee, Pee Dee and Waccamaw rivers, and their 
lower tributaries, expose enormous deposits, some constituting bluffs thirty feet 
in height and extending to great depths below the water line. The Ashepoo 
and Savannah river-banks afford marls, but of less frequent and less prominent 
exposures. 

Along the Edisto River marl is interruptedly exposed from Holloman's Bridge 
to a pomt four miles below Branchville, and thence to a point near the Charles- 
ton and Savannah Railroad bridge ; along the Ashley River from its source to 
the Charleston and Savannah Railway bridge ; along the Cooper River from its 
source to the Charleston Naval Station; along the Santee River from Half Way 
Swamp (Orangeburg County) to Wambaw Creek; along the Pee Dee River 
from the mouth of Jeffries Creek (in Florence County) to Topsaw Landing 
(about 17 miles northeast of Georgetown) ; along Lynches River from Old 
Effingham to the Pee Dee River; along the Waccamaw River from Hammond 
to Bucksville. 

The beds best adapted to the manufacture of cement occur along the Santee 
and the Ashley and Cooper rivers, where good water is available for navigation. 
Experimental briquettes of cement made from the Ashley marl exceeded by 50 
per cent, the tensile strength required by th U. S. Army Engineer's specifications. 
The upper portion of the marl along the Santee River is very hard and is well 
adapted for road metal. The black soft cretaceous clay-marl (lower part of 
Burches Ferry phase of marl), commonly called soapstone, which occurs prom- 
inently developed along the Pee Dee River and its tributaries, in beds exceeding 
two hundred feet in thickness, represents a good agricultural marl, which should 
be extensively utilized. It shows prominently on Bigham's Branch (Florence 
County) and at Ards Landing (on Lynches River), from which point it extends 
under the lower part of Williamsburg County. 

In addition to the above marl, beds of Greensand marl (or glauconite) occur 
in this State at numerous points, their value consisting mainly in the contained 
phosphoric acid and potash, the latter being in the form of a compound silicate 
of potash, which is but slowly soluble. 

There are two extensive plants with kilns, equipped for mining and calcining 
the Tertiary marls between the Ashley and the Cooper rivers, which prepare 
lime chiefly for agricultural purposes. 

For descriptions of tJie individual properties see "A Catalogue of the Mineral 
Localities of South Carolina," or "The Marls and Other Coastal Plain Forma- 
tions of South Carolina." 

FULLERS EARTH 

This material derives its name from its former use in the extraction of grease. 
In England the fullers earth beds form a distinct subdivision of the Triassic 
formation, but in South Carolina the so-called fullers earths are shales belong- 
ing to the Black Mingo and Congaree phases of the Eocene, and to the Para- 
chucla shales of the Oligocene. The Hampton Clays of the Lafayette respond 
fairly well to bleaching and filtering tests. 

The Eocene belt, which affords the large bodies of fullers earth, extends from 
the Savannah River along the upper part of Hollow and Town creeks, and 
thence by Aiken, beyond which it is largely obscured by sands until exposed 
along the ridge between the two forks of the Edisto; east of the north fork 
it is exhibited in a gritty form near the head of Congaree Creek, and along 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 123 

the south side of the basin which is formed by First and Second creeks. Here 
it assumes a finer grained form, which extends by Gaston, near Congaree Bluff, 
along Sandy Run, Little Beaver Creek, Wachte Hill, Lyon Creek and Warley 
Hill to the Santee River, which it crosses, and is thence exposed along Fullers 
Earth Creek, Wedgefield, Moore's Spring and Catchall. 

The above belt comprises the typical Congaree shale, which is interstratified 
with very thin seams of mica and fine sands. It attains in places the thickness 
of approximately 40 feet and generally includes molds of fossil shells. In color 
it varies from gray-white through drab .to a dark slate. Its specific gravity 
varies from 1.75 to 2.00. This material bleaches well, and filters well, and is 
excellently adapted for the treatment of the mineral oils; some objection to the 
imparted flavor has prejudiced its use for the treatment of the culinary oils and 
fats. From the vicinity of Sumter one line of this material extends south- 
easterly in thin beds associated with the Black Mingo shales. 

The Black Mingo shale or fullers earth appears along Black River from 
Brewington Lake interruptedly to Perkins Bluff. An examination of the related 
section reveals along the bed and banks of Black River, and some of its tribu- 
taries, a bed of fullers earth which in many places attains a thickness exceed- 
ing thirty feet. The character of this bed varies very slightly in chemical and 
physical properties in different localities, but important variations, to be noted, 
are observed in passing from the top to the bottom of this deposit : the upper 
fourth part of this bed consists of yellow, dove, and light slate colored, stratified 
layers of fullers earth separated by extremely thin layers of micaceous matter ; 
this fullers earth yields easily to any cutting implement. This upper fourth, 
however, is so high in alumina content that good filtration, which is required 
in its uses, is somewhat prejudiced. The middle two-fourths parts of the bed 
consist of thicker stratified layers of a dark slate colored material irregularly 
stained with iron oxide ; it is too hard to yield to the knife, having been partly 
silicified. Near the middle of this two-fourths zone a layer of fossiliferous marl 
occurs which is high in contained lime, but which rarely exceeds the thickness 
of one foot; this layer requires careful exclusion. 

The lower or bottom fourth part of this bed carries, in many places, an appre- 
ciable amount of iron pyrites, which upon exposure weathers and thereby forms 
copperas and alum, both of which are objectionable. It will, therefore, be 
observed that the middle two-fourths parts of this deposit constitute the article 
of greatest commercial promise. 

In some favorable localities, notably near the "Lower Bridge" (four miles 
south of Kingstree), the upper soft, one-fourth part has been scoured away by 
floods and other forces of time. In such places the expense of extracting the 
more desirable portion of the bed should, of course, be much less than in those 
localities where the upper one-fourth part is still intact, and therefore repre- 
sents largely "dead work." 

It might be competent to note that in the case of diatomaceous earth the 
burning process ordinarily employed in the preparation of fullers earth should 
be either eliminated or conducted with extreme care, for the reason that high 
heat causes the fine porous diatomaceous silica to combine with the bases present 
to form an incipient glass-like mass, without porosity, and therefore without 
value for clarifying fats, oils, etc. 

Fullers earth is treated and utilized in the following manner : After having 
been air-dried for a few days it is crushed to pass a three-quarter-inch mesh- 
screen ; thence it is conveyed through a rotary dryer heated by a crude-oil 
furnace to a temperature not exceeding 212° F. Each cylinder will dry from 
30 to 60 tons of wet fullers earth in twenty-four hours, the capacity varying 
with the amount of moisture present. It is then ground and railed to supply 
demand for three separate grades respectively of fifteen, forty and ninety mesh 
sizes. 

For descriptions of the individual properties see "A Catalogue of tlic Mineral 
Localities of South Carolina," or "The Marls and Other Coastal Plain Forma- 
tions of South Carolina." 

PEAT. 

"Moor-peat," or partly decayed vegetable matter which maintains its fibrous 
character, and "fuel-peat," which is dark and represents a more advanced stage 
of decomposition, occur in South Carolina. No extensive beds of peat have 
been observed in the crystalline area; several small deposits of moor-peat of 
comparatively recent origin midcrlie very limited swamps; others, of probable 
Lafayette antecedents, occur with thick overburdens of clay, high above the 
main valley lines (see Sur. No. 5173). 



124 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

The coastal plain swamps afford some beds of probable late Pleistocene and 
Recent antecedents ; they present the moor-peat type ; some of the rice fields 
exhibit beds of moor-peat of variable extent and thickness. An extensive body 
of peat occurs interruptedly along the Combahee River, notably under the 
marshes which extend to the head of Bull River. A marginal fringe of fuel- 
peat, underlying the probable equivalent of the Bohicket marl-sands, is inter- 
ruptedly exposed along the ocean beach-line of Horry and Georgetown counties 
(see Sur. No. 953). The extent of the peat beds of South Carolina will be 
investigated in fuller detail during the ensuing year (1907). 

Uses of Peat. 

fuel. — The relative value of pure peat (including 22 per cent, moisture) as 
a fuel as determined by Prof. Klasson, of the Swedish Commission, is about 
20 per cent, greater than wood (with 20 per cent, of moisture) ; the following 
figures were submitted as expressing the relative heat values: 

Wood. Peat. Brown Coal. Steam Coal. Anthracite. 
49 57 60 80 86 

As a fuel peat is used in several forms: 

I. The peat fresh from the bog is squeezed, pugged, dried and then solidified 
under pressure in molds with forms convenient for transportation and use. 

n. Peat coal is prepared by heating peat to a temperature of approximately 
400° F. ; said to compare favorably with bituminous coal. When carbonized 
in closed vessels one ton of high grade peat affords about 1,000 pounds of peat 
coal, and, as by-products, 9.5 quarts of illuminating oil, 4.7 quarts of heavy oil, 
and 2.8 pounds of parafiine. 

Ethyl Alcohol is obtainable from peat by a special process which affords 
about one gallon of absolute alcohol from the ton of peat. 

Artificial Wood for structural purposes is made from peat. 

Peat Fibre is manufactured into a yarn and into textile articles such as wear- 
ing apparel, blankets, surgical bandages (highly antiseptic), etc. Peat fibre is 
also used in the manufacture of paper. 

Moss Litter derived from the partially decomposed portions of the peat beds, 
is known as "moor-peat." As prepared from the moor-peat the moss litter is 
used for filling mattresses ; as a packing for fruits and fish ; as a litter for 
domestic animals, etc. etc. 

SAND. 
Glass Sand; Sand Brick Sand; Building Sand; Locomotive Sand. 

Coastal Plain. — A belt of sands, of probable Columbia equivalence, extends 
across the State south of the fall line and constitutes the capping of the "sand 
hills." This material is fine grained, sub-angular, and hard; it affords a very 
good grade of locomotive sand. 

The sand interstratified with the Cretaceous Clays is very pure, with the 
exception of a small amount of admixed kaolin, which is removed by a washing 
process, which thus furnishes a high grade sand (Silica, 99.63 per cent.; Alu- 
mina, 0.37 per cent.), which is utilized in the manufacture of glass. 

A greatly broken belt of fine grained high grade glass sand interruptedly 
extends across the western part of the State above the littoral line of the Mio- 
cene formation. 

Material, Glass Sand (Sur. No. 382). — Barnwell County, near Ulmers ; Edisto 
area ; Salkehatchie River sub-area ; John F. Weekly, Ulmers, S. C. Analysis : 
Alumina, 0.15 per cent.; Manganese Oxide, trace; Ironsesquioxide, 0.31 per 
cent.; Silica, 99.53 per cent.; Water and organic matter (ignition), 0.16 per 
cent. ; Total, 99.97 per cent. 

Material, Glass Sand (Sur. No. 923). — Clarendon County; Pee Dee area; 
Pocotaligo River sub-area; John M. Tindal, Tindal, S. C. Analysis: Alumina, 
0.89 per cent.; Ironsesquioxide, 0.38 per cent.; Silica, 98.61 per cent.; Loss on 
Ignition, 0.15 per cent.; Total, 100.03 per cent. 

Material, Glass Sand (Sur. No. 929a). — Clarendon County; Pee Dee area; 
Brewington Lake; Deep Creek sub-area; W. H. Muldrow, Wilson, S. C. An- 
alysis: Alumina, 0.15 per cent.; Ferric Oxide, o.io per cent.; Silica, 99.56 per 
cent. ; Water and volatile matter, 0.05 per cent. ; Total, 99.86 per cent. 

A belt, designated the Ten Mile Ridge which interruptedly extends parallel 
with the coast, west of the Santee River, consists of very fine grained sands. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 125 

which are utilized in the manufacture of sand brick. The most prominent 
exposures appear in the Edisto area, notably across the Ashley and Cooper 
basins, and near Yemassee. 

Building Sands. — The beds of bold fresh water streams afford deposit <; of 
superior gravel and sands, notably along the expanded portions where the flood 
water currents are arrested by resisting tides. 

A verj' extensive deposit of superior building sand thus occurs in the portion 
of the Edisto River immediately above Dawho Creek, which constitutes the 
main source of supply of this material to the city of Charleston. 

The Pee Dee drainage system affords important deposits near the line of the 
Wando Pass. 

PHOSPHATE BEDS. 

Geographic Limits. — Geographically the South Carolina phosphate beds occur 
interruptedly along a belt, the lower limit of which extends along a meandering 
line from a point near the source of the Wando River to the mouth of Broad 
River; this line irregularly varies from 6 to 20 miles distant from the present 
coast line of the outlying "sea islands'" located east of the Ashepoo River. 
From the Ashepoo to the Combahee rivers an apparent gap occurs. From the 
Combahee River the southerly line extends by Morgan Island and St. Helena 
Island, beyond which the phosphate zone disappears under the ocean. 

There are five main groups, constituted of a series of lesser areas, which 
afford beds of phosphate rock of commercial importance, to wit : The "Wando 
Basin," the "Cooper Basin," the "Ashley Basin," the "Edisto Basin" and the 
"Coosaw Basin." 

The Wando Basin comprises the drainage territory tributary to the Wando 
River above Cainhoy, principally on the northerly side. The Wando Basin 
probably joined the Cooper Basin along the eastern branch of the Cooper River. 

The Cooper Basin comprises the drainage territory tributary to the Cooper 
River above the U. S. Navy Yard, and comprises deposits on the eastern branch, 
on the western branch (with thin beds extending to Hell Hole Swamp), on 
Back River, on Foster's Creek, on Goose Creek and on Fiddlers Creek, with 
its westerly limit along the railway from a point north of Ashley Junction to 
Ten Mile Hill. The Cooper Basin joins the Ashley Basin at the head of Nine 
Mile Bottom. 

The Ashlej' Basin comprises the drainage territory of the Ashley River, the 
Stono River, the eastern branch of Rantowles Creek, and the head of Wadma- 
law River. Its circumscribing line extends from a point slightly north of 
Ashley Junction to Ten Mile Hill, and thence to Greggs on the Ashley (with 
thin patches as high as Captains Creek), thence around Bear Swamp, and down 
the west side of South Swamp to a point near the mouth of Rantowles Creek 
(a tongue extends along the north side of Stono River to the Wadmalaw 
River), from which the line returns along the south side of Stono River to the 
Cherokee Mines, and proceeds northeasterly to the Ashley River (one mile 
below Bees Ferry), and thence northerly to the upper side of the ridge above 
the Charleston-Savannah Railway, which ridge delimits it to the initial point 
of the line above Ashley Junction. 

The northwesterly point of the Ashley Basin approaches the northeasterly 
point of the Edisto Basin. 

The Edisto Basin comprises the drainage territory tributary to the Edisto 
River, from Sullivan's Bridge to a point two miles north of Jacksonboro, to 
Horse Shoe Creek, from Horse Shoe Mines to the mouth of Chechessy Creek, 
and up the latter creek to its source. 

The Coosaw Basin comprises phosphate deposits under marshes and i.slands 
and in the beds of the wide intervening waterways. 

The circumscribing line starting from Cotton Hope on the Combaliee River, 
proceeds around Morgan Island and thence along St. Helena Island to Beaufort 
River, with a tongue extending through Archers Creek to Broad River; from 
Port Royal the line extends up Beaufort River and through Brickyard Creek 
to the Coosaw River, and thence proceeds up Whale Branch and north of 
Chisolms Island, whence it returns to Cotton Hope. 

There are several detached outlying patches connecting or bordering the above 
cited main basins; one of subordinate prominence in the bed of the Edisto River 
near the confluence of Dawho Creek ; one of low grade material along the 
northerly border of Hell Hole Swamp. 

The apparent break in the continuity of the beds between the Ashepoo and 
Combahee rivers was probably due to a ridge of Parachucla shales, which is 
exposed along the Salkehatchie River unencumbered by calcareous marls ; the 



126 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



delimiting influence of these shales is impressively exhibited near the mouth of 
Huspa Creek and along the Coosawhatchie River, where tides prevail. These 
Oligo-Miocene shales were merely suggested by Mr. Tuomey as the possible 
equivalent of his buhrstone siliceous clays. 

Immediately superimposed on the phosphate beds we successively observe 
Salkehatchie oozes (rarely) the Post Pliocene marl of the Wadmalaw type, the 
Bohicket marl sands, the Accabee gravels with irregular inclusions of rounded 
phosphate rock and pebbles, Wando clays and sands, Sea Island loams and 
sands; a complete series, however, is rarely observed at any one locality. 

Industrial. — The upper area of this phosphate belt affords a rock too low in 
phosphoric acid to be of immediate economic importance. The customary guar- 
antees are 58 per cent, and 55 per cent, of calcium phosphate on land and river 
rock respectively. The deposit varies in thickness from a few inches to three 
feet, twelve inches representing a good deposit and affording about 1,100 tons 
per acre. The thickness of the over-burden admitting of economical handling 
will, of course, vary with the thickness of the deposit, with the market value 
of the rock, and with the factor of transportation. With a good 12-inch seam of 
rock valued at $3.50 per long ton, for rock f. o. b. mines, the maximum thickness 
of the over-burden would be about 14 feet for machine mining, and 7 feet for 
hand mining. Formerly the land mining was performed entirely by hand; the 




CRETACEOUS AND TERTIARY CLAYS — FLOYD S MILL, DARLINGTON COUNTY. 

over-burden being removed by a system of open trenches of lengths varying 
according to drainage exigencies. Each miner is assigned 18 feet along the 
face of the uniformly advanced trench, from which he throws the over-burden 
to the previously exhausted area in the rear ; the underlying rock, bedded in a 
matrix of calcareous mud, is picked loose, and then heaved by shovel to un- 
broken ground above ; whence it is removed on wheelbarrows to tram-cars and 
handled thence to the washer, where the mechanically attached mud and sand, 
amounting to from 50 to 65 per cent, of the mass, are removed. It is next dried 
in kilns or in simple heaps piled on wood ; after the burning of which the rock 
is ready for the fertilizer factory to which it is transported, and there ground 
and chemically treated. The system of hand mining has to a large extent been 
displaced by the introduction of land dredges or steam shovels, which discharge 
direct into tram-cars on movable tracks. Steam shovels have been successfully 
operated to a depth of 19 feet on a 14-inch seam of rock. 

The deposit of phosphate rock was very soon recognized, after 'its discovery 
in 1867, as extending across and overlying the beds of the streams and bays 
and under marshes which, being within tidal range, and therefore the property 
of the State, were promptly laid under tribute to the State treasury. 

The phosphate rock from the State waters has been chiefly devoted to the 
export demand, its low content in iron and alumina making it more attractive 
to the European market. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 127 

That portion of the phosphate deposit found in the bed of the streams is 
denominated river rock and is mined by means of floating dredges, and then 
treated by the same process that is applied to the product of the land mines. 
The river rock was first mined by means of tongs operated by laborers on 
small flat boats. But the exhaustion of the shallow rock necessitated the use 
of steam dredges, which have been operated to the extreme depth of 52 feet, 
where the rock was extracted under 16 feet of mud. The depth, however, from 
which the river rock is now extracted does not ordinarily exceed 30 feet. 

The ground jock treated with sulphuric acid constitutes acid phosphate which 
is the basis of all modern connnercial fertilizers. 

By means of another chemical process the phosphorus contained in this rock 
is extracted and employed in the arts, conspicuously in the manufacture of 
matches. Other chemical processes applied to this rock contribute sundry com- 
pounds to the pharmacy. 




LOWER CRETACEOUS CLAYS WITH LAl-AVETTE COBDLESTUXES SUrEKIMPOSEU. 

CLAYS. 



High Grade. 
China Clay. 

Paper Stock Clay^ Kaolin. 
Ball Clay. 
Fire Clay. 
Potter's Clay. 



Low Grade. 
Tile Clay. 
Brick Clay. 
Argillaceous Shale. 
Ferruginous Shale. 
Calcareous Shale. 



RESIDUAL KAOLINS. 

The residual kaolins, as concentrated for the trade, vary from moderately 
fusible to highly refractory, according to the amount of and character of the 
fluxing impurities. 

No residual deposits of kaolin have been commercially developed in South 
Carolina, and whereas there are many indications of such veins scattered 
throughout the granitic or crystalline region, the occurrences of most conspicu- 
ous promise yet noted are along a zone in close proximity to the trappcan rocks, 
extending from Mount Carmel to King's Mountain; the dynamic influences of 
these igneous rocks proljably predisposed the feldspar, etc., lo rapid kaolization 
through allotropic modifications. 



128 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



SEDIMENTARY KAOLINS. 

The sedimentary kaolin beds in South Carolina range in purity from 99 per 
cent, of clay substance to the lowermost grades. • , ■ 

Some sedimentary clays fulfill the conditions of china clays in being lean 
and in burning to 'a white body without crazing or displaying other physical 
defects. „ 

These kaolins are extensively distributed in the Savannah River area, the ban- 
tee area and the Edisto area, in the counties of Aiken, Lexington, Richland and 
Kershaw. The Savannah River area affords one of the most remarkable expo- 
sures of sedimentary kaolin in the United States, not only in its relations to 
quality and quantity, but in the scientific interest attaching thereto. From Ham- 
burg to Aiken we observe a zone of these clays extending fourteen miles in 
length by five miles in width, with numerous barrens caused by pre-Eocene 
erosions and the degradations of recent drainage. 




SEDIMENTARY KAOLIN MINE — REMOVING THE OVERBURDEN. 

These beds of kaolin vary from five to twenty-five feet in thickness, with an 
overburden of cross-bedded sands, thin laminae of clay and occasional Lafay- 
ette loams and cobbles ranging in thickness from nil to more than one hundred 
feet. Thickness of the kaolin determines the amount of overburden that can 
be economically removed. This overburden is degraded by laborers with pick, 
shovel and cart, or with scrapes or steam shovels, until a sufficient terrace of 
clay is bared for extraction. This kaolin is moved in the lump form to the dry 
sheds, where, after exposure to air and light for a few weeks, it is packed in 
casks of one ton capacity and shipped to the consumer. It probably represents 
the largest body of clay closely approximating kaolinite that is found in the 
United States. 

The Aiken area also affords important deposits along Beaver Pond Creek and 
Hollow Creek. 

The Edisto area reveals interesting beds of these clays on North Edisto River, 
between Cook's Bridge and Merritt's Bridge and along Fox Creek ; superior 
deposits along the South Edisto River, along Chalk Hill Creek, Juniper Creek, 
Marbone Creek and near Sand Dam Bridge. 

The Santee area reveals valuable beds along Thorn's Creek, Cedar Creek, 
Colonel's Creek, Shaw's Creek, Swift Creek, Rafting Creek and Pine Tree 
Creek, and in some places adjacent to the Congaree and Wateree rivers. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



129 



In addition to the foregoing class, which requires no other preparation than 
simple dr\-ing. there are considerable beds of Cretaceous clays commingled with 
sands which are susceptible of concentration by the usual washing process. 
There is a modern plant for such purpose in operation at Seivern, S. C. 

The class of clays designated. Middendorf, prevails in large beds in the Aiken, 
Santee and Pee Dee areas. In color they are very pale greenish-yellow, but 
burn to a white body with quite variable shrinkage. Their tensile strength is 
superior to that of the whiter clays. Their extreme fineness of particle renders 
them much more fusible than other clays similar in composition but coarser in 
texture. 

WOOD PULP KAOLIX. 

Many of the sedimentary kaolins occurring as described in the preceding 
paragraph are, by reasons of their previously noted limitations, devoted to the 
manufacture of wood pulp paper. 

The paper stock clays are white plastic kaolins of either residual or sedimen- 
tary extraction, which, upon burning, either cinder or develop color or other 
incorrigible defects unsuiting them to the ceramic arts. 




siiiri'iNc; CASKS cf kaolin. 



FIRE CLAYS. 

Clays adapted to the manufacture of refractory articles are known as fire 
clays and are ordinarily subdivided into flint clays and plastic fire clays. 

There are no flint clays in South Carolina, these clays belonging to the coal 
measures. 

'! he equivalents of the plastic fire clays, comliining the refractoriness of flint 
clays, uc have in the lower Cretaceous formations, ranging in composition from 
the common grades to the best imported German product. 

The sedimentary fire clays of South Carolina are found in the Cretaceous, the 
Eocene and the Neocene formations, along the zone contiguous to the fall line. 
Some beds of fire clay of unmistakable sedimentary origin and others of meta- 
residual extraction arc found in tiie crystalline area. Tiiose mcta-residual clays 
are employed to bond the more refractory clays and the Middcndorf sedimen- 
tary beds should be serviceable for the same purpose. 
9— II. B. 



130 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

STONEWARE CLAY AND POTTERS' CLAY. 

These clays represent successive gradations between fire clays and tile clays, 
the fire clays extending the gradations upward to the limits of kaolin. 

Throughout the Crystalline Region we observe occasional patches of both 
residual and sedimentary clay suitable for the coarser grades of potters' ware, 
the best results are secured by mixing the residual or meta-residual clays with 
the coastal plain sedimentaries, which are abundantly available for this purpose. 

SEWER PIPE OR VITRIFIED BRICK CLAYS. 
The clay body for the required wares has been heretofore derived from shales 
or from recent deposits of alluvial pipe clays, or, more ordinarily, from a mix- 
ture of the two. The shales ordinarily employed as a source of tile clay approxi- 
mately conform to the limits above indicated. (See Shales.) 

PIPE, TILE AND BRICK CLAYS. 

Brick clays occur extensively in South Carolina over the crystalline area as 
residual, meta-residual and sedimentary deposits. They are distributed over the 
Coastal Plain as sedimentary beds, and in the case of the lixiviation of argil- 
laceous marls they occur as residual deposits. 

Throughout the Piedmont Region the lower grades of clay are found residual 
to the extent that the altered gneisses, feldspathic schists, etc., have escaped 
degradation. This degradation, or erosion, has contributed to the formation of 
higher grade, sedimentary, potters' and pipe clays occurring in the valleys of 
the crystalline region, and over the area of the Coastal Plain formation. 

The sedimentary valley beds of the crystalline formation are the most im- 
portant sources of supply of these clays in this State. Characteristic of these 
latter supplies, we find prominent deposits at North Augusta, Brookland, Co- 
lumbia, Camden, and Society Hill. Above this fall line they occur more or less 
through the much ramified tributary valleys. Below the fall line the Cretaceous 
and Eocene formations afford occasional beds answering the requirements of 
these clays, but in the Coastal Plain area some of the Hampton clays are con- 
spicuously valuable as brick clays. Such deposits extend from Garnett, on the 
Savannah River, by Walterboro, Summerville, St. Stephens, Marion, and thence 
to North Carolina, the entire distance affording an undulating zone of de- 
tached areas of good clay, some being adapted to the manufacture of high grade 
face brick. 




■-i 2 



132 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



TABLE No. 1 — ANALYSES. 
GRANITES. 



COUNTY. 



PLACE. 









dj 








■a 








y. 








C 












a> 


.t^ 




a 




e 




J 


t^ 


< 


fc 


3.28 


1.30 


17.22 


1.75 


2.80 


1.04 


14.30 


2.44 


2.80 


1.45 


17.22 


1.70 


1.28 


.78 


14.56 


1.06 


1.64 


1.16 


15.73 


2.14 


1.70 


.86 


15.49 


1.10 


1.72 


.51 


13.82 


.93 


1.82 


.75 


16.77 


.95 


2.14 


.48 


14.22 


1.14 


2.40 


.63 


15.25 


1.52 


1.88 


.84 


14.06 


.70 


2.08 


.43 


14.89 


.75 


1.54 


.22 


13.72 


3.64 


1.36 


.38 


15.39 


1.24 


2.66 


.74 


15.75 


1.16 


1.32 


.58 


14.51 


1.28 


1.84 


.62 


15.76 


1.07 


1.64 


1.25 


15.41 


1.85 



Anderson . . 
Pickens. . . 
Laurens.. . 
Greenwood. 
Laurens. . . 



Newberry . 
Union . . . , 
Fairfield. . 
Lexington . 

York 

Fairfield. . 
Fairfield. . 
York .... 
Kershaw. . 
Lancaster . 
Kershaw. . 



Pendleton Q. . . 

Beverly Q 

Ware Shoals Q. 
Benjamin Q. . . 
High Point Q. . . 
Praetor Q. 

Bates Q 

Leitzsev Q 

Flat Rock Q. . . 



Ross Q 

Whitesides Q. 
Anderson Q. 

Rion Q 

Jacksons Q. 
Richards Q. . 
Excelsior Q. 
Plat Rock Q. 



1335 
1635 
5175 
5195 
5265 
5480 
5482 
5574 
6500 
6520 
6599 
6615 



2.49 
2.49 
2.67 
1.62 
1.57 
3.73 



6740 
6810 
7850 
7355 
7378 



1.49 
1.52 
1.76 
1.57 



19 



LIMESTONES. 



20 
21 
22 
23 
24 



Oconee . . 
Oconee . . 
Oconee . . 
Oconee . . 
Oconee . . 

25 I Oconee . . 

26 I Laurens.. 
Laurens. . 
Laurens.. 
Laurens.. 
Union . . 
Cherokee. 
Cherokee. 
Cherokee . 
Cherokee. 
Cherokee . 
Cherokee. 
Cherokee . 
Cherokee. 
Cherokee. 



27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
88 
39 



Brasstown. . . . 
Hell Hole . . . . 
Hell Hole .... 
Woodall . . . . 
Tomassie Falls 
Horse Shoe Bn. 
Raysors Kiln . . 
Masters Kiln . . 
Mahaffey Kiln. . 
:Mahaffey Kiln. . 
.^)MW Cross K. . 
Thicketty . . . . 
Limestone Sp. . . 
Limestone Sp. . . 
Limestone Sp. . . 
Limestone Sp. . . 
Ross Place. . . . 



Blacksburg. 
Black Est. . 



1024 

1065+5 

1065+7 

1070 

1410 

1425 

5185 

5189 

5240(a) 

5240(b) 

5675 

6121 

6129(a) 

6129(c) 

6129(d) 

6129(e) 

6232 

6325 

6329 

6340 



28.88 
23.36 



30.26 
35.72 
32.10 
45 . 80 
35.61 
29 . 43 
30.46 
39.18 
27.49 
30.54 
43.31 
48 . 66 
54.24 
26.86 
4.28 
45.64 
31.10 



1.32 
15.09 



19.71 

1.23 

.50 

5.86 

17.30 

18.34 

19.20 

14.74 

15.82 

19.60 

75 



5.60 
1.16 
2.39 
.51 
1.67 
18.90 



9.241 
2.341 



.31 2.40 
.55 .57 



1.07 
6.34 
3.11 
1.23 
.24 



.23 

.23 

3.04 

8.86 

1.12 

.86 



.14 
.21 
.33 

1.57 
.18 

2.08 

2.26 
.28 

1.03 
.26 
.75 
.47 
.47 



40 



SLATES AND SCHISTS. 



41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 



Richland. . 
Kershaw. . 
Aiken . . . 
Lancaster . 
Lancaster . 
Lancaster . 
Lancaster . 
Chesterfield 
Chesterfield 



Dents Pond I 557 

Rollings Mill 612 

N. Augusta 2280 

Haile Mine i7550(a) 

Haile Mine 7550(b) 

Haile Mine i7550(c) 

Blackmon Mine 17527 

Ruby 7665 

Watson Place 7735 



0.10 


0.25 


83.41 


1.67 




.33 


.91 


16.88 


2.26 




.84 


.22 


15.45 


1.79 




0.20 


0.22 


31.57 




3. 


0.20 


0.36 


37.65 




•> 


0.60 


0.50 


5 . 70 


6.80 




.96 


1.13 


28.34 


1.10 




0.14 


0.81 


20.49 


2.72 




.33 


.39 


23.82 


3.38 





50 



FELDSPARS. 



Oconee . . 
Oconee . . 
Pickens. . 
Abbeville 
Greenville 



12. 5M NE Wal 
Powder Mill . . 
Hagood Place . 
W. Abbeville . . 
Mil. & Teague. , 



1009 
1520 
1590 
1925 
5215 



.19 


.78 


.14 


.14 


.18 


.13 


0.56 


0.36 


0.24 


0.23 



20.411 

18.21 
19.45 
14.90 
22.57 



.31 

.79 

.71 

1.93 

0.18 



56 




CLAYS (CRYSTALLINE REGION). 










_ 


57 


Abbeville . . . . 
Edgefield . . . . 
Union 


Abbeville 


1925 
2225 
5950 


.56 
1.04 
.46 
.46 
.57 
.81 
.62 


.36 
.56 
.54 
.32 
.09 
.33 
.30 


14.90 
21.14 
30.14 
18.82 
29.69 
26.81 
29.14 


1.93 
12.02 
2.10 
5.74 
3.96 
1.79 
3.50 




58 
59 
60 


Dr. Parker 

Osbourne Place 

T. Moore Place 






61 


Greenville .. .. 
Greenwood. . . . 


R. G. Williams 






6? 


R. W. Hamilton 






63 


W. K. Blake 


5197 





GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



133 



TABLE No. 1 — ANALYSES. 
GRANITES. 





1 

a 
a 


6 
2 
"H 


<u 
ta 

ID 

a 
a 

M 

a 

ei 


•0 


CO 


CO 

s) 



Ph 


"0 

< 

'5 


as 



•6 



V 

'C 


.a 
0. 

m 


J3 


Sulphuric Radical. 


Silica 
(and insoluble). 


d 




n 

a 
a> 

a 

a 

3'_) 


"a 




1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 


.60 

.60 
.72 
.60 
.45 
.84 
.24 
.36 
.24 
.42 
.48 
.36 


trace 
.11 
trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 
.16 
trace 


5.28 
3.80 
3.68 
3.97 
3.45 
3.09 
3.04 
3.43 
5.39 
4.32 
3.46 
4.47 
5.39 
.55 
4.76 
3.21 
3.39 
3.48 


5.14 
3.84 
3.80 
5.37 
4.54 
3.36 
5.06 
4.10 
4.82 
2.85 
3.94 
4 . 70 
4.98 
6.89 
3.49 
4.30 
4.27 
4.61 




trace 
trace 

trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 


trace 
trace 

.08 
.06 
trace 
.13 
trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 


62.34 
68.15 
65.72 
70.54 
68.80 
68.70 
73.10 
69.52 
70.20 
70.90 
72.19 
70.77 
69.74 
73 . 26 
68.90 
72.22 
70.11 
68.71 


.28 
.28 
.35 
.27 
.33 
.81 
.23 
.43 
.33 
.17 
.18 
.19 




99.68 
99.85 

100.19 

100.11 
99.81 
99.81 

100 . 08 
99.69 

100.20 
99.99 
99.69 
99.88 
99 . 23 












99.07 


.36 
.24 
.45 
.60 


trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 




trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 


trace 
trace 
trace 
trace 


.18 
.52 
.45 
.34 




99.49 
99.70 
99.72 
99.46 



40 



41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 



56 



57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 



19 










LIMESTONES 










20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 


.32 
.05 


trace 
trace 


1.36 
.46 


1.39 

.72 


22.53 
34.22 


trace 
.15 




29.95 

"9.56 

2.91 

21.10 

36.55 

6.75 

1.66 

6.63 

2.45 

1.13 

18.42 

3.59 

2.86 

1.28 

.71 

45.36 

88.09 

14.44 

3.95 


1.07 
.24 

" ' !24 
.09 
.05 


.12 
.19 
.18 
.13 
.07 


99.92* 
100.15 


' ' !63 

.22 
.10 


trace 
trace 
trace 


.10 
.71 
.52 


.50 
1.33 

.85 


44.66 
28.70 
24.79 
38.80 
44.80 
43.23 
44.71 
44.40 
•35.71 
45.58 
44.17 
43.52 
43.27 
22.09 
3.59 
37.01 
45.00 


trace 
trace 
trace 




100.31 

99.62t 
100.28" 
100.01 


.01 
trace 


trace 
.17 
.45 

trace 
.24 

trace 


■■ ;62 


.05 


trace 




.02 
.09 
.14 
.12 
.42 
.23 

'".12 
.11 
.09 
.03 
.21 


.08 
.07 
.03 

■■ !62 
.03 
.06 
.02 


100.18 
100.04 










99.70 


.02 


.01 


trace 
.05 




100.00 
99.94 


32 
33 






99.82 










99.87 


34 
35 
36 


trace 
trace 


trace 
trace 


.08 
.02 


.01 
.01 


trace 
trace 




100.03 

100.24 

99.85 


37 














99.94 


38 
39 














100.11 














.01 




99.87 



SLATES AND SCHISTS. 



0.371 I 0.12 

I .08 

.561 

16 



.29 
1.12 
1.19 



trace 



27 
6.96 
4.60 
0.80 

.49 
0.09 

.72 



0.66 
3.17 
.96 
6.97 
3.71 



6.52 
2.55 
1.43 



53.19 
72.37 
75.201 
44.61 
45 . 52 
80.00 
57.26 
67.38 
61.62 



10.631 

3.84| 
5.231 



5.00 
3.54 
5.08 
7.58 



5.80 
5.35 
0.60 



CLAYS (CRYSTALLINE REGION). 







3.21 

1.12 

.12 


4.16 
.95 

.87 








1.47 




















































.]« 


.66 


: : : : : : : : : : 1 : . . . . 



72.81 
52.41 
54 . 40 
60 . >.}() 
54 . 09 
52.40 
54 . 40 



100.40 

99.84 

100.02 

100.04 

99.99 

100.00 

99.63 

100.38 

100.46 



50 










FELDSPARS 










51 
52 
53 
54 
55 


trace 
trace 
trace 




1.41 
2.41 
2.02 
3.21 
2.72 


12.71 
11.14 
11.34 
4.16 
11.01 








62.26 
07.30 
65.60 
72.81 


1.43 
.06 
.63 

1.99 


.11 


99.61 








100.19 






trace 


100.06 






99.92 


'.'.'.'. .\ 


6.091 


trace 


60.79 


1.90 


99.73 



99.92 

99.00 
100.00 
100.0()(a) 
100.00(b) 
100.00(c) 
1 00 . 50 



•FeS2 1.03, t FeS2 1.50, <>FeS2 1.03, (a) F2S2 1.43, (b) FoS2 .57, (c) F2S2 3.30. 



134 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



TABLK No. 2 — ANALYSES. 
MARLS (TERTIARY). 



COUNTY. 



Aiken . . . 

Aiken . . . 

Barnwell. . 

Bamberg. . 

Bamberg. . 

Orangeburg 

Orangeburg 

Barnwell. . 

Hampton . 

Bamberg. 

Dorchester 

Colleton. 

Colleton. 

Dorchester 

Dorchester 

Colleton. 

Colleton. 

Colleton. 

Colleton. 

Colleton. 

Berkeley. 

Dorchester 

Dorchester 

Dorchester 

Dorchester 

Dorchester 

Charleston 

Berkeley. 

Berkeley. 

Berkeley . 

Berkeley . 

Berkeley . 

Charleston 

Orangeburg 

Orangeburg 

Orangeburg 

Berkeley . . 

Berkeley. . 

Georgetown 

Georgetown 

Sumter . 

Florence 

Florence 

Horry . 

Horry . 

Horry . 



PLACE. 



Kennedy Bluff . . 
Kennedy BluflE. . . 

Baldock 

Lemon Swamp. . . 
Binnakers Brg. . . 
12MW Orange. . . 
Jenkins Hill . . . 

Allendale 

Gifford 

Box Branch . . . . 
Utseys BlufE . . . 
Mingo Hill ... . 

Stokes Brg 

Scotchmans Bl. . 
Four Hole Sw. . . 
Givham's Ferry . 
Givham's Ferry . 
Givham's Ferry . 
Givham's Ferry . 
Owens Place . . . 

Ingleside 

Ashley Works. . . 
Ashley Works. . . 
Ashley Works . . . 
Ashley Works. . . 

Bees Ferry 

Bees Ferry 

Wadboo River. . . 

Steep Bluff 

Wappaoolah P. . , 
Smith Place . . . 
Near Saxon ... . 
5MN Cherokee M. 

Creston 

Cave Hall 

I'oplar Creek . . . 

Pond Bluff 

Pond Bluff 

I^euuds Ferry . . . 
Lenuds Ferry . . . 

Muldrow 

Mvers Well ... . 

Bostick 

(Irahamville . . . 

Bucksport 

Myrtle Beach . . . 



42(c) 
42(d) 
54 

339 

342(c) 

347 

349 

353 

355(c) 

360 

361 

362 

365 

369 

370 

373(b) 

373(c) 

373(d) 

373(e) 

395(b) 

402 

405(d) 

405(e) 

405(f) 

405(g) 

410(b) 

410(c) 

419 

421 

428 

441 

441% 

4o6(b) 

697 

699 

701 

713(b) 

713(c) 

740(b) 

740(c) 

838 

859 

863 

943 

952 

953 



47 
26 
44 
44 
51 
42, 
53, 
53, 
50 
48, 
40, 
IS 
.36 
36 
122 
134, 



.29 
.32 

.82 
.70 
.50 
.64 
.88 
.85 
.24 
.33 
22 
'.71 

3.53 
.31 
.67 
.56 
.65 
12.98 

1.89 



.31 

1.20 

1.29 

.20 

.65 

.38 

.43 

7.02 

.52 

3.91 

1.09 

1.38 

.78 

1.05 

.26 

.22 

.87 

1.02 

.26 

.26 

.39 

22 

]09 

.20 



.22 
.61 
.24 

1.17 
2.45 
.42 
.38 
.17 
.51 
.44 



.51 
1.47 

.76 

.13 
1.29 

.38 
1.65 

.95 



1.11 
1.88 
2.74 
2.20 
7.11 

■ ' ! .50 
1.34 



.43 
.83 
.63 

2.39 
.38 
.82 
.05 
.92 
.68 
.52 
.21 

1.42 
.59 
.26 

1.83 



1.07 

1.82 

1.51 

1.08 

2.63 

.56 

.96 

.28 

3.92 

.63 



.98 
4.06 
1.42 
.52 
.79 
.63 
.92 
.63 



.95 
.95 

1.10 
.63 

2.36 

i!34 
.79 



..32 

1.38 

2.07 

2.27 

1.70 

4 22 

!71 

.81 

.79 

.92 

.63 

1.65 

.71 

1.10 



GLAUCONITIC MARLS (TERTIARY). 



48 I Hampton 



Colleton. 
Dorchester . 
Orangeburg. 
Orangebui'g. 
Berkeley. . 



Mauldin I 355 

Givham Fv. Rd 395(a) 

Bees Ferrv 410(b) 

Half Wav Sw I 688 

Creston 696 

Lenuds Ferrv | 739(b) 



10.34 

11.43 

6.10 

.44 

.841 
4 . 05 1 



1.55 
.54 
.20 
2.23 
2.00 
3.13 



2.86 
11.21 
7.11 
8.11 
8.06 
8.47 



2.52 



2 . 36 
36.35 
12.55 
13 . 83 



54 



MARLS (CRETACEOUS). 



55 I Darlington 

56 I Florence . 

57 Florence . 

58 Florence. 

59 Florence . 

60 I Florence. 

61 I Florence. 

62 I Florence. 

63 I Florence. 

64 I Horry . . 

65 I Florence. 



Floyds Mill 1 825(c) 

Georgetown Rd I 850 

Burches Ferry | 855(d) 

Burches Ferry | 855(e) 

Cains Lndg I 85S(f) 

(^ains Lndg I 858(a) 

Bigham Branch | 860 



.70 
46.82 
17.59 
3.38 
35.00 
15.60 
1 20 . 69 



Allisons Lndg | 870(e) 129.21 

Allisons Lndg | 870(d) 42.43 

Grahamville I 943 23.77 

Ards Bluflf I 995 | 4.00 



.42118.03 
.15 .41 
.24 1.52 
:. 59 13.88 



1.51 11.54 
.97110.97 



.43 
1.10 



.80 
9.27 



.94 
1.73 
2.05 



4.32 
3.32 



66 



MARLS (PLEISTOCENE). 



67 I Charleston. 



Stono River | 457 



1.001 .91111.791 6.341 , 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 



135 



TABLE No. 2 — ANALYSES. 
MARLS (TERTIARY). 



66 
67" 



GLAUCONITIC MARLS (TERTIARY). 



.45 


trace 


1.25 


1.16 


.56 


6.61 
7.83 
3.06 
.51 
.05 
1.21 


3.02 
". 2i 










1.60 



.35 
5.49 






.25 
.49 
.53 


2.83 
3.91 
3.28 


.30 











65.06 


2.18 


2.57 


57.27 


7.49 


4.18 


73.13 


2.96 


2.75 


53 . 22 


5.78 


9.78 


58.08 


5.15 


6.76 


50.47 


2.01 


7.71 



MARLS (PLKISTOCKNK). 





a3 

2 

C 


V 
00 

V 

a 
3: 




'Ji 


a 

p 


Carbonic Acid. 


2 
< 

3 

a 
a 

o 

f3 


o 
cs 
o 


3 
1 

a 

?2 


3 

5; 


a 

s 

•cB 


C 


1 


.24 
.19 
.12 
.19 
trace 






25.84 
11.64 
28.01 
32.36 
13.18 
27.78 
42.10 
41.13 
.82 
19.40 
24.52 
8.97 
8.59 
11.24 
38.06 
25.60 
40.71 
37.97 
26.30 
.74 


.26 
.15 
.20 
.20 


trace 
trace 


36.67 
67.41 
32.07 
20.64 
58.21 
34.71 
2.56 
4.27 
91.01 
49.77 


1.33 

1.94 

1.06 

1.28 

2.77 

.49 

.14 

.23 

1.40 

1.86 


"iio 


99 61 


2 








99 51 


3 






99.54 
99 45 


4 






5 






100 17 


6 






.061 2S 


99.76 

100.07 

99 48 


7 










.06 
.09 


.14 


8 




..14 






9 




.24 
.07 


99 60 


10 






.19 


.75 

.58 

1.12 

3.32 

1.03 

.30 

.92 

.59 

1.08 

1.03 


.42 


100.00 


11 






12 






.19 
.39 
.30 


.06 
.25 
.07 


.19 
.86 
.19 

".'36 


73.64 
62.12 
68.53 

9.86 
35.71 

5.19 
11.76 
33.32 

6.58 
13.42 

8.56 
15.45 
15.61 
11.69 
73.13 


.43 

1.39 

.10 

.71 

1.52 

.38 

.68 

1.54 


1.07 

3.31 

.33 

■■."26 

.04 

1.58 

1.10 

.97 


99.75 
99.80 
99.51 
99.58 
99.50 
100.20 
100 07 


13 






14 






15 




.25 


16 






17 










18 










19 






.39 


.11 


99.93 


20 






21 

















22 










34.50 
32.79 
33.74 
36.49 
1.60 
16.29 
35 13 


4.13 
1.70 
.45 
.16 
3.66 
7.00 
1 no 


" ".58 


.62 
1.68 
1.31 

.95 
2.96 


1.19 
1.29 
2.46 
1.58 
2.75 


99.86 
99.52 
100.41 
99.83 
99.87 


23 


' 








24 










25 










26 










27 










28 






.41 
•.35 


.30 
.32 


12.76 

12.80 

12.90 

10.33 

37.06 

14.07 

8.80 

3.09 

11.98 

1.92 

1.71 

5.55 

8.73 

23.57 

60.06 

24.59 

30.18 

55.60 


1.46 
.91 
.62 

1.13 

1.65 
.17 
.66 
.13 
.35 
.65 
.39 
.22 
.77 

1.27 
.77 
.31 
.22 

1.32 


.85 
.96 

iiio 

2.07 

1.07 

1.84 

.77 

1.20 

.39 

.39 

.29 

.17 

.56 

2.26 

6.76 

.85 

.75 


99.51 
100.04 


29 






35.17 1 20 


30 










31 










37.50 
21.88 
29.30 
36.44 
40.92 
30.09 
42.06 
42.02 
40.39 
38.76 
31.59 
14.33 
28.77 
28 79 


.71 

3.03 

5.15 

.14 

0.20 

2.98 

.08 

.16 

.47 

.32 

.39 

.34 

..50 

V4 


■■;34 

1.50 

.11 

0.06 

3.12 

.22 

.11 

" '. 39 

■ ■ .38 
.28 
.28 


99.99 
99.63 
100.38 
99.97 
99.88 
99.56 
99 . 64 
100.42 
100.02 
99.51 
99.93 
99.93 
99.81 
99.94 
99.93 


32 






.29 
.18 
.43 
.22 
.51 
.11 
.18 


.39 
.27 
.31 
.23 

.48 
.08 
.07 


33 
34 


trace 


trace 


35 






36 






37 






38 






39 






40 










41 






.39 
.21 
.26 
.60 


.07 
.35 

.18 
.21 


42 






43 






44 






45 






17 66 na 


46 










26.67 


.51 



100.13 
99 . 95 
99.87 
99 . 98 
99.99 

100.18 



54 










MARLS (CRETACEOUS). 








55 


1.70 




.67 
.69 

.48 
.65 


1.27 
.28 
.43 

1.49 








66.27 
12.45 
59.30 
48.09 


6.16 

.50 

2.04 

5.18 


.51 

2.49 

14.78 


100.37 
99.90 

100.33 
99.85 


56 


36.47 
13.15 
1 .53 
27.08 
11 .24 
15.64 
22.68 
32.76 
18.53 
.80 


.27 

.48 
trace 
.43 
trace 
.27 
.28 
.61 
.47 
.10 


.41 

.88 

2.52 


57 






58 
59 


.60 


trace 


60 
61 
62 


.66 
trace 


trace 


.54 
.83 


i.42 
1.67 


1.29 
.38 


44.00 
39.87 


2.81 
2.19 


4.84 


99.77 W 
99 . 64 


63 




















64 






.42 
1.11 


.28 
2.27 


.35 
2.95 


51.63 
70.12 


.13 
1.10 


1.12 
2.83 


99.66 
100.07 


65 


.96 


trace 



.361 



I 1.191 2.191 .tt«| 



,1U| 



■»7 



06.521 3.42' 5.201 



100.21 



W Iron Sulphide 2.84. 



136 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



TABLE No. 3— ANALYSES. 
FULLERS EARTH. 



COUNTY. 



PLACE. 



10 
11 

12 I 



Aiken . . . . 
Beaufort. .. 
Beaufort . . . 
Beaufort. . . 
Beaufort. . . 
Lexington . . 
Orangeburg. 
Clarendon . . 
Clarendon . . 
Darlington. . 
Williamsburg 
Clarendon . . 



I 

3 Corn'd Pond 262 

Coosaw Road 486(a) 

Coosaw Road 486(b) 

Whatley Place 496(a) 

Whatley Place 496(b) 

Martin Est 505 

Kucker Place 522 

.Manning Manor | 685(b) 

Manning Manor | 685(c) 



Black Crk. Val. 



Deep Creek. 



827 
892 
929 



1.01 

3.32 

1.15 

2.61 

2.02 

3.12 

.16 

.37 

.82 

.67 

1.54 

.58 



.64 
trace 
trace 
trace 



2.01 
.72 
.42 
.41 

2.01 
.67 

1.05 



14.92 

9.12 

3.05 

10.02 

10.15 

7.66 

9.91 

4.83 

10.10 

11.16 

2.88 

10.70 



4.01 
5.02 
4.71 
4.24 
3.14 
1.93 
2.83 
2.81 
5.81 
6.92 
2 22 
2.57 



13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 



Aiken . . 
Aiken . . 
Aiken . . 
Aiken . . 
Aiken . . 
Aiken . . 
Aiken . . 
Aiken . . 
Aiken . . 
Aiken . . 
Aiken . . 
Lexington 
Aiken . . 
Aiken . . 
Lexington 
Lexington 
Richland. 
Richland. 
Richland. 
Richland. 
Richland. 
Kershaw. 

Orangeburg 
Chesterfield 
Chesterfield 
Darlington. 



CLAYS (CRETACEOUS). 
100 



McNamee Place . . . . 

Beech I. Ridge 

Beech I. Ridge 

Harrigals 

Aiken 

Cemetery Hill 

Cemetery Hill 

McMillan Place . . . . 

Beech I. Ridge 

Langley Mfg. Co 

Cooks Brg 

Keesler Place 

Trenholm Est 

Seivern 

Sand Dam Ridge . . . . 

Geiger Place 

Killian 

Killian 

Garner Fy. Rd 

Congaree Stat 

.Jumping Run 

Smithville Rd | 

Pine Tree Crk ( 655 

Creston I 696 

Cobert Hill 

Sugar Loaf Mt 

I Evans Mill 



150 
155 
168 
175 
180 
181 
195 
205 
210 
260 
275 
295 
300 
315 
515 
5.50 
551 
565 
570 
590 
645 



795 
820 





03 


.07 


38.98 


.77 








12 


trace 


38.92 


2.31 








08 


trace 


37.90 
35.49 


2.53 
1.11 












35.56 
31.49 


2.47 
2.44 


. • 






32 


.25 






14 


.19 


27.44 


1.60 








06 


trace 
..50 
.25 


38.12 
37.36 
35 . 61 


1.75 

.91 

2 21 








16 






14 


trace 


38.19 


1.55 








19 


.24 


26.62 


1.89 






trace 


trace 


36.08 


1.02 






trace 




37.47 


1.01 






.02 


.(33 


38.69 


1.28 






.11 


.12 


38.78 


1.15 






.80 


.78 


36.94 


2.64 






1.59 


1.51 


23.82 


2.94 






.18 


.16 


34.38 


1.91 






.06 


.07 


38.96 


.93 






.07 


.11 


37.26 


1.26 






.22 


.13 


36.83 
30 . 50 


2.60 
1.72 






.44 


.12 


30.98 


3.90 






.16 


.23 


32.32 


1.23 






.26 




23.88 


1.02 






.37 


.27 


29.23 


3.07 







41 



CLAYS (PLEISTOCENE). 



42 I Hampton 



Hampton . 
Colleton. . 
Dorchester. 



Youmans Place 
Robert Place . . 
Walterboro . . . 
Summerville . . 



75 

76 

270 

400 



.04 


1.33124.87 


1.79 


.32 


.14120.15 


5.22 


QO 


trace 14.36 


3.04 


.20 


trace 24.83 


2.34 



GEOLOGY AND MINER.\L RESOURCES. 



137 



13 



TABLE No. 3— ANALYSES. 
FULLERS EARTH. 

















- 1 






















2 


at 


a> 










2 
15 


H 








< 


< 

u 


■a 

S3 


3 

a 













ID 

0) 






CI 


kl 


u 




a 






u 


ai 




n 


a 


J3 


3 







>.8, 






a 

at 


a 


•0 


m 

a 


u 





0. 


*2 
u a 




-3a 

B 


"3 




H 


S 




02 


e-i 


a 


S 


^ 


m"" 


M 


^•" 





1 






Undt 


Undt 








73 84 


4 00 




98 42 


2 










2.80 






64.35 


5.25 


9.17 


99 . 03 


H 










97 
2.20 
1 . 69 






77.17 
64.05 
67.62 


4.17 
6.03 
5.86 


8.16 
9.93 
8.90 


99 38 


4 














99 08 


5 














99.38 


6 
















81.65 


3.58 




99.95 




.97 




Undt 


Undt 








78.19 
86.80 
78.64 
58.31 


6.54 

4.63 

3.20 

20.08 




99 32 


8 








99.86 


9 
















98.98 


10 



















99.15 


11 


.18 




.66 


.50 




.25 


.90 


86.35 


4.15 




100.30 X 


12 


.55 




.23 


1.21 








79.43 


3.94 





100 26 














CLAYS (CRETACEOUS). 



14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
38 
37 
38 
39 
40 



.851 
1.21 
1.291 
.431 
- 941 
1.201 
1.82 
1.11 



1.56 

1.30 

.91 

.86 

1.44 

1.00 

.98 



1.10 

.98 

1.07 



0.61 
1.27 



1.481, 



.55 
.26 
.41 
.63 
.74 
1.01 
2.51 
.4] 



1.37 
0.53 
.97 
1.09 
.69 
.52 
.48 



.21 
. 55 
.63 
Undt 
Undt 
. 72 
.56 



.20 

.30 
..SO 
.50 
.13 
.63 
.33 
.32 
2.00 
1.10 
0.50 
.67 
.20 
.08 
.37 
.23 



.20 
.19 
.10 
Undt 
Undt 
.15 
.28 



45.02113.581 
44.23112.90 
44.60 13.171 



48.95 
47.49 
50.87 
55.61 
44.51 
43.18 
45.07 
44.11 
60.21 
46 . 99 
45 . 69 
45.10 
45.44 
42.30 



12.97 
12.86 
11.42 
10.39i 
13.451 
14.32 
12.39 
13.37 
8.58 
13.82 
13.98 
13.52 
12.86 
15.43 



.731 




































.11 


.03 



57. 30111. 84(, 
49.31112.521 



45.72 
47.78 
47.46 
57.65 
51.19 
55.02 



13.05 
12.29 
12.97 

8 . 85 
11.95 

9.27 



.981 



66.061 8.10|. 
53.87110.281 



100.11 

100.25 
100.40 
100.08 
100.19 

99 . 63 
100.03 

99 . 73 

98 . 27 
99.72 
99.69 

100.28 
100.06 
100.36 
1 00 . 53 
100.15 
100.00 
100.00 

99 . 97 
100.51 
100.57 
100.21 
100.00 
100.20 
100.34 
100.00 
100.28 



41 




CLAYS 


(PLEISTOCENE). 


42 
43 
44 
45 


1.32 .. . 
.81 ... 


.72 .72 
.. 1.08 1.08 

.06 2.14 
.. trace 1.89 


1 60 . 33 

1 64.22 

1 73.80 

61.15 


8.77 
7.36 
6.31 
9.78 




99.89 
100.38 

99.93 
100.19 



X Moisture 4.12, Y Undt. 1.00, Z Undt. 0.68. 



140 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

MINING REVIEW FOR 1906 

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS 

GRANITE. 

DIMENSION AND FINISHED STONE. 

The fine grained blue and gray monumental granite from the Anderson 
Quarry, and the medium grained structural granite from the Rion Quarry, con- 
tinue the most prolific sources of these grades which are supplied by the Winns- 
boro Granite Company of Rockton, S. C. 

The Excelsior Granite Company of Heath Springs, S. C, supplies a large 
demand for a superior fine grained granite for monumental work. 

The Leitzsey Quarry, through S. M.; Speers, of Newberry, S. C, regularly 
supplies a fine grained gray granite in dimension and finished form. 

The Benjamin Quarry, at Quarry, S. C, supplies an attractive grade of 
"Scotch" monumental granite. 

The Keystone Granite Company's quarry, and the Pacolet Granite Company's 
quarry, both of which are located near Pacolet, S. C, have had their output 
curtailed through temporary litigation. 

CURBING^ LINTELS, JAMBS, ETC. 

The Entrekin Quarry Company of Graycourt, S. C, and the W. Y. Fair 
Quarry at High Point, S. C, continuously supply these grades. 

PAVING BLOCKS, JETTY STONE, ROAD METAL OR BALLAST. 

The Rion Quarry of the Winnsboro Granite Company supplies a very superior 
grade of paving blocks. The Edgefield Quarry at Edgefield, S. C, the Beverly 
Bros'. Quarry at Beverly, S. C, and the Lipscomb Quarry at Columbia, S. C., 
supply large quantities of Jetty Stone and Road Metal. The Winnsboro Granite 
Company furnishes large quantities of crushed stone from its waste products. 

The Townes-Cothran granite property near Greenville, S. C, is being exten- 
sively opened with a view to supplying railway ballast and dimension stone. 

LIMESTONE, MARBLE. 

The Limestone Springs Lime Works Quarry at Limestone Springs (GafTney, 
S. C.), yields large quantities of limestone and some structural marble. The 
limestone is chiefly utilized in the production of lime ; the equipment includes 
six large modern kilns. The Ettres and the Hardin Quarries and Kilns near 
Blacksburg, S. C, and the Master's Quarry and Kiln near Ware Shoals, S. C, 
are intermittently operated. (Value of lime produced 1906, $34,719.) 

ROAD-BUILDING MATERIALS. 

The Aiken-Leak Chert (felsite) Quarry near Abbeville supplies road metal 
chiefly for Abbeville County roads. Nearly all the granite quarries supply 
crushed stone from their waste products. 

Granite quarries in the Counties of Greenville, Spartanburg, Union, and Ches- 
ter are operated by municipal or county authorities to supply road metal for 
streets and country roads. 

LIST OF GRANITE QUARRIES REGULARLY OPERATED. 

Survey 
No. Quarry. Address. 

1635 Beverly Quarry Beverly, S. C. 

2250 Edgefield Quarry Edgefield, S. C. 

5265 High Point Quarry High Point, S. C. 

5574 Leitzsey Quarry Newberry, S. C. 

5650 Entrekin Quarry Graycourt, S. C. 

6597 Lipscomb Quarry Columbia, S. C. 

6688 Winnsboro Granite Company Quarry Rockton, S. C. 

6740 Winnsboro Granite Company Quarry Rockton, S. C. 

7355 Excelsior Granite Company Quarry Heath Springs, S. C. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 141 

LIST OF GRANITE QUARRIES INTERMITTENTLY OPERATED. 

Survey 
No. Quarry. Address. 

1096 Westminster Quarry Westminster, S. C. 

1306 Shelor Quarrj' ^ Walhalla, S. C. 

1335 Pendleton Quarry '. Pendleton, S. C. 

1872 Bordeaux Quarry Bordeaux. S. C. 

5195 Benjamin Quarry Quarry, S. C. 

5203 Bauman Quarry Greenville, S. C. 

5482 Bates Quarry Batesburg, S. C. 

6075 Keystone Quarry Spartanburg, S. C. 

6078 Johnson Quarry Pacolet, S. C. 

6520 Blairs Quarry Blairs, S. C. 

6530 Strothers Quarry Strothers. S. C. 

6605 Bowling Green Quarry Bowling Green, S. C. 

6615 Whitesides Quarry Yorkville, S. C. 

6626 Happerfield Quarry Yorkville, S. C. 

6690 Leiper Davis Quarry ..Columbia, S. C. 

7645 Oro Quarry Chesterfield, S. C. 

(Value of stone marketed 1906, $258,398.00.) 

IL— NON-METALLIC GROUP 

MONAZITE. 

While a few regularly organized companies systematically mine monazite, the 
greater portion of this mineral is supplied to the magnetic concentrators by 
numerous individuals, who operate irregularly, some of whom own producing 
properties, while others work properties to the owners of which they pay royal- 
ties, the usual rate being one-sixth of the output. Monazite is mined exten- 
sively in both Greenville and Cherokee Counties, and subordinately in Spartan- 
burg and Anderson Counties, but the magnetic concentrators and purchasing 
agencies are centered at Gaffney, S. C. 

LIST OF MONAZITE AGENCIES IN SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Carolina Monazite Company, concentrating plant, M. E. Gettys, Agent, Gaff- 
ney, S. C. 

German Monazite Company, concentrating plant, Geo. L. English, Agent, 
Shelby, N. C. 

Weatheral Separating Company, 68 Broadway, New York, J. V. Welchel, 
Agent, Gaffney, S. C. 

(Value Monazite produced 1906, $43,000.) 

MICA AND FELDSPAR. 

These minerals are mined in Greenville County by Miller and Teague, of 
Piedmont, S. C. The mine was opened during the latter part of 1906, and pro- 
duced mica of the approximate value of $1,000.00 in the course of exploration, 
incident to which good bodies of high grade mica and feldspar were exposed. 

The opening during December, 1906, of an exploratory shaft on the G. W. 
Chapman property (Sur. No. 5225), afforded some good mica and revealed a 
good prospect. 

III.— METALLIC GROUP 



The Haile Gold Mining Company of Kershaw, S. C, continued the largest 
individual producer of Gold east of the Mississippi River; during some years 
their output (varying from $70,000 to $150,000), exceeds the aggregate output 
of any of the Eastern States, apart from South Carolina. 

TTie Blackmon Mine of the Piedmont Development Company (Kershaw, S. C.)- 
was a regular producer during the year 1906. 

The Magnolia, Brown, and Schlegel Milch Mines of Hickory Grove. S. C, and 
the Darwin, and Love Mines of the Kine's Creek Station section, the Brassington 
Mine near Kershaw, S. C, and the Ophir Mine near Glenn Springs, S. C, were 
irregular producers of gold during 1906. The Gregory placer deposit near 
Jefferson, S. C, was worked intermittently. The aggregate output for the year 
1906 comprised 3,819.63 ounces (reported to U. S. Geol. Survey), valued at 
$78,95900. 



142 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



The Ross Tin Mine, owned by Capt. S. S. Ross, Gaffney, S. C, is the only 
property in South Carolina which alTorded tin ore during the year 1906. In 
the course of limited exploration below the 6l-foot level, during the year 1906, 
about thirty tons of cassiterite (Tin ore) were accumulated. This ore affords 
about 70 per cent, of metallic tin singularly free from objectionable associate 
metals. It commands an eager market at Haile, Cornwall, England. 

(Tin ore produced 1906, $16,800.) 

Nickel, Copper and Gold at the Culbreath Mine, and Manganese at the Dorn 
Mine were objects of limited explorations during the latter part of 1906. 

COASTAL PLAIN 



The Ingleside Mining and Manufacturing Company of Charleston, S. C, 
mined and calcined marl and shipped 2,100 short tons of lime ("marl") during 
the year 1906; valued at $9,450.00. 

The Ashley Marl Plant (V.-C. C. Co.), does not appear to have been operated 
during 1906. 

FULLERS EARTH, 

The National Earth Company of Sellers, S. C, completed a plant near Salters 
for supplying Fullers Earth during 1906. 



PHOSPHATE ROCK. 

List of Miners of "Land Rock" During 1906. 

Charleston Mining and Manufacturing Company, Charleston, S. C. 
Bolton Mines Company, Charleston, S. C. 
Bradley (P. B. & R. S.), Charleston, S. C. 
Runnymede Phosphate Company, Charleston, S. C. 

List of Miners of River Rock During 1906, 

Central Phosphate Company, Beaufort, S. C. 
Stono Mines, Charleston, S. C. 

Total production of Phosphate Rock during the year 1906: 
675; valued at $5.00 per ton f. o. b., $1,118,375.00. 



Long tons, 223, 



Ozvners of Fertiliser Plants With Acid Chambers. 

Anderson Oil and 
Fertilizer Company, 
Anderson, S. C. 

Ashepoo Fertilizer 
Company, Charles- 
ton, S. C. 

Etiwan Fertilizer 
Company, Charles- 
ton, S. C. 

Read Phosphate 
Company, Charles- 
ton, S. C. 

Royster (F. S.) 
Guano Company, 
Columbia, S. C. 

Virginia - Carolina 
Fertilizer Company, 
Charleston, S. C. (7 
plants) ; Blacksburg, 
S. C. I plant) ; Co- 
lumbia, S. C. (2 
(i plant) ; Port Royal. 




PHOSPHATE WORKS AT PON PON. 



plants) ; Greenville, S. C. (i plant) ; Pon Pon, S. C 
S. C. (i plant). 

The South Carolina Fertilizer plants (with acid chambers) represent an 
aggregate capacity slightly exceeding 500,000 tons. During 1906 the marketed 
product represented an approximate value of $7,945,955- 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 143 

CLAYS. 

Sedimentary Kaolin, or Ball Clay, and Fire Clay. 

List of Mining Plants in South Carolina. 

Immaculate Kaolin Company Langley, S. C. 

Imperial Kaolin Company Seivern, S. C. 

Killian Fire Brick Company Killian, S. C. 

T. G. Lamar Company Langley, S. C. 

Landrum Fire Brick Works Columbia, S. C. 

McMillan (J. B.) Graniteville, S. C. 

R. ^IcNamee & Co Bath, S. C. 

Paragon Kaolin Works Langley, S. C. 

Peerless Clay Company Langley, S. C. 

Sterling Kaolin Company Aiken, S. C. 

U. S. Kaolin Company Steedman, S. C. 

W. St. J. Jervey, Charleston, S. C Miles Mill, S. C. 

The aggregate output shipped during 1906 was 44,665 short tons, valued at 
$175,351-00.. 

Potteries. 

Operators. Office. Works. 

Dougherty & Baynham Trenton Trenton. 

B. F. Farmer Easley, R. F. D. 6. ..Maynard. 

Joseph B. Findley R. F. D. i, Pickens. .Wolf Creek. 

T. L. Hahn North Augusta.. ..North Augusta. 

L. D. Harley & Co Trenton Miles Mill. 

M.A.Hilton Sharon Sharon. 

H. M. Johnson Landford Station.. . Landf or d Station. 

W. F. Outen & Co Catawba.. ' Catawba. 

Wood Pottery Co North Augusta.. ..North Augusta. 

John Moore, President 

FIRE BRICK AND OTHER REFRACTORY ARTICLES. 

Operators. 

Killian Fire Brick Company Killian, S. C. 

Landrum Fire Brick Works Columbia, S. C* 

DIRECTORY OF BRICK AND TILE MANUFACTURERS IN SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Operators. Office. Works. 

Vincent Ackerman Cottageville Cottageville. 

Arthur Allen Pelzer Williamston. 

W. N. Ashe, Proprietor Rock Hill 

-(i) Greers Brick Works Greers. 

(2) Rock Hill Brick Works Rock Hill. 

(3) Catawba Brick Co Van Wyck. 

S. C. Berry Greer Greer. 

J. W. Brasington Cheraw Cheraw. 

Brick and Lumber Yards Bowman Bowman. 

Philipp Gerloch, Mgr •• •■;;.,•,• ; • ■.• • "t r-' 

R. A. Brown & Sons Concord, N. C Rock Hill, also in N.L. 

Joseph N. Bynum Anderson Richland. 

Cain & Hill Sharon Sharon. 

Camden Press Brick Co Camden Camden. 

Charlotte Brick Co Charlotte, N. C. . . .Grattan. 

C. B. Chase, Supt • • 

Chester Brick Co Chester Chester. 

D. P. Crosby ;.,;••• V ,' 

Chesterfield Brick Co Society Hill Chesterfie d. 

Craig & Co Chesterfield Chesterfield. 

W. D. Craig ■■ • •• • 

T. T. & M. E. Cromer Greenwood Greenwood. 

Cross Anchor Oil Co Cross Anchor Cross Anchor. 

Cunningham & Means Greenville Greenville. 

Darlington Brick Co Darlington Society Hill. 

Bright. Williamson, Proprietors •••• •• •• 

D. J. S. Derrick & Co R. F. D. 2, Leesville.Lecsville. 



144 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

Operators. Office. Works. 

Dougherty & Baynham Trenton (Trenton Pottery.) 

Glass and Pottery Works 

Alvin Etheredge Saluda Saluda. 

John A. Floyd Scranton Scranton. 

John W. Fowler Laurens Laurens. 

Fowler & Black Jonesville Jonesville. 

W. B. Fowler 

W. R. Funk Kingstree Kingstree. 

Gaff ney Brick Co Gaffney Gaffney. 

J. H. Curry, President 

Greenwood Brick Co Greenwood Greenwood. 

J. R. Nicholls, Mgr 

Gross Bros Lexington Lexington. 

G. A. Guignard Columbia Columbia. 

Hankinson Brick Co Augusta North Augusta. 

Hankinson & Son 

G. H. Hanna Spartanburg Cedar Spring. 

W. L. Harley Orangeburg Orangeburg. 

John S. Horlbeck Charleston Christ Church Par. 

W. G. Hyatt & Sons Latta Latta. 

Hyatt Brick Co., Inc Columbia Columbia. 

James H. Rodger, President 1519 Main St Columbia. 

W. Thomas Jackson Yorkville Yorkville. 

Jackson Press Brick Co Augusta, Ga. Box 6o4.North Augusta. 

Archibald Jamison Greenville Greenville. 

J. C. Jeffcoat Norway Norway. 

Kay & Anderson Westminster Westminster. 

Killian Fire Brick Co Charleston Killian. 

T. M. Waring, President 

J. H. Koon Little Mountain.. ..Little Mountain. 

Landrum Fire Brick W^orks Columbia Columbia. 

R. M. Stork, Prop 

D. A. Layton Marion Florence, Layton Sta- 
tion, Pee Dee. 

Lesley Brick Co Abbeville Abbeville. 

J. W. I^esley, Prop 

H. P. Little Conway Conway. 

Lydia Cotton Mills Clinton Clinton. 

C. M. Bailey, Prop 

D. H. McGregor Ruby Ruby. 

W. M. McKenzie RFD6, Bishopville. .Bishopville. 

J. D. McMahan Richland Richland. 

James L. McMillan Abbeville Abbeville. 

McNally Brick Works Union Union. 

R. L. McNally 

Mallory Brick Co Mallory Latta. 

James L. Maxwell Spartanburg Spartanburg. 

W. H. Mays Greenwood Greenwood. 

J. N. Moore & Sons Ashland, R. D. from 

Bishopville Ashland. 

J. W. & R. S. Moore, Props Dillon (or Marlboro) 

Dillon Brick Co Dillon. 

Bennettsville Brick Co Mandeville. 

Henry Moseley Greenville Greenville. 

J. C. Nally Anderson Anderson. 

Newberry Brick & Block Cement Co. Newberry Newberry. 

W. F. Gray, President 

J. B. Oxner, Prop Gilbert Lorena. 

Brick Works 

Pickens Brick Co Pickens Pickens. 

Bivens & Holder, Props 

J. L. Pinson Greenwood Greenwood. 

Pool & Matthews Newberry Newberry. 

Ramsey & Trammel Anderson Anderson. 

'Robert P. Ransom Williamston Williamston. 

J. D. Rihion Chesterfield 

Pierre Robert Garnett Garnett. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES. 145 

Operators. Office. Works. 

Chas. P. Robinson Chapin Chapin. 

J. H. Roe & Co Tigerville Tigerville. 

Rutherford & Co Augusta, Ga., 627 

Broadway Hamburg. 

Savannah Building Supply Co.. . .Savannah, Ga Hardeeville. 

Chas. L. Rounds 

L. B. Smith Mullins Mullins. 

T. E. Smith Donalds Donalds. 

\V. C. Smith & Bro Dunbar Dunbar. 

Smith & Perritt Mfg. Co Mullins Mullins. 

Summerville Brick Co Summerville Summerville. 

John W. Taylor, President 

Sumter Brick Works Sumter Sumter. 

Irving A. Ryttenberg, Prop 

J. C. Upchurch Marburg, Chester- 
field County 

W. M. Warren Branchville Branchville. 

J. C. Wolling Leeds Leeds. 

Total value of Clay products (manufactured), $830,481.00. 

SAND. 

Glass Sand Directory. 

Killian Fire Brick Company Killian, S. C. 

Blackville Sand Company Blackville, S. C. 

John F. Weekly Ulmers, S. C. 

J. M. Tindal Tindal, S. C. 

The Carolina Glass Company at Columbia, S. C, is the only consumer of 
glass sand in South Carolina. 

Sand for general structural work and for the manufacture of cement blocks 
and sand brick has numerous neighborhood sources of supply. The sand in the 
bed of the Pon Pon portion of the Edisto River constitutes the greatest source 
of supply utilized in this State. 




Chapter 

VI. 

Water Powers 

of 
South Carolina 



The State of South Carolina is divided geologically into six sections, viz. : 
Sea Coast. Lower Pine Belt, Upper Pine Belt, Red Hill Country. Sand Hills, 
Piedmont Section and Mountains. The first three sections are flat land which 
attain an elevation of about 130 feet above sea level at the foot of the Red and 
Sand Hills and Piedmont region. The Red Hills have elevations up to 550 feet ; 
the Sand Hills elevations of 700 feet; the Piedmont of 1,200; the Mountains of 
over 3,000 feet. 

The large water powers are in the Piedmont section, which extends north of 
Columbia and to the foot of the mountains, while numerous smaller powers are 
to be found in the streams of the Sand Hills and Mountains. 

RIVERS. 

There are three great river systems that drain the State — the Pedee, Santee 
and Savannah. 

PEDEE RIVER. 

The Pedee River has its source in the northwest corner of North Carolina, 
with one feeder extending up into Virginia. After traversing 150 miles of 
North Carolina and draining 9,700 square miles of its territory, it enters this 
State and flows on to the ocean at Georgetown. The river is navigable from 
the ocean up to Cheraw, where the first river falls come at the foot of the Sand 
Hills. Although this is the largest river that flows in the State, it has no valu- 
able water powers of note in this State, as it reaches its low level shortly after 
crossing the boundary line. 

SANTEE RIVER. 

The Santee River system comprises the Congaree and Wateree Rivers, with 
their tributaries, and furnishes the larger part of the water powers of the State. 

The Congaree River is formed by the junction of the Broad and Saluda 
Rivers at Columbia. It has no water powers except at the point of formation, 
where the Columbia Canal utilizes a portion of its waters and fall. 

The Broad River rises in the mountains of North Carolina, and carrying the 
drainage from 1,400 square miles, it enters this State at an elevation of about 
750 feet above sea level, and flows down to the Congaree at an elevation of 120 
feet above sea level, giving a total fall of 630 feet and having a total drainage 
area of 4,950 square miles. The Saluda River rises in North Carolina and drains 
300 square miles of that State. Some of its waters spring at an elevation of 
over 2,000 feet, and at its formation, by the juncture of the South Forks and 



WATER POWERS. 



147 



Middle Saluda, it has an elevation of 900 feet, giving a total fall from thii 
point to its juncture with the Broad of 766 feet; it has a total drauiage of 
2,350. 

The Wateree River (known above as the Catawba) is navigable up to thi 
shoals above Camden. This river rises in the middle portion of North Caro- 
lina, and carrying the drainage from 3,085 square miles of that State, it enters 
this State at an elevation of about 515 feet, giving a total fall within the State 
of 395 feet down to Camden, where it has a drainage area of 4,376 square miles 

The Savannah River for its full length is the boundary between this Statt 
and Georgia, and its tributaries, the Tugaloo and Chatuga Rivers, are the State 
line up to the extreme northwestern corner of this State. The head waters of 
the Tugaloo and Seneca Rivers have their source over 1,000 feet above sea level, 
and these rivers form the Savannah at an elevation of 567 feet and bring to it 
the drainage from 1,970 square miles of country. The Savannah flows down to 
Augusta through 237 feet of fall, and at that point it has a drainage area of 
6,830 square miles. This river and its tributaries have many valuable water 
powers. 




DAM ACROSS BROAD RIVER FOR COLUMBIA CANAL. 



RAINFALL. 

The rainfall in the basins of these rivers is approximately 51 inches, but in 
the mountainous section, which includes the greater part of North Carolina 
drainage area of the Santee and Savannah systems, the rainfall is much greater, 
and this mountainous section is of great value in maintaining the even flow of 
the rivers, both on account of its large rainfall and of its large wooded area. 
The Sand Hills are also excellent feeders, as their porous soils absorb a large 
proportion of the rainfall, giving a greater flow per square mile of drainage 
area than any other section. 

WATER POWERS 

By a water power we understand a formation at which the fall in a stream 
of water can be utilized by means of some engineering work to turn machinery 



148 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

for the generation of power. Theoretically, power could be developed at any 
point on a flowing stream, but if this cannot be done in a permanent manner, 
by engineering works at a practical cost, it would not be called a water power. 
It requires, theoretically, about 530 cubic feet of water per minute falling through 
one foot to produce a horse power (33,000 foot pounds), but a good class of 
water wheel cannot be counted upon to develop over 80 per cent, of this theo- 
reitcal power, so that it requires in practice about 662.5 cubic feet of water for 
one footfall to produce a horse power. This latter figure has been used in 
calculating the powers hereinafter given. For long distance electrical transmis- 
sion not much over 65 per cent, of the theoretical water power is available for 
driving machinery in a distant plant. 

BROAD RIVER. 

Taking the Broad River, we find the following known powers which are of 
interest : 

I. The Columbia Canal, which, by means of an 8-foot dam and three miles 
of canal, brings the waters of the Broad River to power houses on the Congaree 




DAM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF WATER POWER. 

River, where it is utilized under an average head of 28 feet, generating under 
ordinary conditions about 10,000 horse power, the greater part of which is utilized 
by means of electrical transmission in the cotton mills of Columbia and for 
lighting and street railway purposes. This location is susceptible of a larger 
power development by building a dam across the Congaree River and thus 
utilizing the waters of the Saluda River also, the Broad's waters only bemg 
used at present. 

2. Property of Central Carolina Power Company, which proposes to build dam 
one mile above mouth of Little River and pond the water up to Alston, a dis- 
stance of about 10 miles. Fall, 31 feet; horse power, 10,000 primary, 10,000 
secondary. This location is 16 miles above Columbia. 

3. Parr's Shoals Power Company, just above Alston, where a development 
with about 32 feet fall and a large pondage is contemplated. Drainage, 4,600 
square miles. Location. 28 miles above Columbia. 

4. Union Manufacturing and Power Company, two (2) miles above the cross- 
ing of the river, by the Seaboard Railroad, where a 24-foot development has 



WATER POWERS. 



149 



been made, giving 8,000 horse power, which is used in driving cotton mills in 
Union 12 miles away. 

5. At Lockhart Shoals, about 12 miles above the Union Manufacturing and 
Power Company's dam, the river has a fall of 50 feet and a drainage area of 
2,400 square miles. Part of the power is utilized with a 30- foot fall to develop 
about 5,oofi horse power, which is used in driving the Lockhart Cotton Mills. 

6. Ninety-nine Islands, owned by the Southern Power Co., where there is a 
fall of 51 feet available. The development of this power is now under way. 
This power will form one of several powers developed by the Southern Power 
Company, all of which will be electrically connected by a system of transmission 
lines furnishing power to all of the large towns in the northern central part of 
this State (Lancaster, Chester, Rock Hill, Yorkville, Gaflfney, Spartanburg) and 
to a number of towns in North Carolina. 

7. Cherokee Falls, near the crossing of the river by the Southern Railway 
main line. Fall, 50 feet. A power company has made arrangements to develop 
a large power at this point. These powers of the Broad River do not account 
for 250 feet of its fall within this State, much of which can be developed at 
other points than those mentioned. 




VIEW OF DEVELUl'EU i'UWEK. 



SALUDA RIVER. 

On the Saluda River we find the following notable powers: 

1. Saluda Factory and mouth of the river. There is about 26 feet fall here, 
and the drainage area is 2,350 square miles, but this fall could best be utilized 
in connection with the Columbia Canal, as above mentioned. 

2. Dreher's Shoals, about 10 miles above the mouth of the river, where it is 
proposed to build a 50-foot dam and develop io,oco horse power. Drainage 
area, 2,200. 

3. From Long's Ferry up the river for 15 miles there are a series of shoals 
giving a total fall of 89 feet, which could be utilized in one or more develop- 
ments that would furnish 20,000 horse power. 

4. The next power of any importance is at Ware Shoals, where there is a 
development utilizing 65 feet fall and furnishing 6,000 horse power, which is 
partly utilized by the Ware Shoals Manufacturing Conii)any's cotton mill. 

5. Belton Power Company, which utilizes al)Out 40 feet fall, is developing 
approximately 4,oo(j horse power for use in the cotton mills at Belton, Williams- 
ton, and Anderson. 

6. The Pclzer Manufacturing Company have two developments, the lower with 
40 feet fall furnished 5,000 horse power for electrical transmission to their mills 
and an upper development with 26 feet fall, driving mills i and 2, (U-voloping 
2,500 horse power. 

7. Piedmont Manufacturing Company, which utilizes 24 feet fall in its cotton 
mill. 



ISO 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



8. Saluda River Power Company, above Greenville, have made a development 
which furnishes power to some mills in Greenville. The mentioned powers on 
the Saluda River do not account for 450 feet of its total fall, much of which 
could be developed at other points. 

THE WATEREE (OR CATAWBA) RIVER. 

The Wateree and Catawba Rivers have six valuable powers, all of which are 
owned by the Southern Power Company of Charlotte, N. C. These powers are 
as follows : 

1. Wateree Canal, just above Camden, where there is a fall of 52 feet. Drain- 
age area, 4,376 square miles. 

2. Rocky Creek, Great Falls and Fishing Creek — these three powers have a 
total fall of 173 feet. The development of Great Falls has just been completed, 
and the others will be undertaken as soon as the demand for power warrants. 

3. Landsford, near Lancaster, is the next power, where there is a fall of 
40 feet. 

4. Catawba comes next, where the Southern Power Company has had a 10,000 
horse power plant in operation for several years, furnishing power to Rock 
Hill. Fort Mill, Pineville and Charlotte. 










COTTON FIELD, COTTON MILL AND DEVELOPED WATER POWER. 

These mentioned powers do not cover 100 feet of the rivers' fall, some of 
which could probably be developed, especially between the Wateree Canal and 
Rocky Creek. 

SAVANNAH RIVER. 

The Savannah River furnishes a considerable number of powers : 

1. The Augusta Canal — 45 feet fall. 

2. Blue Jacket and Little River Shoals. 

3. Twin City Power Company, which proposes to develop 33 feet of fall, with 
a possible development of 50 feet. 

4. Calhoun Falls, where there is a fall of 75 feet. This is one of the biggest 
powers in the State, and a company has been formed looking to its development. 
It is owned by J. C. Calhoun, of New York City. 

5. Cherokee Shoals, the property of the Savannah River Power Company, 
where it is proposed to develop 6,600 horse power under a head of 26 feet. 

6. Gregg Shoals, owned and developed by the Savannah River Power Com- 
pany. Fall, 13.6 feet; 3,000 horse power. Power is transmitted to Anderson, 
Abbeville, Greenwood and Calhoun Falls through 65 miles of line at 23,000 volts. 



I'EI.ZEK MII.I.S ANU TOWER PLANTS. 



152 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



7. Middleton's Shoals, where there is a fall of 18 feet. 

8. McDaniel's Shoals, where there is a fall of 30 feet. 

9. Andersonville — fall unknown but said to be a valuable power. 

POWERS ON TRIBUTARY RIVERS. 

The meagre data available regarding the shoals on the rivers tributary to 
those above given prevents any definite description of them, except that the 
United States Government Surveys give some approximate data regarding the 
streams in the northwestern section of the State, from which the accompanying 
table is prepared. 

ENOREE RIVER. 

The Enoree River is the first tributary to the Broad and has a drainage area 
of 730 square miles and a fall of 573 feet, or about 7 feet to the mile. 

1. Musgrove Mill — fall about 10 feet. Drainage area, 400 square miles. 

2. Yarboro's Mill — fall 16 feet — 400 square miles. 

3. Long Shoals. 

4. Enoree Mills — fall 70 feet. Utilized for driving a cotton mill. 

5. Van Patton Shoal — fall 55 feet. Development commenced. 

6. Pelham Mills— fall 18 feet. 




POWER PLANT, COLUMBIA, S. C. — 10,000 H. P. DEVELOPED FROM COLUMBIA CANAL. 



TYGER RIVER. 

The Tyger River has a drainage area of 720 square miles and a fall of 6 or 
7 feet to the mile. Its powers are small and so far as I know there are four 
developments on it. Two at Tucapau for the Tucapau Mills, and one at Appa- 
lachee, where 2,000 horse power of water wheels have been put in to operate 
under 47-foot head and at Fairmont for the Tiger Cotton Mills. There must 
be several good powers on this stream and its head waters capable of furnishing 
several hundred horse power. At Hill's Factory, between Union and Laurens, 
there is a fall of 40 feet which should be of value. The drainage area at this 
point is 308 square miles. 

PACOLET RIVER. 

The Pacolet River drains 475 miles and has an average fall of 6 or 7 feet per 
mile. In its upper part the bed of the river is very precipitous, furnishing many 
good powers. The Pacolet Manufacturing Company utilizes a 60-foot fall in 
their mills and the Clifton Mariufacturing Company 22 feet. The Mary Louise 



WATER POWERS. 



153 



Mills, near Cowpens, have a developed power on this river, and Mr. J. B. Cleve- 
land owns two powers, one at Big Island, 35 feet fall, and one at Flack Rock, 
28 feet fall. 

SALUDA RIVER TRIBUTARIES. 

The Saluda River has several tributaries with good powers. Twelve Mile 
Creek in Lexington County has a heavy fall and it drains a sand hill country 
from which the run-off is regular and large. The Lexington Manufacturing 
Companj-^ uses 26 feet fall, generating 200 horse power, and between their plant 
and the river there is much available power for small manufacturing plants. 
Other tributary creeks from these same hills must also furnish many small avail- 
able powers. 

The Reedy River, a tributary of the Saluda, has a drainage area of 386 square 
miles and has a very heavy fall. There are many small powers on this stream. 
The first is at Boyd's Mill, where a 50-foot development giving i.ooo horse 
power is proposed. Above this there are many undeveloped falls or shoals. 
The largest power on the upper part of the stream is at Greenville, where there 
is a total fall of over 80 feet, the greater part of which is used in several 
manufacturing plants. 




Co.\STKUCTlN(J A POWEK DAM. 

TRIBUTARIES OF WATEREE AND CATAWBA. 

The only notable tributaries of the Wateree and Catawba Rivers are as 
follows : 

Pine Tree Creek, near Camden, on which the Hermitage Cotton Mills have 
a development. There are several small powers on these streams suitable for 
local use. 

Fishing Creek, in Chester County, on which there have been several small 
developments of from 50 to 100 horse power. 

TRIBUTARY OF CONGAREE RIVER. 

Congaree Creek, a tributary of the Congaree River, is a Sand Hill stream 
with a good fall and even flow, on which several small powers could be devel- 
oped. 'I'he Saxe Gotha Mills on one of its tributaries utilizes 50 horse power. 

TRIBUTARIES OF SAVANNAH RIVER. 

The tributaries of the Savannah furnish a large number of powers about which 
little of detail is known, but the accompanying table will give the total power 
in these streams, figuring one-half of the total fall for the full drainage area. 



154 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 
WATER POWERS IN SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Area. 
Drainage 



Fall. 



H. P. 

Devel. 



H. P. 

(Jndevel 



Total 
Power. 



Remarks 



Congaree River. 



Columbia. 



7,300 S. M. 31 feet. 10,000 



5,000 15,000 



Broad River. 



Cen. Car. Power Co 

Parr Shoals 

Union Mfg. and Power Co. 

Lockhart Shoals 

Ninety-Nine Islands 



Cherokee Falls. 



4,760 
4,600 
2,600 
2,400 
1,357 

1,357 



8,000 
5,000 



10,000 

10,000 



5,000 
10,000 



10,000 
10,000 
8,000 
10,000 
10,000 

10,000 



Now being developed 
by Southern Power Co. 

Now being developed 
by Hugh MacRae & Co 



Saluda River. 



Drehers Shoals 

Longs Ferry and Above.. 

Ware Shoals 

Belton 

Pelzer, No. 1 

Pelzer, No. 2 

Piedmont 

Saluda River Power Co.. 



2,200 
2,000 
635 
523 
400 
400 
380 



2,000 
3,000 
3,000 
1,500 
1,500 
4,200 



10,000 

20,000 

4,000 



10,000 . 

20,000 . 

6,000 . 

3,000 . 

3,000 . 

1,500 ). 

1,500 i . 

4,200 I . 



Wateree River. 



Wateree Canal. . 

Rocky Creek ] 

Great Falls [ . 

Fishing Creek J . 
Landsford 



Catawba . 



4,375 



3,600 
3, '425' 



52 " I I 20,000 20,000 

I I 1 

20,000 



32,000 



15,000 
12,000 



10,000 



67,000 



12,000 
10,000 



Owned by Southern 

Power Co. 
75 ft. fall bet. canal 

and Rocky Creek ; 

data on power not 

available. Owned by 

Southern Power Co. 
Owned by Southern 

Power Co. 
Owned by Southern 

Power Co. 







Savannali River. 






Twin Citv Power Co 


5,135 
2,664 

2,212 
2,100 
2,078 

1,900 


" 1 50 " 


1 20,000 

1 27,000 

6,600 

3,300 


20,000 
27,000 

6,600 
3,300 
.4,500 

1 6,500 




Calhoun Falls 

Cherokee Shoals 




75 " 

26 " 

14 •' 

15 " 

30 " 


Owned by Hugh Mac- 
Rae & Co. 


Gregg Shoals 




Middleton's Shoals 

McDaniel's Shoals 

Andersonville 


4,500 

1 6,500 

1 
1 


Owned by Anderson 
Guaranty & T. Co. 

Owned by Anderson 
Guaranty & T. Co. 




1 1 j i 





Enoree River (Tributary of Broad River). 



Musgrove Mill 


40O " 
375 " 


10 " 
16 " 


1 1 




Yarboro's Mill 








Long Shoals 




1 




Enoree Mills 




70 " 
55 " 








Van Patton Shoals 










Pelham Mills 














i 





Tyger River (Tributary of Broad River). 



Hill's Factory 






1 


Tyger River 




47 " 


2,000 2,000 


Tucapau 


.... . > 


Appalachee 






!.... ■ ■■ 








1 1 



WATER POWERS. 
WATER POWERS IX SOUTH C.\ROLINA. 



155 



Location. 



Drainage 
Area. 



Fall. 



H. P. H. P. Total 
DeveL Undevel Power. 



Remarks. 



Pacolet (Tributary of Broad River), 



Pacolet Mfg. Co. 

Clifton 

ilarv Louise. . . . 



380 S. M. I 54 feet. 
220 " I 65i " 



3,000 
3,600 



3,000 



Two developments. 
Three developments. 
Used by Marv Louise 
Cotton Mill.' 



* 


Lawson's Fork (Tributary of Broad River). 




82 " 


15 " 
35 " 
24 " 




















Whitney Mfg. Co 




215 


215 






1 1 








Reedy River (Tributary of Saluda River). 



Bovd's Mill 

Bates^'ille Mill 

Pelham Mills 

Camperdown 

Reedy River Mfg. Co.. 



1,000 



1,000 



Twelve-lVIile Creelt (Tiibutary of Saluda River). 



Below Lexington.. 
Lexington Mfg. Co. 



100 
26 





Congaree Creek (Tributary of Congaree River). 






1 i i ! ' 

16 " 1 1 700 j 1 







Red Bank Creeli (Tributai*y of Congaree River). 




Saze Gotha Mills 


12 " 50 " 1 50 






1 1 ■ 1 





Pine 


Creek (Tributarj 


of Wateree 


River 


I. 


Hermitage Cotton Mills.. .. 


18 " 


250 1 


250 




1 





Fishing Creek (Tributary of Wateree River) . 



Manetta Mills. 



31i " 


350 




350 





Big Horse Creek (Tributary of Savannah River). 



Bath 




17 " 
22 " 
43 " 

48 " 


600 




600 




Langley 








600 
400 




600 
400 





















See also table of powers on the tributaries of the Savannah River. Horse-power griven in table 
is approximate only, and generally indicates power claimed by owners. 



*Big Island. 
Flat Rock. 



36 " 

28 " 




1,000 
800 


1,000 
800 



Owned by J. B. Cleve- 
land. 

Owned by J. B. Cleve- 
land. 



156 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

WATER POWERS ON THE TRIBUTARIES OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER. 













rt . 




fc^fc 






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I^.S 




s 


1 


r'^ i 




















Is 

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mix 




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Chattooga River. 



To mouth of West Fork River 
To mouth of Stekoa Creek.. . 
To mouth of Tallulah River.. 
To mouth of Panther Creek. . 
To mouth of Chauga River. . . 



Tiigaloo River. 



To mouth of Choastea Creek.. . 
To junction with Seneca River. 



Keowee River. 



To mouth of Little River. 



810.08 
915.63 



Little River (Oconee County) 

Twelve-Mile Creek 

Conneross Creek 

Eighteen-Mile Creelc 

Twenty-three-Mile Creek. . . . 

Twenty-six-iJiiie Creek 

Big Generostee Creek 

Little Generostee Creek.. .. 

Rocky River 

Long Cane Creek 



101.68 


3,500 


238.08 


400 


460.88 


100 


503.28 


100 


703.28 


150 



Chauga River. 




66.00 


1,050 


1,569 






Whitewater River. 




206.4 


3,200 


14,954 







448.8 150 1,521 



Seneca River. 




1,054.4 


108 


3,626 






Little River (Abbeville County). 




460.56 
494.56 


425 
65 


4,431 




1,405 









135.6 


750 


170.4 


975 


102.4 


725 


69.2 


540 


82.4 


450 


72.4 


450 


91.2 


300 


.36.4 


300 


280.00 


540 


206.4 


375 



WATER POWERS. 157 

MISCELLANEOUS POWERS. 

Owing to the lack of definite information from surveys of the streams of 
this State, no accurate list can be prepared of its powers. Only a careful survey 
of each stream, looking to its capabilities for power developments, can bring to 
light the possibilities that they afford. There is no part of the State above 
Augusta on the Savannah, Columbia on the Congaree, Camden on the Wateree, 
or Cheraw on the Pedee, that is not within easy reach of water power electri- 
cally transmitted. There are hundreds of undeveloped small powers available 
for use, where small manufacturing plants demand them, that could be made 
economical producers of power. 

COST OF DEVELOPMENT. 

The abundance of rock and sand for building purposes and the good founda- 
tions available for hydraulic constructions make a low cost of developing 
powers, which has been from $60 to $150 per horse power, including electrical 
transmission. The local conditions, size of development and the length of the 




DAM CONSTRUCTION. 



transmission lines affect the cost to a large extent. The shoals are for the 
most part formed by granite or gneiss ledges, which furnish a good building 
stone. 

POWER COMPANIES. 

The first water power in this State, developed for the purpose of selling power, 
was the Columbia Canal. The company which owns this are selling power for 
electrical transmission to the manufacturing plants of the city for lighting and 
street railway purposes. The first time water power electrically transmitted was 
used for driving a cotton mill in this country was from this plant. The owning 
company have more demand for power than they can fill. 

The next power developed for sale was by the Anderson Light and Power 
Company at Portman Shoals on the Seneca River. This power is used at 
Anderson for lights, by cotton mills and other purposes. There is a greater 
demand for the power than can be met. 



IS8 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



The Southern Power Company, with headquarters in Charlotte, own six 
powers on the Wateree or Catawba River and one on the Broad River. They 
developed one on the Catawba above Rock Hill a few years back, from which 
they sell 10,000 horse power as before mentioned; the demand for power not 
having been met. they have just iinished a larger development of 32,000 horse 
power at Fishing Creek on the Catawba and have another under way at Ninety- 
nine Islands on the Broad. 

The Union Manufacturing and Power Company have developed 6,500 horse 
power at Neals Shoals on the Broad River, all of which is sold to the cotton 
mills at Union. 

The Saluda River Power Company have developed about 3,000 horse power 
at a point on the Saluda above Greenville that is transmitted and sold in 
Greenville. 




MILL NEAR THE POWER. 



Messrs. Hugh McRae & Company, of Wilmington, have recently purchased 
Hattons Ford on the Tugaloo, where they will utilize about 60 feet fall to 
generate i.ooo horse power for sale in Anderson, 17 miles distant. 

The Savannah River Power Company have about completed a development 
at Greggs Shoals on tl.e Savannah, from which they will furnish power to 
^.nderson. Abbeville and Greenwood. 

The Twin City Power Company propose to immediately develop quite a large 
power on :he Savannah about 20 miles above Augusta. 

MANUFACTURING PLANTS OWNING THEIR OWN POWERS. 

The following partial list of plants that have developed powers for their own 
use, or are buying power from some water power cornpany, does not include 
any of the numerous powers used by grist and saw mills nor cotton gins. 



WATER POWERS. . 



159 






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i62 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

WATER POWER AVAILABLE. 

I estimate that there is approximately 300,000 horse power available on the 
streams of the State for practical development, of which about 125,000 has been 
developed, though not all utilized, leaving 175,000 horse power still available. 

COST OF POWER. 

The water power companies operating in the State will sell power to manu- 
facturing enterprises at from $17.50 to $25 per electrical horse power, the price 
depending upon the quantity purchased and on the distance the current is trans- 
mitted. Power can be obtained from these companies in almost any part of 
middle and upper South Carolina. 

The cost of power generated for 3,000 hours per year by steam in this State 
is about as given below. The figures being for plants in good condition using 
coal at $4.00 per ton, evaporating in the boilers eight pounds of steam per 
pound of ccal : 

With high speed, simple engines $23.80 

With Corliss simple, non-condensing 19.31 

With Corliss simple, condensing 15-59 

With Corliss compound condensing 11. 11 

The above figures are for fuel only, and to them must be added the cost of 
maintenance of plant, attendance and supplies, from $6 to $10 per horse power. 




THE LIBRARY — UNIVERSITY CF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Chapter VII, 



Education 



South Carolina may justly be proud of her educational record. This chapter 
will endeavor to show that in the past the State has fostered education and 
provided well for the uplifting and culture of her sons and daughters; that 
today the State furnishes varied instruction, spending for this purpose as much 
per capita as any of her sister States; that the future presents splendid oppor- 
tunities for the continuation of this noble work. 

A sketch of the educational growth in South Carolina for a handbook must 
necessarily be brief. The reader may, therefore, find unwritten some things that 
he deems essential. While a complete record of each important step taken by 
the early settlers in the founding of schools and charitable institutions would 
be of great interest, these are so numerous that a mere tabulation of their names 
and places would require pages. It suffices to say that their existence has served 
a grand and a noble purpose as the forerunners of the great institutions that 
today are an honor and blessing to the State. They have been more than this, 
for they have furnished the State with a proud citizenship ready to go forward 
and do better things for the commonwealth. 

In the sketch to follow, the endeavor shall be to say enough of the work done 
by those pioneers to cause the men of the present day to fondly cherish their 
memory, emulate their virtues, and follow their example; also to show the result 
of the work on the present status of education in the State ; giving a brief 
account of the present conditions, showing what the State offers now, and what 
the future portends. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH OF EDUCATION IN SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Colvnial Period to Revolution. — Our English forefathers realized the fact that 
"education is the bulwark of civilization." While they regarded education as so 
important and so necessary to the welfare of the commonwealth, they knew that 
religion must go hand in hand with education in developing and fostering the best 
interests of a nation. Therefore, as soon as they placed their feet upon the soil, 
they gave their most earnest efforts to provide libraries and schools for the edu- 
cation of the children in the arts and sciences and Christian religion. 

The first public library was established in Charles Town in 1698, and the 
Assembly, by special act, placed it under the care of the Church of England. 
f In 1710, an act was passed to found a free school in Charlestown "for the 
instruction of the youth in this Province in grammar and other arts and sciences 
and useful learning, and also in the principles of the Christian religion." For 
some reason this free school never went into operation, and further legislation 
was necessary. Hence, in 1712, an act entitled "An Act for the Encouragement 
of Learning" was passed. This act supplemented the deficiencies of the former 
and provision was made for the education of the people on a more extended 
scale than by the previous act. 

This act constituted a body corporate consisting of the Governor and fifteen 
others, empowered to make rules and to elect a Master, who shall be of the 
Church of England. Mr. John Douglass was made Master of said school. No 
apology is made for introducing this ancient school master, who occupied so 
proud a position in the history of the education of the State. His attainments 
were necessarily of a high order, inasmuch as the standard fixed by our vener- 
able fathers was a classical standard. This act required the Master "to be 
capable of teaching the Latin and Greek languages, giving instruction in the 
prmciples of the Christian religion, writing, arithmetic, merchants' accounts, the 



1 64 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



art of navigation and surveying, and other useful and practical parts of mathe- 
matics." His salary, which was "per annum, paid out of the public treasury in 
quarterly payments," consisted of £ioo and a house. Twelve free scholarships 
were provided for, lasting five years, to any citizen upon payment of £20. The 
act further provided that any school master in a country parish was allowed 
£12 towards erecting a school house. This act shows the liberal spirit that 
animated the people in the face of the most trying circumstances, as they were 
harassed by foes from without and dissensions at home. W hen the free school 
was founded the Province was torn by the claims of two cortHictmg Governors" 
Gov. Robert Johnson and Col. James Moore, which was scarcely settled before 
a severe contest arose against hostile Indians. The system of education adopted 
at this time by South Carolina far surpassed that of any of the New England 
Provinces, up to that date, in effectiveness and liberality. 

The first Royal Governor, Gen. Francis Nicholson, showed great zeal in the 
cause of education. Hewitt says the Governor urged the great importance of 
establishing the free school. He alleged that the want of early instruction was 




S. E. VIEW OF THE SOUTH CAROLINA FEMALE COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE, BARHAMVILLE, 

NEAR COLUMBIA (iSl"). 
(From a Drawing by Chas. Zimmerman.) (Pendleton's Lithography, Boston.) 



one of the chief sources of impiety and immorality, and if they neglected the 
rising generation, a race of white people as ignorant as the savage Indian would 
inhabit the land. Animated by the example of the Governor, the colonists made 
strenuous effort to educate the youth. 

Generous-hearted citizens added to the educational fund, until schools were 
established in St. Paul's Parish, Goose Creek, St. Thomas and St. John's. 
These schools accomplished great good. The funds were well managed and in 
the process of time the surplus was invested and became an endowment fund, 
from which the schools were improved and the good results lasted till the Civil 
War, and in some cases even to the present day. 

In 1734 a free school was opened at Dorchester, a town that had been settled 
in 1696 by a colony from Massachusetts under Rev. Joseph Lord, whose daughter 
is the heroine of two popular novels of recent date, "The Lass of Dorchester" 
and "Betty Blue." Dr. Ramsey says "this school furnished a means of educa- 
tion to the youth of the Province in the classics and the elements of mathe- 
matics and the principles of the Christian religion." 



EDUCATION. 



165 



With inrrpasp of weal th nnrl prosperity ramp an increase of love for learn ing. 
During colonial times many educational and charitable associations were lorrfied. 
The South Carolina Society, organized in 1737, employed teachers, t aught and 
clothed p oor children, besides extending aid to indigent members and their 
children. The \\ inyah Indigo Society, of Georgetown, was incorporated in 
1757, and exists today as the Georgetown Graded School. Such schools pre- 
pared the heroes of the Revolution for that trying time in our country's history. 
During the war period, however, learning did not languish. In 1777 Mount 
Zion Society, Winnsboro. and the Catholic Society, Camden, were incorporated. 
In^i778 Salem Society, Camden, and St. David's Society, Cheraw, were founded. 
rom the Rex'olution to the War of Secession. — In 1784 an act was passed 
which has proved to be of more importance to the educational interest of the 
State than any which preceded it. This act was to establish a college at the 
village of Winnsborough. a college in or near the city of Charleston, and a 
college at Cambridge (Ninety-Six). The first two had a long career of honor 
and usefulness, and are still in active operation, one as Mt. Zion Institute, and 
the other as the College of Charleston. The College of Ninety-Six, after a 



"^whii 




U. MEANS DAVIS, 
Wliu tliil so iiii:cli for education in South Carolina. 



struggle for existence for nineteen years, closed as a college and became a 
celebrated high school. By legislative enactment other colleges were authorized, 
one at Beaufort and one in Pinkney District (Union County), called the College 
of Alexandria, 'i'his college and the district alike "live only in the memories of 
the past." 

In 1786 the Beaufort Society and the St. Helena Society were incorporated; 
in 1789, the Claremont Society (Stateburg) ; in 1791, the Beaufort District 
Society; in 1798, St. Andrew's Society, Charleston; in 1799, Upper Long Cane 
Society (Abbeville) ; in 1800, the John's Island Society and Mount Pleasant 
Academy were incorporated. 

Besides these, the Fair Forest Academy (Union), Mount Bethel (Newberry), 
Minerva Academy (Richland), and one of the same name in Spartanburg, are 
mentioned by Dr. Ramsey as filling positions of great usefulness, showing what 



EDUCATION. 



167 



a great impetus was given to education as soon as peace was declared and 
independence gained. 

No special attention was given to free school instruction after the efforts of 
the early colonial government until the year 181 1; only one free school (Orange- 
burg) being established by the Legislature, which was done in 1798. 

In 181 1, November 26, Gov. Henry Middleton in his annual message urged 
the establishment of free schools. The next day Senator Strother, of Fairfield, 
presented petitions for free schools from citizens of Fairfield, Chester, Williams- 
burg. Darlington, Edgefield, Barnwell, York, St. Stevens, St. James, Santee, St. 
John's, Colleton, and St. Peter's. A joint committee was appointed with Hon. 
Stephen Elliott as chairman. This committee reported a bill which passed the 
Senate unanimously and was adopted by the House by a vote of 72 to 15. 
This act established in each district and parish free schools equal in number to 
the representation of each district or parish in the lower house. Three hundred 
dollars a year was appropriated to each school, and elementary instruction was 
to be given to all pupils free of charge. The annual appropriation for these 
schools was $37,000. Vigorous efforts followed to put these schools into suc- 




AGKICULTURAL HALL AT CLEM SON. 



cessful operation. Governors in their annual mess ages showed an earnest d esire 
for a more general '3j ^i;^junj!2Uuij j y 4gtlger~~Gove 1812; Wil- 

liairrs, T^rS'-'T^, — Maiinmg^ 1826; Miller, i829r~Hamilton, 1831 ; Hayne, 1839; 
Hennegan, 1840; Hammond, 1842, urged ihe_ _£jidoivvieHt of an academy in each 
district. In thickly settled communities iiTuch hcnetit was derived from tliese 
schools, but in the sparsely settled localities little good was accomplished and 
the general result was unsatisfactory. Increased efforts were, however, made to 
insure success instead of abandoning the attempt. A committee. Rev. Stephen 
Elliott and Rev. J. H. Thornwell, D. D., was appointed in 1838 to confer with 
the various school commissioners and suggest improvements. Their report con- 
tained, among other contributions, a very carefully prepared paper by Hon. 
Edmund Bellinger, of Barnwell, showing that in twenty-seven years the average 
attendance for the State was 6,018 pupils and the annual expenditure $35,000. 
The largest attendance in any one year was 10,718 in 1833, and the greatest 
annual expenditure was $48,951, during which year the attendance was only 3,002. 



i68 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



There was lack of supervision and the funds were not judiciously handled. The 
committee recommended that one or more capable persons be appointed with 
liberal salaries to manage and supervise the free schools and properly distribute 
the apportioned funds. 

In 1846 Hon. R. F. W. Allston, at the request of the State Agricultural 
Society, prepared an elaborate report and presented it to the Legislature, show- 
ing the necessity of supplementing the State appropriation by local taxation of 
an equal amount. 

In 1852 the Legislature passed an act doubling the appropriation, making it 
$74,400. This had the effect of increasing the attendance the first year to 17,000. 

In i860 the attendance was 18,915. In 1863 there were 823 schools, 845 teach- 
ers, 10,811 pupils. 

This system of schools bore but little fruit. There were some great obstacles 
in the way of success; first, the white population was widely scattered; second, 
the better class would not patronize them, as they were regarded as pauper 
schools; and third, many private schools sprung up on every hand, and the 
people did not feel the need of the free schools. 

In 1850 $510,879 were expended in South Carolina for education, and $410,430 
were raised by tuition fees, and $79,099 by taxation and appropriation. 




SOUTHERN PRESBYTERIAN THEuLUGiCAL shiMlNAkV, COLUMBIA. 



In i860 the sum expended was $690,412, of which $420,944 came from tuition 
fees, $i35>8i3 from taxation and public funds, and $133,735 from endowment, 
representing, at 6 per cent., endowment funds of $2,228,917, showing a desire to 
make our educational institutions permanent. It is worthy of note that in i860 
South Carolina ranked fifth in the list of States in the amount of college endow- 
ments, and sixth in the income of her colleges. 

As the clouds of civil war began to threaten, these schools and colleges closed 
one by one and the pupils and teachers passed from classic shades to tented 
fields. Some school buildings were destroyed, some converted into hospitals for 
the sick and wounded, some into homes for the refugees from the devastated 
regions of the State, who were compelled to flee for shelter from the vandalism 
of the invading foe. 

The last call for troops in February, 1865, took into the field every white male 
from sixteen to sixty. The year 1865 was most disastrous to every interest. 
The pangs of defeat were intensified by the pangs of hunger, and the desire for 
knowledge gave place to the cravings for bread. 

After the War of Secession. — In 1866 a general reopening of schools began. 
The Legislature reorganized South Carolina College as a university, with three 
departments. Literary, Law and Medicine. Private colleges set themselves bravely 
to the task of repairing their shattered buildings, collecting their scattered stu- 
dent-body and replenishing bankrupt treasuries. Schools and academies opened 
their doors to the youth of the land with the hope that progress would be rapid. 



EDUCATION. 



169 



But this hope was short-lived. An organic revolution soon occurred which 
shook society to its foundations and wrought changes more violent than those 
caused by the cruel hand of war. 

A new Constitution in 1868 was adopted, the old forms of government, the 
courts and the cherished institutions were changed. New law-makers brought 
new ideas and new methods. The old system of private institutions passed 
away to" be supplanted by a new system of State instruction for rich and poor 
alike. Here was the real beginning of our public school system of today, which 
now occupies a most prominent place in the public mind and in public legis- 
lation. 

With the adoption of the amendments to the Federal Constitution and the 
new State Constitution in 1868, there was a thorough reconstruction of the 
State Government, and an entirely new element was elevated to the control of 
public affairs. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

Incorporated in .this Constitution was a system of public schools which pro- 
vided for the election of a State Superintendent of Education and for subordi- 
nate officers in the different counties for the management of schools and the 
improvement of teachers. Provision was made for raising necessary school 
funds and for a compulsory attendance. The sources of revenue were three- 
fold: first, an annual legislative appropriation; second, a poll ta.x ; third, a 
voluntary local tax. The system was good enough in theory, but in practice it 
proved a failure, owing to the ignorance and dishonesty of those connected with 
the management. It was tried for eight years under the first State Superin- 
tendent, J. K. Jillson, who made repeated complaints of the diversion of school 

funds to other purposes, and in his 
last report for 1876 shows an aggre- 
gate deficiency of $324,058.40. Be- 
sides, in almost every district there 
existed school claims greatly in ex- 
cess of appropriations, thus swelling 
the debt to still greater proportions. 
In 1876 the State was rescued from 
misrule, and a change of government 
came, since which time the charges of 
dishonesty have totally ceased. This is 
largely due to Capt. Hugh S. Thomp- 
son, whose zeal and ability as State 
■ Superintendent for six years brought 
order out of confusion and placed our 
system of public schools on a sure 
and firm basis. Instead of an annual 
appropriation of a fixed amount, a constitutional amendment was adopted in 
1876, providing for an annual levy of two mills on the dollar for public schools, 
to be expended in the county in which it is raised, thus insuring stability and 
confidence in the system. The poll tax is also devoted to educational purposes 
and the adoption of local option taxation in a few districts rested with the 
property holders. 

When the Constitution of 1895 was adopted it carried with it a constitutional 
property tax of three mills on the dollar for school purposes, and made local 
option taxation general, the poll tax remaining the same. The school law now 
permits the division of counties into school districts of not less than nine nor 
more than forty-nine square miles, managed by local boards of trustees. 




SOUTH CAROLIXA MILITARY ACADEMY. 



STATE AND COUNTY OFFICIALS. 

The State Superintendent is a constitutional officer elected biennially by the 
people, giving a bond of $5,000 and receiving a salary of $1,900. He is also 
allowed a clerk and a stenographer. 

He exercises general supervision over all the public schools of the State. 
With the advice and aid of the State Board of Education, he is required to 
secure a uniformity of text-books, and to perform such other duties as may be 
prescribed. 



170 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

The State Board of Education consists of the Governor of the State, the 
State Superintendent of Education, both ex-officio, and seven persons appointed 
for four years by the Governor, one from each Congressional District. This 
Board meets regularly three times a year, and oftener if necessary, at the call 
of the chairman, the Governor, and the Secretary, the Superintendent of Edu- 
cation. It renders final decisions upon all questions of appeal from the county 
boards. It adopts rules for the government of the schools; it prescribes stand- 
ards of efficiency for teachers ; it examines teachers and grants State certifi- 
cates, and also prescribes text-books for a period of not less than five years. 
In each general election in each county a County Superintendent is chosen, giving 
a bond of from $i,ooo to $5,000, and receiving a salary regulated by the Legis- 
lature upon the recommendation of the legislators from that county. He acts 
as an organ of communication between the County and State Superintendent 
of Education ; he apportions the school funds among the several districts in his 
county ; he visits the schools ; he makes suggestions for their improvement ; he 
makes an annual report to the State Superintendent of Education. 

The County Board of Education is composed of the County Superintendent 
of Education and two persons appointed by the State Board, to serve two years, 
at $3.00 a day, not to exceed $21.00 and mileage. It conducts the county exam- 
inations for teachers upon questions prepared by the State Board, arranges 
school districts, appoints school trustees and acts as a court of appeals in all 
disputes between trustees and teachers, or factions. 

Three school trustees for each district are appointed every two years by the 
County School Board, and are entrusted with the general management of the 
school affairs in their respective districts, the location and erection of school 
houses, the employment and payment of teachers, the suspension or dismission 
of pupils, calling of district meetings, and the visiting and supervision of schools. 

TEACHERS. 

Every teacher in the public schools of South Carolina must be of good moral 
character, and must hold a certificate issued by the State Board, County Board, 
or the City Board of Charleston. 

Three grades of excellence are recognized in the issuance of certificates. The 
first may be renewed for two years without examination; the second and third 
last for two years, but cannot be renewed except upon examination. 

Teachers are required to file monthly reports of enrollment and attendance 
with the branches taught. 

CURRICULUM. 

In every school shall be taught, as far as practicable, spelling, reading, writing, 
arithmetic, geography, English grammar, history of the United States and of 
the State, civics, agriculture, physiology, morals and good behavior, and such 
other studies as shall be prescribed by the State Board. In some schools higher 
instruction is also imparted. 

The school age is from 6 to 21 years. 

PRESENT CONDITIONS. 

The public school system of South Carolina now compares favorably with 
that of any State in the Union in efficiency, method and amount expended. 
The sources of revenue are the constitutional three-mill tax, the special local 
tax, the poll tax, the tax on dogs, and in about two-fifths of the counties the 
Dispensary tax. 

In every county there are one or more graded schools running nine months 
in the year, with modern, well-equipped buildings, supported by special levy in 
addition to the regular three-mill tax. These schools are as well conducted and 
graded, and the course of study as thorough and full, as in any point of the 
United States. Besides, in many of the rural districts there are schools sup- 
ported by special taxation, which are doing excellent work. The schools are 
m better condition than ever before, because of the general improvement in the 
standard of teachers, increased interest on the part of trustees and parents, the 
introduction of school libraries, and a public sentiment in favor of better schools 
and better school houses. In April, 1904, a plan was adopted by the Statt 
Board by which the rural schools could obtain at very low cost school libraries. 



172 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



Since that time more than i,ooo libraries have been put in the schools, and the 
demand and desire for them is ever growing. 

EDUCATION OF THE NEGRO. 

Soon after the settlement of South Carolina, slavery was introduced. Coming 
directly from Africa, the negroes were forced to learn the English language and 
to embrace the Christian religion. The "Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel m Foreign Parts" was active in providing for their spiritual welfare. 

In 1705 Rev. Sam'l Thomas reported that "above twenty negro slaves regu- 
larly attended church in Goose Creek Parish and were able to speak and read 
the English language." 

The first school for their education was established in 1744 by Alexander 
Garden. This work was further carried on by the religious training of the 
negroes on every plantation and in every household. The constant association 
of the slaves with their superiors was in itself an education of no mean order. 
Their religious and literary training went on for a long time, until several 
insurrections gave rise to the opinion that it was dangerous to educate slaves, 
as it fostered within them a spirit of msubordination. Consequently, in spite 
of the earnest protest of many of the leading men of the State, in 1834 it was 
forbidden by law to give the negro instruction in reading and writing. 




A COUNTRY SCHOOL. 



Many God-fearing men and women, in defiance of the law and public opinion, 
boldly taught their slaves to read, in order that they might know the "way of 
Life." The war brought chaos and confusion in the educational interests of 
the State, but at the cessation of hostilities schools for negroes were founded 
and maintained by the large and generous gifts of Northern philanthropists. 
Among the most potent agencies for negro education were the American Mis- 
sionary Society and the Freedmen's Aid Society of the Methodist Church. The 
Baptists and Presbyterians also worked vigorously and many schools were 
established. 

But the general education of the masses devolved upon the people of this 
section. On the reorganization of the State Government in 1868 a public school 
system was provided. The plan was thorough, but the administration during 
Reconstruction was inefficient. The enrollment of the negroes in 1870 was only 
8,163, but in 1906 it swelled to 171,022. 
_ It has ever been the policy of the people of South Carolina to treat the negro 
right, and especially to give him the advantage of a good common school edu- 
cation. When they were emancipated there were few of their own race able to 
instruct them. So when the public school law went into operation in 1868 many 
educated Southern white men and women taught in the negro schools until 



EDUCATION. 



173 



there was a sufficient number of teachers of their own race prepared to do this 
work. There are negro schools in every school district in the State, graded 
schools for negroes in every town where such schools exist for whites. The 
negro schools have their own trustees, and, as far as the law will allow, govern 
their own schools. Further than this, they are aided in building their school 
houses and carr>^ing on their schools by their white friends to an extent that 
would astonish the cavillers who say that the law discriminates against the 
negro. The truth is that more is done for the education of the negro in the 
South than is done for any class of foreigners in any other portion of the 
United States, despite what is said by biased critics. The State has established 
a college for the higher education of the negro, and maintains it with liberal 
appropriations. Since the days of Reconstruction leading business men, poli- 
ticians, legislators, and Governors in their annual messages, have all advocated 
the education of the negro upon the proper lines. Gov. Wade Hampton, in his 
first inaugural address, ably, earnestly and eloquently pleaded that proper steps 
be taken to educate the negro and emancipate him 'from the thraldom of vice 




Li,L.\rKY SCHGOL SCENE. 



and ignorance. This has been the policy of the State Government ever since. 
Today there are about as many negro colleges in the State as for whites. There 
are 2,350 negro public schools and 200 negro graded schools. The negro is 
receiving proper treatment. No people on the face of the earth would act 
toward him with as much consideration as the Southerner. 

.ACADEMIES. 

The "old field school," or academy, has played a most conspicuous part in edu- 
cation in South Carolina. 

Many of her sons who became distinguished on the bench, at the bar, in the 
political field and* in the pulpit received their inspiration and impetus from the 
education given them in the academy schools. 

The necessity for these schools arose from the fact that there were no colleges 
in the State until after the Revolution. The Scotch-Irish settlers in the upper 
part of the State were ardent advocates of good education, and wherever they 
went they built first a shelter for themselves and then an academy. These 
schools could boast of no handsome buildings and large equipment, but only of 
their high standard of excellence. Those schools were conducted by men of 
education and culture, who advocated that education was more a training of the 
mind than a storing of knowledge. Thoroughly drilled in mathematics, lan- 
guages and sciences, students from these schools readily entered the junior class 



174 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

at Princeton and Yale. The good results of the training given is best seen in 
the prominent men they educated. 

In York District there was the famous school at Bullock's Creek, over which Rev. 
John Alexander and Aaron Williams presided for years, and which gave to the 
world such men as Davis and Sam'l Melton, John and James Hemphill, James 
H. Saye and William Banks. 

At Ebenezer, York District, a school was established in the early days of the 
nineteenth century by the Associate Reformed Presbyterians, which became so 
famous that it was called "The Athens of York." Some of its most noted teach- 
ers were General Alston and John Leitner Shurley, father and son. It continued 
in successful operation until 1893, under such men as Pierpont Bishop, Dr. T. J. 
Strait, and Prof. Jos. H. Wilson. Here W. A. Clark, of Columbia, Capt. 
Iredell Jones and Rev. J. S. White received their academic education in later 
years. 

The Catawba Academy, of Fort Mill, was most successfully operated by E. C. 
Kuykendal, J. W. Harrington, Butler and Gadsden Alston, A. R. Banks, John 
A. Boyd and T. H. de Graffenried, from which Hon. L. W. Spratt, said to be 
author of the Ordinance of Secession; John M. White and Samuel E. White 
and many other prominent men of the State received their preparation for 
college, and in more recent years William Mack, LL. D., of New York, Dr. J. 
D. Nisbet, one of the leading physicians of the country, and I. Stockton Axson, 
Professor of English in Princeton University, Wallace T. Palmer, D. D., suc- 
cessor to his uncle, Rev. B. M. Palmer, D. D., and Capt. Geo. H. McMaster, 




PUBLIC SCHOOL. 

U. S. A., the Dicks, Coopers and McCutcheons, of Sumter; John L. Douglas, 
Professor of Mathematics at Davidson College, N. C, and Sol Reid McKee, 
Professor of Physics and Astronomy at South Western Presbyterian University, 
Clarksville, Tenn. 

In Lancaster District was the "Waxhaw Academy," where Andrew Jackson, 
Gov. Miller and Gen'l Blair received their training for life. The famous "Frank- 
lin Academy," at Lancaster Court House, where J. Marion Sims, a physician of 
world-wide reputation, the Witherspoons, Crawfords, Curetons and Masseys 
were educated. 

In Camden was the celebrated school of Lesslie McCandlis. In Edgefield was 
the school conducted by Robt. L. Armstrong. 

In Anderson was the well-known school of Wesley Leveritt. His most 
famous pupil was Gov. Joseph E. Brown, of Georgia. 

The Christopher Cotes School, in Charleston, was one of high merit. Paul 
H. Hayne, the poet, was a student at this academy. 

There was the Columbia Male Academy, which at one time was under the 
supervision of that matchless scholar and grand and noble man, James H. Car- 
lisle, now at Wofford College. In later years its most prominent teacher was 
Gov. Hugh S. Thompson. From this school many were educated who are now 
filling positions of honor and trust. 



EDUCATION. 175 

At Winnsboro was the Mt. Zion Academy, where J. W. Hudson was principal 
for twenty-seven years, teaching with earnestness and vigor and drawing stu- 
dents from all of the Southern States. At the time of his death twenty-two 
members of his highest class were admitted into the South Carolina College with- 
out examination, as a tribute to his memory and the splendid preparation he gave 
for college. A handsome monument, erected to his memory by his former stu- 
dents, now stands on the college green. The last principal of Mt. Zion was 
R. Means Davis, of precious memory. Under his administration and infliience 
it was merged into the Winnsboro Graded School. Among the many prominent 
men who received their education under Mr. Hudson are Gen. M. C. Butler and 
Capt. J. C. Foster, of Lancaster. 

The Newberry Academy did fine educational work under the supervision ot 
Rev. John Foster and Charles Strong, Chancellor Johnstone, Judge O'Neall and 
many other men of sterling worth were here first taught. 

At Fishing Creek was a school conducted by Judge John Gaston and wife, 
where many men who afterwards became distinguished, were educated. 

St. David's School, of Cheraw, drew students from all parts of the State. 
Some of the pupils of this school were Ezra Pugh, Sam'l Wilds and Chas. 
Motte Lide — all prominent in South Carolina history. 

In Abbeville was the school of James Lesley, where Edward Noble, Whitfield 
Brooks, J. M. Lipscomb and Judge McGowan received instruction. In the same 
section was another school taught by M. J. Williams, where Gen'l W. M. Gary, 
Judges Kershaw and Wallace received their education. 

The Willington School, Abbeville District, became more famous than any of 
these academies through the teaching of Moses Waddell, its principal. Some of 
the men who owe much of their success in life to the inspiration given them 
by this wonderful preceptor were : John C. Calhoun, James L. Petigru, Judge 
A. B. Longstreet, George McDuffie, W. H. Crawford, W. D. Martin, Hugh 
Legare, George W. Crawford, D. L. and F. H. Wardlaw, N. P. and P. M. 
Butler. One of his sons, John N. Waddell, became prominent in the educational 
world as Chancellor of the University of Mississippi and also of the South 
Western Presbyterian University, Clarksville, Tenn. 

In Chester District at Mt. Dearborn, Catawba Falls, it is said that the United 
States Government decided to have a military post and training school for sol- 
diers, an adjunct to West Point. An arsenal was built from 1795 to 1802 in the 
shape of a rectangle on a level plateau on a hilltop overlooking the Catawba 
River. It was surrounded by a brick wall and at each corner was a parapet. The 
barracks for soldiers were built quadrangular around the main building, which 
was three stories high, intended for officers' quarters and class rooms. For 
several years a post and a military school were maintained, and a company of 
United States soldiers and officers were kept here. For some reason the post 
was discontinued and the buildings abandoned and sold to the State, and in 
1834 the State sold to private individuals, and now scarcely a trace of what 
was a few years ago beautiful Mount Dearborn remains. Gen'l Sumter owned 
the land and made the title to the United States. Washington is said to have 
visited this post when it was in operation. 

In more recent years were the Patrick Military School, at Anderson ; the 
King's Mt. Military Academy, at Yorkville, under the gallant Col. A. Coward; 
the school of Rev. J. L. Kennedy, in Pickens County ; that of Edgefield, Prof. 
Gwaltney, and many others of equal fame. All of these have been absorbed by 
the public schools of today. Outside of a few denominational high schools, like 
the fitting schools of Wofford and Furman, the Presbyterian school of Florence, 
the Bethany High School in York, and one or two private high schools in 
Charleston — Charleston Pligh School, University High School, Lucas High 
School — one in Columbia and one just established in Spartanburg, there are 
no academies in South Carolina. 

This result has come from the effort of the State to educate her youth in all 
stages, from the kindergarten to the university. The effect of the recently 
enacted high school law will be to still further diminish the number till in a 
few years there will scarcely be left a private school. 

The academy has served well its noble purpose. Its history is a part of the 
State. We cherish its memory for the lasting good it has accomplished and the 
faithful and useful life it lived. But we hail with joy the day when the State 
shall furnish the opportunity to every son and daughter to obtain an education 
from the primary grade to the collegiate course. 



176 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



COLLEGES. 

There were two different streams of settlers in South Carolina, the one flow- 
ing over the lower country between the years 1670 and 1750, the other over the 
country above Columbia, beginning about 1750. A spirit of antagonism grew 
up between the two sections. The lower section represented the Church of 
England ; the upper the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians. The one had the wealth, 
the other the population. It was the old story of the Puritan and the Cavalier. 

For some years prior to the Revolution there arose a spirit of jealousy and 
ill-feeling between these two sections, which increased to such an e.xtent that 
the wisest men of the colony felt that something must be done to bring about 
a better feeling. It was felt that nothing would be more conducive to this end 
than a State college, where the young men from the different sections would 
be brought together in one common institution. 

As there was no college in the Province for the purpose of giving the higher 
education, parents were forced to send their sons abroad, and only the rich 
could avail themselves of this privilege. As it is elsewhere stated in this chap- 




SCIENCE HALL SOUTH CAROLINA UNIVERSITY. 



ter, at least five different attempts to establish colleges had been made, but 
proved abortive. Hence there was a growing demand for a college in some 
central part of the State for these two reasons : for the purpose of high educa- 
tion and for the purpose of uniting the two sections. 

Gov. John Drayton, to whom belongs the credit for beginning the movement, 
suggested the founding of a State College, to which the youth from all sections 
might go for higher education. This suggestion met the approval of the people, 
and in 1801 South Carolina College was established by the Legislature. The 
wisdom of this action was shown that in a short time the two sections were 
drawn closer together, and the youth of the State generally ceased to go to 
Europe to finish their course. As was recently said by Bishop Capers in speak- 



EDUCATION. 177 

ing of South Carolina College and the South Carolina Military Academy, "They 
are mighty agencies, uniting our people." 

STATE COLLEGES. 
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

This institution was incorporated by an Act of the Legislature, December 19, 
1801, as the South Carolina College, upon the urgent recommendation of Gov. 
Drayton in his message to that body. An appropriation of $50,000 for buildings 
and $6,000 annually for salaries was made. The Board of Trustees met and 
organized in February, 1802, and buildings were erected in 1804. In April of 
the same year a faculty was chosen and Rev. John Maxcy was elected President. 
He served faithfully, acceptably and with distinguished success for sixteen years, 
until his death in 1820. 

In January, 1805, the College opened its doors for students, and received Wil- 
liam Harper as first matriculate, afterwards Chancellor of the State, and one 
of the ablest and profoundest lawyers that has adorned the American bench. 
It closed its first year in July with twenty-nine students, and from this time 
has continued to increase in honor and usefulness. 

To the South Carolina College and its influence is due the prominence of her 
sons in the national councils, and the high sense of honor that marks their 
course in life. From such learned masters as Maxcy, Cooper, Lieber, Preston, 
Thornwell, Ellet, LeConte and Henry, the youth imbibed lessons in political 
economy, history, government, eloquence, logic, Greek science and other branches. 

After the disastrous presidency of Dr. Cooper (1820-1834), the College was 
restored to the confidence of the people by Hon. Robert W. Barnwell, during 
whose presidency several new buildings, among them the library, were erected. 
Two other distinguished presidents of the ante-bellum period were Hon. W. C. 
Preston and Dr. James H. Thornwell. 

As the patronage of the College increased, new buildings became necessary, 
which were erected 1845-1846. In 1847 the roll of students was 221. The suc- 
cess of the College continued until the Civil War. 

A company was formed within its walls for State service, which afterwards 
enlisted for the war in the Confederate Army. In 1862 College exercises were 
suspended and professors and students were called to bear arms for their 
beloved South. During the war the buildings were used as a hospital for sick 
and wounded soldiers. 

In 1866 the College was reopened as a university, Robert W. Barnwell a 
second time being called from private life to the presidency. Schools of law 
and medicine were added to the academic department and hundreds of earnest 
students attended. In 1869 the reorganization of the Board caused the resigna- 
tion of some of the faculty. 

In 1873 a radical change was made as the doors were thrown open to all 
students, regardless of race and color. The professors all resigned and a new 
faculty and a new class of students came into occupancy. 

In 1877 the institution was closed by the Legislature and remained closed 
until 1880, when the University was reopened with two branches, the South 
Carolina Agricultural and Mechanical College of Columbia for whites, and 
Claflin University at Orangeburg for blacks. Hon. Wm. Porcher Miles was 
elected President of the College at Columbia. In 1882 five additional professors 
were elected and the attendance of students reached 150. 

Mr. Miles resigned to accept other important work, and Dr. J. M. McBryde 
was made President. At this time three courses of study were offered, one 
leading to the B. S. degree, on to the A. B. degree, and one to the B. L. degree. 
There were opened three special courses. Practical Agriculture, Practical Sur- 
veying and Practical English. Tuition was free. 

In 1889, because of the establishment of Clcmson College, when the Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical Departments were transferred to that institution, it 
again became South Carolina College, and as such it continued until 1905, when 
by Act of the Legislature it became the "University of South Carolina," and 
is rapidly taking its place among the leading universities of the South. 

In i88g, because of the establishment of Clemson College, when the Agricul- 
tural and Mechanical Departments were transferred to that institution, it again 
became the South Carolina College. Its numbers were for a time smaller than 
at any period in its history except during the last year of Dr. Thomas Cooper's 
presidency, but under the fostering care of its president, Dr. James Woodrow, 
and the skilled instruction of such men as Professor R. Means Davis, the South 
Carolina College gradually regained its former position. In 1905 the centennial 

12—11. B. 




m^- yr-^ is^-;^^. 






EDUCATION. 179 

of the opening of its doors was celebrated. The Legislature of 1906 changed 
the South Carolina College to the University of South Carolina. The President 
is Benjamin Sloan, LL. D. 

Ever since its foundation, the College has been intimately identified with the 
history of the State, whose munificence it has richly repaid by an influence and 
a reputation which have extended throughout and beyond its border. 

It was once said of George McDuffie that the State of South Carolina had 
been amply repaid for all that she had expended on the South Carolina College 
in the education of that one man. He was but one of a host of men who have 
made their State famous among her sister States and are among her best and 
most influential citizens in all walks of life. Their price in money is the nation. 

The College grounds contain about 14 acres, adorned with spacious buildings 
and set with beautiful trees. Value "of buildings is $250,000. Library has over 
40.000 volumes, selected with great care by such scholars as Elliott, Thornwell 
and Lieber. Many of the books are of rare value. 

The College is maintained by funds appropriated yearly by the Legislature. 

THE SOUTH CAROLINA MILITARY ACADEMY. 

In 1789 the land on which the Citadel now stands was purchased by the State 
for the establishment of a tobacco inspection. In 1822 the Legislature decided 
to erect on this ground suitable buildings for the deposit of the arms of the 
State, and a house for the use of the municipal guard. In 1826 the sum of 
$12,500 was appropriated for the completion of these buildings, and the name 
Citadel for the first time appears on the State statutes — a name now suggestive 
of arts as well as of arms. 

In 1832 $200,000 were appropriated for the purchase of munitions of war, 
10,000 muskets, 4,000 pistols, 2,000 sabres, and for the support of the Citadel 
and Magazine guard. 

In 1833 another appropriation of $3,000 was made to build a magazine at 
Columbia. In 1837 an appropriation of $5,000 for enlarging this was made, 
and in 1838 another appropriation of $4,000 was added for another building. 
The grounds secured were two squares, now known as "Arsenal Hill," and 
upon which now stands the Governor's Mansion. 

In 1842, at the suggestion of Gov. J. P. Richardson, Sr., the Arsenal at Co- 
lumbia, in command of Capt. M. L. Shaffer, and the Citadel at Charleston, under 
command of Capt. C. R. Parker, both natives of this State and graduates of 
West Point, were converted into military schools, called the South Carolina 
Military Academy. Both schools were opened in 1843, provision being made 
for the entrance of fifty-four beneficiaries and as many pay cadets, the latter 
paying $200 a year, which covered all expenses. An annual appropriation of 
$24,000, afterwards increased to $30,000, was made. 

At first these academies were independent of each other. An attempt to 
unite them in 1845 failed, but the Arsenal was made auxiliary to the Citadel, 
providing for the instruction of the entering class. Thus organized, the Academy 
was in successful operation from March, 1843, to April, 1865. These years were 
marked with the lights and shadows of life. 

The course of study was, as near as possible, that pursued at West Point, 
taking even a wider range in some departments, especially in mathematics. Edu- 
cation in this institution was designed to develop the whole man physically, 
mentally and morally. The result of this training is l)est known by the career 
of its graduates. They have done honor to the institution in all the associations 
of life, winning the prizes awarded to those possessing "the energy and decision 
of military character." 

Of the 240 graduates at the beginning of the Civil War, more than 200 were 
officers in the Confederate Army, filling every grade from Lieutenant to Major- 
General, and discharging their duties with such zeal, intelligence and courage 
that they were distinguished even in that great army of Southern soldiers. 

Their first military active service was performed in drilling the Palmetto 
Regiment, preparatory to its departure for Mexico. A detachment of Citadel 
cadets fired the first gun of war upon the "Star of the West" as she advanced 
to the relief of Fort Sumter on the 9th of January, 1861, from Morris Island, 
Maj. P. F. Stevens commanding. 

On the 9th day of May, 1865, Capt. J. P. Thomas, Superintendent of the 
Arsenal, with the cadets of his command, had a skirmish with Stoncman's 
raiders, near Williamston, South Carolina, thus firing the last siiot of the war 
east of the Mississippi River. Between these two dates what a tragic history 
was enacted ! 




1? 



l82 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



Among all the military schools in the United States, except West Point, the 
Citadel stands highest in military training. Its graduates are qualified for com- 
missions in the United States Army, and its diplomas give them entrance to 
the post-graduate courses of the greater universities. Two graduates from each 
class annually receive commissions as Second Lieutenant in the regular army. 

Upon the evacuation of Charleston, the Citadel was seized by Federal forces 
and was occupied as a garrison until 1878. 

In 1877 General Johnson Hagood and other survivors of the alumni of the 
Citadel met in Charleston and endeavored to have the Citadel reopened. The 
Federal Government claimed it as conquered property; the State held that it 
was private property and through Gov. Hampton made application for its resti- 
tution. A bill was introduced in the United States Senate to restore the Citadel 
to the State upon the condition that the claim for $100,000 for rent and damages 
by fire be withdrawn. The State refused these terms, and the bill was not 
passed. 

In 1882, however, the building was turned over to the State voluntarily and 
was taken possession of. The Legislature authorized the education of sixty- 
eight beneficiary cadets (two from each county) and as many pay cadets as could 
be accommodated without expense to the State ; $10,000 was appropriated for 
repairs and $5,000 for the expenses of the year. Col. J. P. Thomas was chosen 
as superintendent. The Academy opened in October, 1882, with 180 students. 

The Arsenal buildings were destroyed by Sherman's Army, with the excep- 
tion of one of the professors' houses, now owned by the State and known as 
the Governor's Mansion. During the years 1843-5 th^ superintendents of both 
the Arsenal and Citadel bore the title of Captain ; but when the Arsenal became 
an adjunct to the Citadel in 1845, the title of the superintendent of the latter 
became Major. 

Since 1882, under Col. T. P. Thomas, 1882-5, ; Gen. George D. Johnston, 1885- 
1890, and Col. Asbury Coward, 1890- 1907, the history of Citadel has been one of 
continued prosperity and success. Efforts have been made to abolish the insti- 
tution, but it is so dear to the hearts of a great portion of the best citizens of 
the State that such a step would require an upheaval in sentiment. 

There have been enrolled since 1843, 3,664 matriculates, and 728 young men 
have graduated from this school and gone forth to help advance their native 
State and to reflect credit and honor upon their alma mater. They are found 
in all the honorable and useful walks of life. Some have been Governors, 
some have represented their State in Congress, some on the bench, some have 
been prominent in professional chairs and distinguished in the pulpit, while all 
have taken leading parts in their adopted callings. 




CLEM SON DORMITORIES AND MAIN BUILDING. 



CLEMSON AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 

This college was established by the Legislature in 1889. This action of the 
Legislature was brought about by the farmers of South Carolina, who, in a 
convention assembled in Columbia in 1886, resolved that the time had come for 
the building of an institution, the purpose of which should be to give a college 
education to the farmers' sons as well as to provide for the education of the 



EDUCATION. 



183 



industrial classes generally. The erection of buildings began m 1890. and the 
doors were opened for students in 1903. The first class graduated in 1896. 

The college is located upon 1,130 acres of land that was donated to South 
Carolina by Thomas G. Clemson, son-in-law of John C. Calhoun, in 1888. The 
Calhoun mansion is situated in the center of the campus on a beautiful knoll. 
The college is governed by a Board of Trustees consisting of seven life mem- 
bers, under the terms of Mr. Clemson's will, and six members elected by the 
Legislature. , ■ , • 

The Board has divided the College into departments, each one of v^hich is 
in charge of a director. The departments are as follows: Administrative De- 
partment: Teaching Department, including the departments of Agriculture, Me- 
chanical and Electrical Engineering, Chemistry, Textile Industry, Academic, 
Militarj'. and Preparatory; the Fertilizer Department, or Inspection of Ferti- 
lizers; Stock Food Inspection Department; Experiment Station; College Farm 
Department ; Veterinary Inspection ; Inspection of Plants ; State Geological Sur- 
vey and Chemical Analysis of Minerals; Coast Experiment Station; Farmers* 
Institutes. 

Clemson College gives a most liberal education in Mathematics, the Modern 
Languages and Sciences. A graduate from this College is fully equipped with 
a foundation of knowledge which fits him for the active business of life. As 




TEXTILE BL'ILL'IXG — LLE.MSUN LULLKGE. 



is stated in the law establishing the College, there will be a constant demand 
for men who will develop the natural resources of the country; therefore men 
are thoroughly prepared for this work by the tuition given in practical Agri- 
culture, Chemistry, Mechanics, Electrical, Civil and Textile Industry. 

The success of the College has been phenomenal. More boys apply for ad- 
mittance than can be accommodated, but a new dormitory with a capacity for 
200 is nearing completion, which will enable the College to accommodate 824 
students. 

In eleven years 396 students have graduated from Clemson College. These 
are living in 26 different States, but the largest proportion of them are living 
in South Carolina and helping to develop her resources. Since 1893 nearly 4,000 
boys have reaped the benefits of education offered by Clemson Agricultural 
College, fitting them for becoming valuable citizens. 

The College is supported by the privilege tax on fertilizers paid liy the manu- 
facturers; interest from the Clemson bequest, $58,539; interest from $96,000 
land-scrip endowment given by Congress; annual Morrill Fund, $15,000. also 
given by Congress; tuition from students; cash from sales from farm and other 
products ; hence it is not a burden to the State. 

The Legislature has created 124 beneficiary scholarsliips in the Agricultural 
Department, $100 each, and 41 scholarships in the Textile Department at $100 
each, requiring $16,500 out of the College income for this purpose. To fully 



i84 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

develop the Textile Department a factory has been built on the campus, which is 
equipped with spindles, looms and other mill appliances of every modern make, 
so that the student may learn by actual work the making of various kinds of 
yarns and weaves and the machinery necessary to produce each. This is proba- 
bly the only cotton factory (complete) that is a real integral part of any school 
in the United States, possibly in the world. 

Farmers' Institutes are held annually in various parts of the State, which are 
attended by about 6,000 farmers, which greatly benefits the farmers and the 
farming interests. 

The Southern Railway Company gives substantial aid in allowing the use of 
two coaches free of cost. These are fitted up with College products and trans- 
mitted from point to point without expense. 

WINTHROP NORMAL AND INDUSTRIAL COLLEGE. 

For nearly one hundred years the State of South Carolina had made liberal 
provision for the higher education of her sons. But up to i8gi her daughters 
were neglected, except that a small annual appropriation was made by the 
Legislature for the support of one pupil from each county in the Winthrop 
Training School for Teachers at Columbia. This school was organized Novem- 
ber 15, 1886, under the auspices of the Board of City School Commissioners 
of Columbia. 

D. B. Johnson, LL. D., the superintendent of the city schools, was largely 
instrumental in the establishment of this school. For many years an annual 
appropriation was made by the Peabody Board, which gave substantial aid to 
this most laudable enterprise. 

The name Winthrop was given in honor of Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, who 
as President of the Board of Trustees of the Peabody Educational Fund, has 
done so much for the cause of education in the South. To Mr. Winth^^op and 
Hon. J. L. M. Curry, the general agent of this fund, is due much of the success 
of this school. But to no man, however, is due more credit and honor than 
to Dr. D. B. Johnson, who has thrown his whole soul and untiring energy into 
the cause. In 1890 Gov. Benjamin R. Tillman, in his inaugural address, recom- 
mended the appointment of a commission to ascertain and report upon the 
advisability of establishing a normal and industrial school for women by the 
State. Upon a favorable report by the commission, composed of Prof. D. B. 
Johnson, Miss Mary Yeargin and Miss Hannah Hemphill, the Act incorporating 
"The Winthrop Normal and Industrial College of South Carolina for the Edu- 
cation of White Girls" was passed December, 1891. The Board of Trustees 
located the College at Rock Hill, S. C, and began the erection of suitable build- 
ings in 1892, which were completed and occupied in 1894. From the very begin- 
ning this College took deep root in the hearts of the people, meeting with the 
unanimous approval of the men and women of all classes, conditions and ideas, 
without regard to differences in politics or religion. The city of Rock Hill was 
most generous in contributing to secure this College, giving $60,000 in money 
and other property valued at $40,000 — $100,000 in all. 

This school has grown from a school of two teachers, nineteen pupils, and 
one room, in 1886, to a great school of forty-seven officers and teachers, five 
hundred students, and a plant costing over $300,000, in 1906. It is now a State 
institution and receives an annual appropriation for its expenses. The State 
maintains one hundred and twenty-four scholarships in it, worth each $100 and 
free tuition, leaving only four dollars to be raised by the beneficiary for college 
expenses for the entire session of nine months. Winthrop College is emphasiz- 
ing teacher-training and industrial work in accordance with its charter. The 
total enrollment in its different departments from the beginning to the present 
time is as follows: 

Normal 3,696 

Literary 634 

Dressmaking, Millinery and Sewing 1,406 

Stenography and Typewriting 435 

Cooking 997 

Horticulture 254 

Bookkeeping 143 

Drawing and Designing 1,989 

Dairying '36 

Manual Training 389 



EDUCATION. 187 

MEDICAL COLLEGE OF THE STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

This school was organized and chartered by the Legislature, first as the Med- 
ical College of South Carolina in 1823, and then as the Medical College of the 
State of South Carolina in 1832. The record of its original founders is blended 
with the history of Southern Aledicine. 

The names of Holbrook, Moultrie. Dickson, Prioleau, Frost, Ravenel. Wagner, 
Geddings. Shepherd, Bellinger, Gaillard, Simms, Miles, Chisholm, are ever to 
be revered. The alumni have been scattered far and wide, more particularly 
through the South and West. Many have worthily filled the highest positions 
as teachers in popular and influential medical colleges. Surgeon-General Wy- 
man, in his address to the graduating classes of 1907, said : "The United States 
Public Health and Marine Hospital Service has in its membership a number of 
graduates of the Medical College of the State of South Carolina. These with- 
out exception have reflected credit upon the public service and their alma mater, 
and in numerous instances have made such noteworthy contributions to medical 
science, and have achieved such notable success on the battlefields of epidemics, 
that they reflect more than credit — they add lustre to their college and to their 
calling." 

The combination of didactic lectures, practical work in the laboratory, and the 
study and treatment of diseases at the bedside and in the operating room, have 
been the chief features of the College to attract the confidence and support of 
the alumni and the profession at large. 

The College owns no property except the large and handsome building in 
which lectures are given, and an expensive and valuable museum of pathological 
specimens (said to be one of the finest museums in the world), and anatomical 
preparations. 

The College has no endowment, nor has it received any bequests or gifts, with 
the exception of one from the State, sixty-five years ago, in virtue of which the 
College gives beneficiary scholarships for one year to seven medical students, 
one from each Congressional District recommended by the Congressman and 
appointed by the Governor. 

The course of instruction extends over four years, the sessions beginning the 
first of October and ending the last of April. In connection with this College 
is also a College of Pharmacy, with a course of two years. 

This institution was closed during the Confederate War, but reopened imme- 
diately afterwards. The alumni in 1907 numbered about 3,000. 

The Roper Hospital has been for many years under the medical and surgical 
direction of the faculty of the College. 

Value of the main building is $75,000 

Value of the main hospital is 250,000 

Library of 3,000 or more valuable medical works. 

It ranks sixth in age among one hundred and fifty old medical colleges in the 
United States. 

CEDAR SPRINGS (FOR DEAF, DUMB AND BLIND). 

South Carolina Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Blind is located 
at Cedar Springs, Spartanburg County, four miles south of the city of Spar- 
tanburg. It is part of the educational work of the State, and its inmates receive 
the proper and necessary training. Board and tuition are free to those who are 
unable to pay for the same. There are Literary, Music and Art Departments. 
The industrial feature is also made quite prominent. For the boys there is 
woodworking, printing, broom, mat, brush and mattress making, chair seating, 
etc. ; for the girls, house, kitchen and laundry work, sewing, knitting, fancy 
work in beads, wool and cotton. 

From 1832 to 1849 the State sent her deaf children to Hartford, Conn. The 
State paid the expenses of seventeen pupils at the Hartford School. In 1849 
Rev. N. P. Walker established this school at Cedar Springs and eight deaf 
children were admitted. From this time lie devoted his whole time to the edu- 
cation of the deaf. In 1855 a department for the blind was added. In 1857 the 
school was changed from an individual to a State institution by purchase, and 
the Legislature made a liberal appropriation for the erection of suitable build- 
ings and for its support. Superintendent Walker died November, r86i. For 
four years the Legislature failed to appoint a Superintendent, but the school 
was wisely managed by Mrs. M. L. Walker, wife of Rev. N. P. Walker and 



EDUCATION. . 189 

his able co-worker. She. by her constant encouragement and personal work, 
made success possible. 

In 1866 J. S. Henderson and N. F. Walker were made associate Principals, 
but the school closed in one year on account of the unsettled condition of the 
State's finances. In 1869 the school was again opened with Superintendent 
J. M. Hughson in cliarge. He resigned in 1872 and N. F. Walker was appointed 
to succeed him. During this year a building for colored pupils was fitted up 
on a lot adjoining the institution. On the 17th of September, 1873, the Board 
of Commissioners issued instructions that "the colored pupils must be domiciled 
in the same building, eat at the same table, be taught in the same class rooms 
and by the same teachers, and must receives the same attention and care and 
consideration as the white pupils." Straightway the Superintendent, officers and 
teachers resigned. Efforts were made to secure a Superintendent and teachers 
who would be governed by these instructions, but they failed. Thus the school 
was closed from 1873 to 1876. Superintendent Walker was then reappointed, 
and the progress of the school has been uninterrupted. The department for 
colored pupils was again opened in 1883 in separate buildings. In connection 
with the buildings is a tract of 157 acres of land. Cedar Springs was known 
prior to the Revolutionary War as Green Springs. Its present name is from a 
large cedar tree that stood near the spring. The place is historic. Two battles 
were fought here between the Whigs and Tories in 1780. 

INDEPENDENT COLLEGE. 
COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON. 

The history of the College of Charleston can be traced back as far as 1770, 
when a meeting was held "petitioning the Assembly for the establishment of a 
college in or near Charleston." Many donations and bequests by private citizens 
were made, amid the excitement of the War of the Revolution and the general 
prostration that followed nothing further was done. In March, 1785, however, 
the endowment had increased to $60,000, a charter was granted, and certain 
lands in Charleston appropriated for the use of the College. In August of the 
same year the first meeting of the Trustees was held at the State House in 
Charleston, General Moultrie, then Governor of the State, presiding. Two 
signers of the Declaration of Independence, Ed. Rutledge and Arthur Middle- 
ton, and three of those who afterwards signed the Constitution of the United 
States, John Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney. 

In 1790 the College was opened to students, and in 1794 the first commence- 
ment was held ; among the graduates were Bishop Nathaniel Benson and Johir 
Davis Gervais. A new charter was granted in 1791, broader and more liberaJ 
in character. However, because of insufficient revenues, the College soon fell 
into financial difficulties, arising from debts contracted by the Trustees for th« 
erection of necessary buildings and for the salaries of teachers. The result waf 
that for thirteen years the college plan was suspended and a high school, of 
academy, was substituted. In 1824 such liberal contributions were made by the 
people of Charleston and the surrounding country that a new building, the center 
of the present group, was erected in 1828 at a cost of $25,000. In the same year 
the Hon. Elias Horry founded a professorship of moral and political philosophy 
by giving his personal bond of $10,000, yielding $500 a year. The interest on 
this bond was regularly paid until 1863. Thus a most critical transition period 
in the history of the College was passed and the course of instruction was made 
more liberal. The American Journal of Education, 1828, speaking of the Col- 
lege of Charleston, says : "The course of studies is as extensive as that pursued 
at any of our colleges." 

In 1837 the College was reorganized. The Legislature of the State in tliis 
year surrendered and transferred to the city government the property, rights and 
interest of the College, and the City Cotmcil agreed to accept the trust and to 
provide the means to maintain the institution. Then the Hon. Richard Yearden 
introduced a bill into the City Council providing for an annual appropriation of 
$1,000 for ninety-nine years, to be invested as a permanent fund for tlie support 
of the College. This bill became an ordinance in 1839. In 1881 tlie Council 
repealed this ordinance, but $6t,ooo remains today as a result of this endowment. 
Then, for the first time, the College was placed upon a permanent foundation. 

In 1847 the scope of instruction was further increased by the founding of a 
Chair of History and Belles-lettres. 'Ihc endowment for this chair was raised 
by popular subscription and amounted to $21,346 from 150 subscribers. 

Five years later, 1851, the study of Natural Science was so stimulated by that 
great American, Professor Louis Agassiz, who lectured for several winters in 



EDUCATION. 191 

Charleston on biological subjects, that, at his suggestion, a museum of natural 
history was founded and formally opened by him, and down to the present day 
this museum has been maintained and developed with special care. In fact, the 
Charleston museum is known all over the world, and is regarded as the finest 
museum of natural history on this continent. 

In 1855 the Library building was erected from funds appropriated by the State. 
In 1856, upon the endowment of the Hon. Kerr Boyce, $33,000, eight scholarships 
were founded, which fund had accumulated at the end of the \\'ar between the 
States to $35,400, and assures today the stability of these scholarships. The 
most ijenerous donation to the College was made in 1865 by Ephraim Baynard, 
a Sojj^Carolina planter, in bequest of $166,000 in city stock for the benefit of 
the C^Rge. In addition to these bequests, gifts and escheated property have 
been \^ted in the Trustees to the amount of more than $70,000. The total 
endowment has been preserved unimpaired, except for expenditures for the 
restoration of the buildings after the earthquake in 1886, August 31, and now 
amounts to about $300,000. 

This College today ranks among the very highest in the country for thorough 
and accurate scholarship. Its faculty is composed of distinguished scholars. 
The course of instruction is broad and comprehensive. Besides the scholarships 
mentioned, it offers one worthy young man from each county in the State a 
scholarship. Owing to its large endowment, there has been little active can- 
vassing for students throughout the State, but under President Harrison Ran- 
dolph the policy of the College is now more aggressive. Dr. Henry E. Shepherd, 
now of Johns Hopkins University, was for many years the honored President 
of Charleston College. There are now fifteen teachers and officers connected 
with the institution. It has a library of fourteen thousand choice books 
(14,000). besides access for its students to the library of the Charleston His- 
torical Society. The future of the College of Charleston is bright. 

DENOMINATIONAL COLLEGES. 

ERSKINE COLLEGE. 

This College has a history extending over seventy years, being organized in 
1837. Ac the time of its organization there was not a single institution in this 
or adjoining States that offered the advantages of a college training under 
Christian influences. Students from this section were compelled to seek such 
an education in Northern colleges. This institution, therefore, enjoys the envi- 
able distinction of having been the pioneer in the field of Christian education in 
the South. 

Erskine College is the property of the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Synod 
of the South, and is situated at Due West, Abbeville County, between Columbia 
and Greenville, on the Southern Railroad, being one hundred miles distant from 
the former and forty miles distant from the latter. 

Its first faculties were drawn from Northern colleges, such as Jefferson, Pa., 
and Miami University, Ohio. In later years they have been taken from the 
Southern colleges. Several of them have taken special courses and degrees at 
Yale, Harvard, Johns Hopkins, Princeton and Amherst. 

The College has endeavored to keep pace with the demands of the age, and 
the courses of study have been broadened as far as the limits of a faculty of 
ordinary number will permit. The culture studies, however, still occupy a prom- 
inent place in the curriculum. It does not attempt the work of a university, 
believing that it can render more useful service by doing thoroughly the work 
in its own chosen field. It is well endowed, and draws students from all the 
Southern States. The buildings are substantial ; several of them of modern 
structure and design. It offers the same courses to women tliat it does to men, 
and for this purpose it has special endowments and separate buildings. The 
library is well selected and has eight thousand choice and valuable books. The 
College is known the land over for the thorough work done by its professors 
and its students. Secret fraternities are strictly forbidden ; hence tiie work 
done by its literary societies is the best in the South. 

Its list of graduates contains men who have held positions of honor and trust 
and are prominent in every profession. One is a prominent journalist of note, 
J. C. Hemphill; another is a leading lawyer at the national capital, Hon. J. J. 
Darlington; another is a member of Congress, Joe Jolnison ; still anollier, ;ifter 
representing his State for years in the Senate chamber, before his death founded 
an orphanage and left all liis property to it, J. C. Maxwell. But the greatest 
of its alumni is the sainted William Moffatt Grier, D. D., LL. D., who became 



192 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

its President in 187 1 and for twenty-seven years safely, ably and lovingly man- 
aged the affairs of his alma mater, departing honored, revered and cherished 
by all. 

FURMAN UNIVERSITY. - • 

More than two centuries ago, in 1683, the Baptist Church of the South was 
organized in Charleston, and to this may be traced the founding of Furman 
University. The Baptists were aggressive. They went first to convert and then 
to educate. In 1755 a society was formed by the Baptists for the promotion of 
the education of young men for the ministry, the first for this purpose in the 
United States, antedating the one in Philadelphia by one year. Jesse Mercer, 
the father of Baptist education in Georgia, for whom Mercer University,.;iMacon, 
Georgia, is named, was one of the young men educated by this society. In 1790 
a State convention for the cause of education was formed and Richard Furman 
assumed the direction of the movement and continued till his death in 1825. 
Under his influence the Baptists of South Carolina founded an academy on the 
high hills of the Santee. This was transferred in 1827 to Edgefield, owing to 
the magnetic influence of Basil Manly, Sr. In less than two years it was 
removed to the high hills of the Santee. Here Prof. Sam'l Furman was added 
to the force of teachers. 

The school remained here, passing through many trials, until 1837, when it 
was moved to Winnsboro, but in 1848 it was moved to Greenville, S. C. In 
1852 Furman University was opened. The Theological Department of the Uni- 
versity grew into the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, in 1859, under 
that famous quartette, James P. Boyce, John A. Broadus, Basil Manly^ and 
William Williams, as professors. 

In 1859 Dr. James C. Furman became President and served until 1879, and 
as chairman of the faculty till 1881. He was then succeeded by Dr. Chas. Manly, 
who remained at the head of the University till 1897. Dr. N. P. Montague was 
then made President and was followed by Dr. E. M. Poteat in 1903. who is now 
at the head of this institution, which is growing in favor and efficiency under 
his wise management. 

This University furnishes sound preparation for the duties of life; it equips 
young men for high and intelligent citizenship by developing in them those 
qualities of heart and mind that shall make them useful to their State and their 
country. But above all it inculcates those principles that form the foundation 
of strong Christian manhood. It is in reality a Christian college. 

WOFFORD COLLEGE. 

Wofiford College owes its existence to the far-sighted philanthropy of the 
Rev. Benjamin Wofiford, a local preacher of the South Carolina Conference of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, who died in 1850, leaving $100,000 to 
found a Christian college at Spartanburg. 

The College was chartered in 1851 by the State Legislature, and opened its 
doors for regular work in 1854. Since that date it has not closed its doors for 
a single session. Even during the war between the States it offered instruction 
to the few youths who might resort to it at this trying period, and m the midst 
of the dark days following the war and during Reconstruction, when other 
institutions were forced to close, WofTord remained opened to all who might 
come. In spite of the fact that its endowment and resources were swept away 
by the wreck of war, it was enabled to furnish higher education to the youth 
of the State by the heroic sacrifices of its professors and the annual contribu- 
tions of the Methodist Church in South Carolina. 

Since those days the history of the College has been a record of steady prog- 
ress. Its endowment has been gradually restored ; the Methodist Church in 
South Carolina annually assesses itself $7,000 for its support, an amount equal 
to the interest on an endowment of $140,000, at 5 per cent. ; its physical equip- 
ment has grown to such an extent that now the College owns for educational 
purposes and use in its three plants, Wofiford College at Spartanburg, WofTord 
Fitting School at Spartanburg, and Carlisle Fitting School, Bamberg, as many 
as twenty-seven buildings, representing property valued at $300,000; while its 
patronage has grown to over half a thousand students in the three institutions, 
with faculties numbering in all twenty-three professors and teachers. 

The Wofiford system stands (i) for thorough preparation for college through 
its fitting schools ; (2) for a high grade of strictly college work in the college 
proper. Its educational ideals have ever been thoroughness of work, accuracy 
and breadth of scholarship, and sound character. It aims generally to be a 
strictly first-class college, trying not to do .the work of the high school on the 




13-H. B. 



194 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

one hand, nor aping either the methods or name of the university on the other. 
Its courses of study are meant to make for training and culture, and to this 
end it offers the following: Mathematics, Astronomy, Ethics, Bible, Psychology, 
English, Latin, Greek, French, German, History, Economics, Sociology, Geology, 
Mineralogy, Chemistry, and Biology. 

NEWBERRY COLLEGE. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Synod obtained a charter and established a college 
at Newberry, S. C, erected a large and attractive building, which was com- 
pleted and occupied in 1838. The enrollment in the second session was 175 
students. The endowment in i860 reached $50,000, and the entire property of 
the College was $75,000. 

From 1861 to 1865 the doors were practically closed, and professors and stu- 
dents obeyed their country's call to arms. The endowment was lost, as was the 
case with other denominational colleges, by investment in Confederate securi- 
ties. The College buildings were sold for debt and the institution was moved 
to Walhalla. It remained there for nine years, struggling with embarrassments, 
when it was again located in Newberry. Since then the attendance has been 
increasing, the patronage has become broader, and the outlook of the College is 
promising. 

It has a well selected library of 10,000 volumes, and valuable collection of 
mineralogical and natural history specimens, known as the Sifley Museum ; 
chemical and physiological laboratory, and other appliances for doing first-class 
work. There are three departments in the College : Preparatory, Collegiate and 
Technical. The College has two courses, the classical and philosophical, the 
one leading to the Bachelor of Arts, and the other to the Bachelor of Philosophy. 

The Technical is very successful in meeting the demand for business training 
.and practical life. 

THE PRESBYTERIAN COLLEGE OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

The Presbyterian College of South Carolina originated in a determined effort 
made by the people of Clinton in 1872, during troublous times, to found a high 
school, at the very time when the constabulary was in town serving warrants 
for the arrest of so-called members of the Kuklux. In 1880 the Clinton High 
School became Clinton College; in 1893 it became the Presbyterian College of 
South Carolina. In 1905 it was transferred by the local board to the represen- 
tatives appointed by the Presbyteries. Rev. Wm. P. Jacobs, D. D., who had 
been President of the Board of Trustees for twenty-five years, resigned his 
position and was succeeded by Rev. Dr. Robert Adams, who has served the 
body with great fidelity ever since. 

The election of Rev. Dr. Neville as President by the Board of Trustees was 
the beginning of a determined effort on the part of the Presbyterians to make 
the College a success. The Clinton people, in order to secure the location of the 
College, turned over $40,000 worth of property and money to the institution. 
Its lands and endowments are valued at not less than $100,000. A very hand- 
some college edifice has been erected ; there are three professors' houses and 
two dormitories, a large and handsome new dormitory and new refectory. The 
library numbers 2,500 volumes. There were 130 students enrolled the past 
session. 

The College is now under the control of the Presbyteries of the Synod of 
South Carolina, each Presbytery appointing three representatives for three years 
each. The alumni also elects three representatives. The College is, therefore, 
strictly denominational ; at the same time its scope is a broad one. The Bible 
is one of its regular textbooks, and the great doctrines on which all Christians 
agree are taught in its Bible course. Much attention is paid to the scientific 
course. Both ancient and modern languages are thoroughly taught. Much atten- 
tion is also paid to oratory and declamation. Athletics are encouraged. The 
various societies of the College are flourishing. 

The College is now aiming to raise $150,000 endowment and $100,000 building 
fund, and there is every evidence that it will be accomplished. Within the past 
four months $44,000 have been secured by the indefatigable labors of Rev. J. C. 
Shive, agent. 

The recent death of Dr. Neville was a heavy loss to the College, but Rev. 
Robert Adams, D. D., has been elected President, and the work goes on without 
interruption. 

The College has expended $40,000 in new buildings during the past year, and 
now has contracts out for the expenditure of $15,000 more. The landed property 
of the institution is thirty-four acres. This is in the incorporate limits of the 



196 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

city of Clinton and is rapidly increasing in value. Its new administration build- 
ing cost $35,000, and is a gem of architectural beauty, and is a credit not to the 
town only, but to the State of South Carolina. 

FEMALE COLLEGES 

Within the last two decades wonderful progress has been made by the State 
of South Carolina in the matter of educating her daughters. Prior to this time 
many institutions, richly endowed and with teachers of the highest talents and 
acquirements, offered great advantages for the education of the males, but com- 
paratively little interest was manifested by the State in female education. 

There were female colleges before the war at Charleston, Greenville, Sumter, 
Yorkville, Laurens, Limestone, Orangeburg, Columbia, Blythewood and Brad- 
ford Springs. All but three of these, Greenville, Limestone and Due West, have 
been closed for various reasons. Many other denominational and non-sectarian 
schools now exist in the State, almost twice as many as for males, and the State 
makes large appropriations for the Winthrop Normal and Industrial College, 
showing that female education is now receiving the attention it justly deserves. 

BARHAMVILLE FEMALE COLLEGE. 

Barhamville has the high honor and distinction of being the oldest female 
college in the State. 

Dr. Elias Marks, who attended the schools of Charleston, graduated from the 
New York Medical College in 1815, and after conducting a drug business in 
New York for two years, returned to the South and opened a school for young 
ladies in Columbia, in 1817. This College was first located where the Washing- 
ton Graded School now stands, but was subsequently removed about one and a 
half miles northeast of the city of Columbia to the "Sandhills." 

Dr. Marks was a cultured man, a polite scholar and an enthusiast on the 
subject of female education. His wife was a woman of great literary attain- 
ments and was ever a help and inspiration to him in his grand and noble work. 
The school was named in memory of his son, Barham, who died in childhood. 

From the beginning of this school in 1817 to its close in 1861 it was a success, 
and emerged gradually from the "day school" to a college of large proportions, 
enrolling each year 200 students from the best families in the whole Southland. 

The standard of the school was high, and its tone was elegant, refined and 
dignified. The best teachers from the North were employed, usually eight or 
ten constituting the faculty. The annual outlay for teachers was from $12,000 
to $14,000 annually. The following corps of teachers were engaged from 1858-61 : 
Elias Marks, M. D., Principal, department of history and belles-lettres ; Mrs. 
Marks, writing; M. Dorvilliers, French, drawing, modern languages; Rev. Mr. 
Donnelly, Prof. Reynolds, Mr. Alexander, Mr. Ward, chaplains at different times ; 
Mr. Orchard, music master ; Madame Sosnowski, painting and drawing ; Madame 
Feugas and M. Strawinski, dancing ; M. Manget, French. 

The school had a well-selected library, philosophical apparatus, and a cabinet 
of minerals. The laboratory where chemistry and philosophy were taught is still 
standing, repaired and refitted for a dwelling. The other buildings were de- 
stroyed by fire in 1869. 

Some of the graduates of this school, who afterwards became prominent ladies 
of the land, were Miss Bullock, of Georgia, the mother of President Roosevelt, 
and Parmela Cunningham, who was instrumental in the purchase of Mount 
Vernon. It is the alma mater of many well-known women whose influence is 
now felt in the educational, social and religious world. 

"Barhamville ! What hallowed associations the name recalls ! Work earnest 
and true, fun and frolic, the noble, the beautiful, the generous. Some graduates 
have filled the highest walks of life; some have lived in humbler spheres; but 
the principles taught and enforced will ever exalt the name Barhamville." 

LIMESTONE FEMALE COLLEGE. 

Limestone College was conducted with splendid success by Dr. Thomas Curtis 
and his son. Dr. William Curtis, from the date of its foundation in 1845 until 
it was closed, when the storm-cloud of disaster burst over South Carolina during 
the War between the States. After the war its was conducted for a short time 
by Dr. William Curtis. Under the Messrs. Curtis the name of Limestone was 
a household word throughout the South. The best families of the Southern 



EDUCATION. 



197 



States sent their daughters to this College. The physical, intellectual and moral 
training here was of the highest excellence. 

Today many graduates of this College may be found all through the South, 
shining like bright jewels in the communities in which they live. Peter Cooper 
purchased the property to establish a technical school for women. He after- 
wards made a donation of the property to the Spartanburg Baptist Association 
for school purposes. After some years of disaster, in 1881 the College was 
revived under that famous teacher. Capt. Harrison Petillo Griffith. 

In 1899 Prof. Lee Davis Lodge, Ph. D., for fifteen years a professor in the 
Columbian University at Washington, D. C, became president, and now the 
institution is enjoying a high degree of prosperity. The thorough instruction, 
the refined home influ'ence, the healthful climate, and the mineral water con- 
tribute to its popularity. 

The curriculum embraces all departments found in the best female colleges 
North or South. The equipment is strictly modern and the buildings are ample 
and admirably adapted to the purposes for which they are used. Some of the 
apparatus has been imported from Europe. 

This College has two distinctive departments not found in other female 
schools: 'Jhe Society of Philosophical Inquiry, affiliated with the Society of 




SOUTH CAROLINA FEMALE COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE, BARHAMVILLE, S. C. 
(Lithograph of Saxony & Major, 117 Fulton St., New York.) 

Philosophical Inquiry at Washington, D. C, and the "Winnie Davis School of 
History," the object of which is to promote the study of Southern history and 
Southern literature. 

A beautiful new hall of history, a gem of architecture, has been erected for 
this department, which is called "The Winnie Davis Hall of History," in memory 
of the "Daughter of the Confederacy," a name enshrined in every true Southern 
heart. 

GREENVILLE FEMALE COLLEGE. 

In 1854 the Baptist State Convention established a female college, and from 
the beginning determined that the standard of attainment be high. Greenville, 
long famed as an intellectual center, and remarkable for its health and social 
and religious advantages, was chosen as the location. Handsome buildings were 
erected, and under such educators as Rev. A. H. Duncan, C. H. Judson, LL. D., 
the College entered upon and maintained a highly successful career. 

In 1878 Dr. Judson resigned the presidency to accept an equally responsible 
position in Purman University, and Prof. A. S. Townes was chosen to succeed 
him. Dr. Townes remained at the head of the College up to 1894, when he was 
succeeded by Dr. W. M. Riley, who was followed by Col. E. H. Murfee, LL. D., 
in 1900; but in 1901 Col. Murfee resigned and Dr. E. C. James, the present 
incumbent, became president. 



198 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



The standard of scholarship has been steadily improved. The College ranks 
high. It is the purpose of the management to make it one of the leading col- 
leges for women in the South. It numbers among its graduates and former 
students many of the most charming women of this State and other States. 
They are leaders in social circles, in church and missionary work, and in edu- 
cational work. About one-half of the graduates become teachers. 

The College has had an overflowing patronage the past three years. A build- 
ing has been rented for an annex. The College is accommodating fifty per cent, 
more boarding pupils than its buildings will hold. Thirty thousand dollars is 
now being raised for a new building. 

COLUMBIA FEMALE COLLEGE. 

"Columbia Female College, 1854- 1904— Columbia College, IQOS-" . These in- 
scriptions appear on the cornerstone of the new College building, laid April 24, 
1905. This College was chartered in 1854 for the higher education of women. 
The school was opened in 1859, and was continued without interruption until 
1864, when it was closed on account of the depressing effects of the War of 
Secession. From that time to 1873 the buildings were rented as a hotel. Since 









'oSf 




^>m *« • ^^ 



J Jt>f\'-t.-^'_ .a°rwi;y^..^ 




LIMESTONE SPRINGS FEMALE HIGH SCHOOL (184S). 
(On Stone by C. Kuchel.) (P. S. Duval & Co.'s Steam Lithograph Press, Philadelphia.) 



1873 it has been in continuous and successful operation. The main building 
was enlarged in 1867, and in 1895 the plant was thoroughly overhauled, enlarged 
and fitted with modern heating and sanitary equipments. Its prosperity has 
not only been material, but in 1895 the entrance requirements and graduation 
were made to conform to those of the leading colleges for men, and thus a 
great forward movement was inaugurated. The increase in numbers dernanded 
more ample provision, and in 1904 a new site was chosen and new buildings 
projected. 

In September, 1905, the College began work in its new and enlarged home, 
north of the beautiful and progressive city of Columbia, on a site elevated sixty 
feet above the level of the city. Costing more than $150,000 and containing 224 
rooms, it is one of the most superb, handsome and convenient colleges for 
women in the South. 

The location is most favorable to study, being near yet away from the noise, 
dust and distractions of the busy and crowded city. Here the students have 
all the quiet and freedom of the country and all the advantages and conve- 
niences of the city. 



EDUCATION. 



199 



Most liberal provision has been made for every department, and able, com- 
petent, experienced and well-trained teachers are in charge. The plan is to 
furnish the best service for a reasonable charge. The purpose is always to give 
value received. Patronage is sought on the ground of merit alone. The great 
aim of the College is to offer to young women a broad and deep culture, careful 
and exact training, thorough and liberal education. For the past twelve years 
the work of the Columbia College has been high grade, and every session wit- 
nesses some advancement. 

LANDER COLLEGE. 

This College, with its splendid property in the city of Greenwood, belongs to 
the South Carolina Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The 
property is a gift in perpetuity of the citizens of Greenwood. It is worth over 
$60,000. Such a gift to the Church of Christ is rare, at least in this section of 
the country. It is named for the late Rev. Sam'l Lander, D. D., who founded 
it, February 12, 1872, in the town of Williamston, and who successfully con- 
ducted the school for thirty-three years, and who arranged for its removal to 
Greenwood in 1904. It was his life-work, his greatest achievement and is a fit 
tribute to his memory. The old cornerstone from the Williamston building was 





COLUMBIA FEMALE COLLEGE. 



relaid by Dr. Lander in the Greenwood building and a new cornerstone was also 
laid by Dr. Frank E. Harrison, Grand Master of the Ancient Order of Free 
Masons of South Carolina, in 1903. 

Full of years, rich in good works, devoted to the training of Christian women, 
a r^re friend, a true Christian and consecrated minister of the Church of Christ, 
Dr. Lander departed this life July 14, 1904. 

On July 26th the Board elected Rev. John O. Wilson, D. D., to succeed him. 
This College has always stood for the education of womanly women, in which 
genuine religion should have chicfcst place. Dr. Lander followed unwaveringly 
the course marked out. Nothing could induce him to pass students who did 
not merit advancement, nor to graduate any who did not honestly earn a 
diploma. As a result, the graduates soon came to be looked upon as wnmcn 
ready for any modest, Christian service — efficient, faithful, steadfast, helpful, 
says Hon. O. B. Martin, State Superintendent of Education. 

The course embraces the studies taught in the other colleges for women in 
the State. There are four departments, all well arranged and fully equipped for 
excellent work. For thirty years this College offered several unique and peculiar 



200 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

features in female education, and under Dr. Lander they were eminently suc- 
cessful. They are summarized briefly as follows: (i) The organization of new 
classes every session of twenty weeks, instead of once a year. (2) Instead of 
prizes for excellence, deductions from regular tuition fees were allowed. (3) 
The "one study plan," so-called, in which the session was subdivided into four 
sections of five weeks each, and some particular branch was made the major 
study and some associate branch the minor study. (4) The graduation of the 
student eight times during the year as soon as she has completed the round of 
studies. (5) Private graduation with no public exhibition; but the students 
were subjected to rigid examinations. The Trustees in June, 1907, directed the 
discontinuance of this system. It remains to be seen whether this action is a 
wise one or not. 

CONFEDERATE HOME COLLEGE. 

August 12, 1867, Mrs. M. A. Snowden took the first steps for establishing the 
Confederate Home and School in Charleston by securing the present premises 
at the rent of $1,800 a year. There was but one dollar in hand to meet this 
rent This was the gift of an inmate of a charitable institution in Baltimore. 




ENTRANCE TO COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, COLUMBIA. 

A meeting of ladies was called, a constitution adopted and an organization 
effected. Mrs. Snowden was the first President. The institution was at once 
opened and twenty-five ladies were furnished with rooms. A school was organ- 
ized for the children of the inmates, numbering twenty-five pupils. These were 
gratuitously taught by the young ladies of the city. The first year's report 
showed that the Home was giving shelter to seventy inmates, and the school 
numbered fifty pupils. As there was still room in the spacious building for 
more occupants, it was decided to make the educational feature more prominent. 
This led to the organization of a female college within the Home, with a Board 
of Control and a good corps of teachers. Under this plan this institution has 
worked for thirty-seven years. All the branches leading to a thorough educa- 
tion are taught, including French, German, Latin, Music. The students are pro- 
vided with a home, education, books and uniform. Daily oversight is given to 
the management of the school by the President, matron and resident teachers. 

The Home has little source of income except voluntary contributions. The 
State gives it annually $2,000. By far the greater part of the students are 
wholly or in part beneficiary. However, when there is ability upon the part of 
the parents or friends to pay, it is strictly required. Two hundred dollars yearly 
will meet all expenses, yet few have been able to meet this requirement. 

The number of students averages sixty. In addition to the students, the Con- 
federate Home has provided rooms for mo^liers, widows or daughters of South- 
ern soldiers, with every possible help for their maintenance. There has been an 
average of forty permanent inmates for the past thirty-nine years. 

This remarkable work is done without endowment, and depending upon the 
energy, zeal and devotion of these noble Christian women of Charleston. 



EDUCATION. 201 

CLIFFORD SEMINARY. 

Rev. B. G. Clifford and his wife. Mrs. Mary Schofield ClifTord, were in charge 
of the Unionville Female Academy from 1874-1881. In 1881 they founded the 
Clifford Seminary in Union and in 1883 it was chartered by the State of South 
Carolina. 

These principals have given all the energy and zeal of their lives to the uplift- 
ing, ennobling and refining of young womanhood. The many who have gone 
out from this school have reflected honor upon their alma mater and are enforc- 
ing the principle taught them of "simple living and high thinking." 




COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, COLUMBIA. 

The buildings were put up at a cost of $10,000 by the principals themselves. 
These buildings are plain and home-like, but the education given is of as high 
a character as that obtained from more pretentious seats of learning. It is 
equipped with modern appliances, library and scientific furniture. 

Its patronage comes from the best families of the State, and it continues to 
increase in usefulness and in extending its advantages. It has already wrought 
a good work for Union County and the State, which is an earnest of the future 
before it. 




GROUNDS — COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, COLUMDIA. 

THE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. 

This College was founded by the Presbyterians of this State and was called 
the "Presbyterian College for Women." It was chartered by tlio South Caro- 
lina Legislature to give collegiate education and confer degrees upon its 
graduates. 

For six years it was under the management of Rev. W. R. Atkin.son, D. D. 
Since this time it has been under a Board of Directors consisting of twelve 
members, six of whom arc residents of Columljia and six from different parts 



202 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

of the State. This Board is perpetual and self-perpetuating, and has been 
incorporated under the name and title of "The Board of Trustees of the Col- 
lege for Women." . , , r n 

From the first vear of its existence this College received the patronage of all 
denominations, and is now non-sectarian and called "The College for Women." 

This College is "beautiful for situation," occupying the old William C. Pres- 
ton estate, also known as the Hampton Place. The gardens of this property 
have been famed for more than one hundred years. Agassiz, Audubon, Le- 
Conte and other naturalists have visited its collection of rare firs and pines. 
The pleasure grounds cannot be surpassed for loveliness and beauty. 

The buildings are Hampton Hall. Preston Hall, Studio, New Dormitory and 
the Science Building, all large, comfortable and well furnished. 

The College management endeavors to give careful attention to the best 
interest of the individual student. A home-like atmosphere pervades this insti- 
tution, and its aim is to be a genuine Christian home. 

There is a full and high grade course of study ; special provision for the care 
and development of the body. 

The students have the advantage of the College library, the library of the 
South Carolina University, the State Library and also the Timrod Library. 

Rev. R. P. Pell succeeded Dr. Atkinson as President of this College, who, 
after very successful work here, was called to the Presidency of Converse Col- 
lege. He was succeeded bv Miss Euphemia McClintock, who is at present the 
efficient President. She ha's the honor of being the only lady in the State that 
holds such a high position in educational affairs. 

CONVERSE COLLEGE. 

This College was organized in 1889 and called for its founder, D. E. Converse. 
It is situated in Spartanburg on the site of "St. John's College," including 
forty-seven acres. Rev. B. F. Wilson, D. D., was elected president. The first 
session began October, 1890, and 176 students were enrolled the first year. Since 
then this College has steadily grown, and for the past four years its enrollment 
has been over 300. Many large and elegant buildings have been erected to 
satisfy the ever increasing demand to accommodate students and equipment. At 
first the corporation was a stock company, but in 1896 these stockholders sur- 
rendered their claims upon the property and donated it to the cause of the higher 
education of young women. The Legislature re-chartered the institution, making 
it an absolute and permanent gift to the cause of education. 

President Wilson, after twelve years of successful management, resigned on 
July I St, .1902, and the Rev. R. P. Pell, formerly President of the Presbyterian 
College for Women in Columbia, was elected to succeed him. 

The College is vested in a self-perpetuating Board of Trustees by charter. 
This trust is discharged gratuitously by the Board, none of whom have any 
property rights in the College, so that all the funds are used for the conduct 
and further equipment of the College. Its students come from all the Southern 
States, some from the Middle and Western and Northern States. 

Its alumni are so intensely loyal that it has been unnecessary to do any can- 
vassing in order to fill its halls. 

The highest entrance requirements in the United States are fifteen units of 
high school work; Converse requires twelve units. This shows a very high 
standard. This standard is being steadily advanced as rapidly as can be done 
without losing touch with the best preparatory schools. 

The most striking thing about the College is the broad and far-sighted policy 
that has marked its administration from the beginning. It is not denominational, 
and all incomes and revenues are used absolu(tely for the benefit of the students 
under its care. The same breadth and foresightedness are equally evident in its 
purely educational work. Converse stands for an education for woman just as 
extended and of as fine a quality as that for man, but different in its tone and 
trend. The College is just entering upon a larger understanding of what its 
work is to be. and its administrators are determined to make it adjust itself 
more and more to the actual demands of the situation, both as to the needs of 
this section and the needs of our women. 

This instituion has graduated 385 pupils. Value of the property is $350,000. 

CHICORA COLLEGE. 

Chicora College was organized in 1893, under the auspices of the three Pres- 
byterian churches of Greenville, by Rev. J. F. McKinnon. In 1898 it was 
reorganized as a stock company, and S. R. Preston, D. D., was placed at its 



EDUCATION. 



203 



head. In 1906 it became the property of the six Presbyteries which compose the 
Synod of South Carolina. Thus organized, it is the youngest college m the 

State. ,. , , ■ • J J 

The institution is a Presbyterian College, established, mamtamed and con- 
ducted for the purpose of promoting Christian education in harmony with the 
constitution of the Presbyterian Church in the United States. 

The supreme aim of Chicora Col^ege is to make women; and its conception 
of womanhood is a graceful and vigorous body, a thoroughly disciphned mmd, 
together with a high moral and spiritual character. Character is more impor- 
tant than mere intellectual knowledge, and a trained conscience more valuable 
than mere education; hence the endeavor of this College is to form character 
and to train the conscience, while educating and imparting knowledge. 

The site of the College — iMcBee Terrace, 995 feet above sea level — is in the 
center of the city of Greenville, and comprises several acres ornamented with 
majestic oaks, shrubbery and grassy lawns. The place is attractive and beau- 
tiful, commanding a fine view of the city, the river and the mountains. The 
buildings are spacious, modern and well furnished. There is a bright future 
for this young and deserving College. Rev. S. C. Byrd, D. D., is the energetic 
president. • 




MAIN BUILDING — CONVERSE COLLEGE, SPARTANBURG. 



DUE WEST FEMALE COLLEGE. 
This College, under the auspices of the Associate Reformed Presbyterian 
Church, was founded in i860 by a company of citizens of public spint. Just 
at the time that it was established came the paralyzing effects of the War ot 
Secession, and little progress was made for several years. Since this trying 
period passed away its walls have been filled with students from many of the 

Southern States. , , , ,■ a u- u 

The grounds are large and beautiful with walks and beds of Howers, which 
invite to open air exercise. The buildings, which are large brick structures, are 
elegantly furnished, and equipped with all modern improvements. 
The course of study is thorough and the standard high. 

This College, although launched forth at such an inauspicious time, has suc- 
cessfully overcome the ripples of adversity, and is now on the topmost wave of 

prosperity and usefulness. . , . , ^ , , rr ■ ■ . .u- 

The Presidents who have given such faithful and efficient services to this 
institution are: Rev. J. I. Bonner, D. D., Prof. J. P. Kennedy, Mrs. L. M. 
Bonner, Rev. C. E. Todd, Rev. James Boyce. ^ „. 

Due West, with its Erskine College for the education of men. Due West 
Female College and Theological Seminary, has been beautifully and appropri- 
ately styled "The Drumtochty of South Carolina." 

THE GREENVILLE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. 
This College was organized in 1894 with a full complement of teachers and 
officers and a charter was obtained under the laws of South Carolina, havmg 
as its design the education of young women in the full college course under 
Christian auspices, blending with college education the home innucnces and 
freedom possible only when a limited and select number of boarding pupils are 



204 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



received. A large and influential Board of Visitors has general oversight of 
the College and lend their moral and material aid to it. 

Since its organization the College has had a prosperous career, and has sent 
forth about lOO graduates. More than three-fourths of this number have 
engaged in teaching, and everywhere the diploma of the College for Women 
was recognized as entitling its holder to the confidence of the people as to 
culture and worth. About 1,200 matriculates have enrolled. The President is 
Alexander S. Townes, a graduate of the Universities of Furman, Heidelberg and 
Leipzig. There are nine teachers in the faculty. 

The special claim of this College is that it receives only a limited number of 
students, and can thereby do individual work. The working principle is every 
student recites every lesson every day. 

The value of buildings, grounds and equipment is $25,000. 




A MILL VILLAGE FREE SCHOOL. 



MEMMINGER HIGH AND NORMAL SCHOOL. 

The Memminger High and Normal School is the Girl's High School and the 
City Training School for Teachers maintained by the city of Charleston. It was 
established by Act of the Legislature in 1857 and was one of the first norrnal 
schools in the South. The State contributed $35,000 to its equipment and main- 
tenance during the first five years of its existence. With the exception of two 
years at the close of the War between the States, it has been maintained as a 
high grade school for girls and a training school for teachers. 

It admits pupils who have completed the seven years of the elementary schools, 
and graduates them after a six years' course of study. The last three years of 
its course comprises work usually done in the colleges of South Carolina. Its 
diploma entitles the holder by law to a teacher's certificate in the State. The 
school was named in honor of the Hon. C. G. Memminger, a distinguished citizen 
of South Carolina and one of the founders of the Charleston Public School 
System. 

COEDUCATIONAL COLLEGES. 

THE REIDVILLE SCHOOLS. 

These schools were founded by Rev. R. H. Reid in 1857, and were named 
for him. The lands were donated by James and Anthony Wakefield and James 
N. Gaston for school purposes. The property belongs to the Reidville Presby- 
terian Church, controlled by a self-perpetuating Board of fifteen members. The 
Reidville Female College and the Reidville Male High School were conducted 



2o6 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

as separate institutions from 1857 until 1905. In the fall of 1905 the schools 
were united, and are now known as the Reidville Graded School. 

One thousand boys and twelve hundred young ladies have received the greater 
part of their education and preparation for life in these schools. They have 
been a considerable factor in education in the Piedmont region of this State. 

LEESVILLE COLLEGE (CO-EDUCATIONAL). 

The Leesville College was chartered by the Legislature in 1890, and is the 
successor of the Leesville English and Classical Institute, incorporated in 1881. 
It is situated at Leesville, on the Southern Railroad, midway between Columbia 
and Augusta, Ga. This section has long been noted for its healthfulness and 
is an ideal location for a college. This College was established to meet the 
demands made for higher education in this section. 

The College is empowered to confer degrees and grant diplomas. There are 
five substantial buildings. on a lot of eleven acres, all admirably adapted to the 
purposes for which they were erected. 

This College offers higher education to both sexes. There are separate dor- 
mitories, each under the direct oversight of the President, and the discipline is 
such as is best fitted to lead the students to govern themselves. For the young 
men there is military training and a commercial course, together with the 
regular academic department. The young women have offered to them excellent 
art and musical advantages and domestic science with the literary courses. 
Physical culture receives much attention. 

The young women are permitted to do household work and thus reduce their 
expenses. Many worthy girls are thus enabled to get an education who other- 
wise could not. 

The equipment is increased every year, and all available room is now occupied. 
Prof. L. B. Haynes has been President for nineteen years. The value of the 
property is $25,000. The annual enrollment is from 100 to 300. There are four- 
teen teachers and officers. The College has a good library of select books and 
good reading rooms. 

SOUTH CAROLINA COEDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE. 

_ This College at Edgefield is coeducational, and has been in successful opera- 
tion for sixteen years, always having as many boarding pupils as can be accom- 
modated, 100 now being the limit. It is controlled by the President and founder, 
Col. F. N. K. Bailey. It is strictly a military school and makes a specialty 
of preparing young men and women for the junior classes of the best, uni- 
versities. 

The course of study offered is equal to that of the best female colleges in the 
South. A thorough normal course is given to those students who desire to 
prepare themselves to teach in the public and high schools of this and other 
States. A large number of successful teachers have been sent out from the 
institution within the past few years. 

Handsome brick buildings, containing fifty dormitory rooms, large auditorium, 
class rooms, parlors, offices, society halls, art studio, music rooms, dining room, 
etc., have been erected on a campus of eight acres in a beautiful oak grove. 
Steam heat, electric lights, modern water works supply the buildings. 

The President and twelve professors live in the buildings with the students, 
making it a distinctive home school. The school has a library of well selected 
standard literature. 

CATHOLIC ACADEMIES AND SCHOOLS. 

CATHOLIC SCHOOLS. 

In 1791 the Roman Catholic Church of Charleston was incorporated by an 
Act of the Legislature of South Carolina under Father Ryan. 

In 1793 the Hibernian Society was organized by Dr. Gallagher. In 1823 
Bishop England established and conducted a select classical academy for the 
youth of Charleston and a seminary for the training and education of ecclesi- 
astical students, called St. John the Baptist. 

In this seminary were educated such men as Bishop Lynch, Dr. Corcoran 
and Dr. J. J. O'Connell, who founded the Ursuline Convent in Columbia in 
1858. 

In 1822 Bishop England established a newspaper. The Catholic Miscellany, 
which continued to 1861. 






■M ::^J.- :-»^- 







208 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



In 1829 he established the Academy of Our Lady of Mercy, for the education 
of children, which has continued till now in its good work. St. Joseph's, of 
Sumter, was established in 1863. 

St. Francis Xavier's Infirmary, under charge of the Sisters of Mercy, was 
founded in 1882. A training school for nurses was added in a few years, which 
has proved to be a benediction to the city. In the city of Charleston is the 
Orphan Asylum of the Catholic Church, where a number of orphans are edu- 
cated and cared for. 

ST. ANGELA'S ACADEMY. 

This Academy was opened at Aiken in 1900, and has had a successful career 
ever since. This is shown by the fact that in six years the faculty, number of 
students and capacity of the buildings have been doubled. 

It occupies a beautiful site in the town of Aiken, justly noted as a health 
resort. It has about 100 students, ten teachers, and graduated its first class last 
year — a class of five. The corps of teachers is an excellent one, with Celestine 
Quale as President. 

The institution is under direct control of the Sisters of Mercy. The property 
is worth at a low estimate $25,000. 



URSULINE CONVENT. 

All records, from the date of foundation by Rev. J. J. O'Connell in Columbia 
in 1858 to the burning of Columbia by Sherman in 1865, when the Convent was 

burned, were destroyed. Shortly after the 
war steps were taken to rebuild and re- 
furnish the school, and now the Convent 
stands on the corner of Assembly Street 
and Hampton Avenue, a monument to 
their devotion to education by the Cath- 
olics of the State. It is a commodious 
and handsome building, furnished with all 
modern equipments and the best sanitary 
arrangements, thoroughly heated and well 
ventilated. The grounds are ample for 
outdoor exercise, which is required by the 
rules of the Academy to take, and which 
the delightful climate renders pleasant 
throughout the year. In point of health 
and beauty, Columbia does not yield to 
any Southern city ; hence the Academy is 
ideally situated and attracts students from 
other sections. 
In admission of students no distinction is made on account of creed, nor is 
any undue influence used over their religious principles. The institution is char- 
tered by the Legislature of South Carolina, and is empowered to confer degrees 
and diplomas. 

The Convent is under control of the Right Rev. Bishop Northrop and the 
Mother Superior, Mother Angela Broomfield, and a high class of education is 
furnished. 

There are flourishing Catholic schools : in Florence, St. Anthony's Mission 
School; Sacred Heart School, at Greenville; St. James' (Colored) School, Col- 
leton County. 

There is a Catholic population in South Carolina of about 9,000, and this 
supports nine academies for young ladies, with 300 students; nine parochial 
schools, with 850 pupils ; two mission schools ; one orphanage, with 125 orphans ; 
one hospital, and five divinity students — 1,278 in all, without any State aid. 




URSULINE ACADEMY. 



SACRED HEART ACADEMY. 

This school for boarding and day pupils, under the direction of the Ursuline 
Nuns, is beautifully situated on Hampton Avenue, Greenville, South Carolina. 

It offers every facility for thorough education through the kindergarten, pri- 
mary, preparatory and academic courses. The class rooms, chapel, dormitories, 
refectory, library and gymnasium are supplied with every modern equipment and 
convenience, making it a delightful home school. Madam M. Patricia is the 
directress in charge. 




14 — H. B. 



210 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

CATHOLIC MISSION SCHOOL. 

This school was established at Florence, October 15, 1899, and is purely a 
charitable institution for the benefit of isolated white children of the country 
districts, and is supported by the Guild of Saint Anthony, a Catholic religious 
society. Purchased seven years ago for a few hundred dollars, its value is 
more than twenty-five thousand today. It is one of the most attractive spots 
in a city whose buildings are becoming handsomer and more costly year by year. 
The school differs from any other in the State; for while furnishing a good 
practical education, including music, art, needle work, it trains the girls in house- 
keeping and domestic science; no servant crosses the threshold of the kitchen, 
all the cooking is done by the inmates in Father Wood's Refectory. Thus the 
children are reared to be useful, independent, and self-respecting members of 
society. This feature alone commends the school, in these days when the acute- 
ness of the servant question is so keenly felt. The work has had blows and 
backsets; but sheer pluck, hard work, and determination have succeeded and 
the mission is growing daily in power and in scope. Father C. D. Wood is 
the head. 

PRIVATE HIGH SCHOOLS. 

THE CHARLESTON HIGH SCHOOL 

Was established in 1839 and has rendered valuable service in preparing boys for 
college and university. In its course of study and curriculum it offers as great 
advantages as Philips Exeter or any similar school of the United States. Its 
standard of scholarship is high and it has a strong corps of teachers. 

It is supported partly by tuition fees and partly from appropriations from the 
city council, which reduces the tuition fees one-half. 

The buildings are commodious and its gymnasium is well equipped and in 
charge of competent teachers, who give instruction in athletic sports and exer- 
cises. This school has had among its principals such prominent and efficient 
educators as Profs. H. P. Archer and Virgil C. Dibble. The principal now is 
W. M. Whitehead, recently Grand Master of Masons in South Carolina. 

THE PRESBYTERIAL HIGH SCHOOL. 

Was founded by Pee Dee Presbytery in 1903. It is located on a well-chosen 
site of five acres, donated by public-spirited citizens of Florence, S. C. While 
in conception and management it is a Presbyterial High School, it has received 
gratifying patronage and contributions from people of other denominations. 

It was founded in response to a need long felt by many of the best educators 
of the State, the need of more thorough preparation of pupils for college. Prof. 
George Briggs is the Principal. 

The founders of the school wished to see embodied in school work the fol- 
lowing ideas: (i) By limiting the number of pupils to give careful individual 
attention. (2) By concentrating in as few branches as possible, by learning a 
few things well, to give the pupils the right mental training that would enable 
them to take up college work successfully. (3) By having lessons prepared 
under the direction of teachers to teach the pupils correct habits of study as 
well as the branches they pursue. (4) By careful application of the honor sys- 
tem to train pupils to master self and to withstand successfully the temptations 
of college life. (5) By making the Bible a textbook in the school to enable the 
pupils to become familiar with that greatest of all Books, not only as history 
or literature, but also as the greatest means of strong Christian character 
building. 

It is the purpose of the high school to take boys and girls who have com- 
pleted the eighth and ninth grades in the graded schools, or an equivalent of 
work, and by a two or three-year course of study to give them thorough and 
advanced preparation for college. 

PORTER MILITARY ACADExMY, CHARLESTON. 

The Porter Military Academy was founded in December, 1867, by the late 
Rev. A. T. Porter, D. D., who gave his life to this work. At first it was largely 
an institution whose objects were beneficiary, scholars being taken from families 
made necessitous by the Civil War. In this way many boys were educated, and 
it is not too much to say that the school contributed largely to the saving of the 
old civilization of the State, which was jeopardized by the poverty and lack of 
educational facilities of those who had before the war been in culture and afiflu- 



212 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

ence. Dr. Porter, by his own efforts and commanding personality, procured 
means for the maintenance of the school. 

After Dr. Porter's death, and as the South grew more prosperous and the 
necessity for this feature of the work lessened, this beneficiary feature was less 
dwelt upon, but still the income from the endowment fund is set aside to help 
in the education of boys who could not otherwise get such an education as this 
school offers. 

Since the school was founded there have been more than 5,000 matriculates, 
and 2,000 graduates, many of whom have distinguished themselves in many 
avocations in this and other States. 

The aim of the school is to prepare for the colleges of the country and for 
business life. It is under military discipline and religious influence, and the 
moral, mental and physical training go hand in hand. _ 

Four courses of instruction are offered: A Classical Course, requiring the 
study of Latin and Greek in addition to the English of the curriculum; a Latin 
Scientific Course, requiring the study of Latin and French or Latin and German 
in addition to the English of the curriculum; a Scientific Course, requiring the 
study of French and German in addition to the English studies; an English 
Course, requiring the study of the English studies of the curriculum only. In 
this course only a certificate is given, and not the full diploma of the school 
as in the other courses. 

The Academy occupies a campus of about nine acres in the west central part 
of the city of Charleston, S. C, on Ashley Avenue, one of the thoroughfares 
of the city, and near the banks of the Ashley River. There is a school building 
equipped with laboratory, drawing hall and class rooms; a brick dormitory 
building accommodating about 150 boys; library, gymnasium, chapel, infirmary 
and residences of officers and teachers. There is an athletic field and drill 
ground. 

WELSH NECK HIGH SCHOOL. 

The Welsh Neck High School was established by the Welsh Neck Baptist 
Association in 1894. The growth of the school has been continuous and addi- 
tions and improvements have been made to the plant each year. 

The object of its founders was to furnish instruction beyond what can be 
obtained in the public schools of the State, to prepare students for college, arid 
above all, to furnish this instruction in an atmosphere that shall be distinctly 
Christian. Realizing that the great majority of students never attend college, 
the course at Welsh Neck is made to include work usually done in the freshman 
year at college. 

The course in music is especially comprehensive and thorough, graduates m 
this branch enter easily upon advanced work in the best colleges. 

Courses are offered also in business, elocution and art. 

The cadets are under military discipline. In no other way can the faculty of 
attention be so well trained and the students taught promptness and a proper 
regard for personal appearance. 

Welsh Neck also holds a leading position among Southern schools in athletics, 
her football and baseball teams being uniformly successful. 

The great aim of the school is the physical, moral, and intellectual develop- 
ment of all the students that enter her gates. 

ORPHANAGES. 

THE CHARLESTON ORPHAN HOUSE. 

On the i8th of October, 1790, this home and school in Charleston for orphan 
children began its existence '"for the purpose of supporting and educating poor 
orphan children, and of those poor, distressed and disabled parents who are 
unable to support and educate them." 

The early history of this asylum was marked by an event memorable and sig- 
nificant. George Washington, President of the United States, then upon his 
Southern tour, visited this institution, expressed his pleasure at its existence, 
and invoked God's blessing upon its inmates. At this time more than one hun- 
dred orphans were gathered in this home. 

In 1794 the buildings were completed, and amid public rejoicings one hun- 
dred and fifty orphan children were given a home. The chapel was erected in 
1801 ; the cornerstone was laid by His Excellency, John Drayton, Governor of 
the State and Grand Master of Masons in South Carolina. 

The resources of this institution consist of funds received from bequests, 
donations and other sources, carefully invested and wisely administered by a 



EDUCATION. 213 

Board of Trustees, yielding an annual income of $13,995-54. The cost of main- 
taining an orphan has been brought to the lowest practical point, being last year 
only $91.75 per pupil. This has been accomplished by the girls doing the house 
work and the boys the outdoor work. 

Many of the inmates of this orphan home are now filling places of trust and 
honor in every avocation in life. All of them look back with pride and affection 
to their cherishing mother ; all rise up and call her blessed. 

The endowment is $343.699.82 ; annual expenses, $23,089.32 ; teaching force, 
12; number of inmates, 215; books, from 4,000 to 5,000; value of plant, $350,000. 

The celebrated statue of William Pitt, "the Great Commoner," now on Wash- 
ington Square, long graced the orphan home grounds — from 1808 to 1881. 

THE THORNWELL ORPHANAGE. 

The Thornwell Orphanage at Clinton, founded in 1872, but opened on October 
the first, 1875. was projected by Rev. W. P. Jacobs. D. D., pastor of the Pres- 
byterian Church of Clinton, and his church officers, who served until 1893 as its 
official Board. Since that time it has been under the control of the Synods of 
the Southern Presbyterian Church, those of South Carolina, Georgia and Flor- 
ida being in majority control. White children and orphans between the ages 
of six and thirteen are admitted from all parts of the country, without respect 
to denomination or locality. 

In this institution the orphans pay no board, nor provide themselves even with 
their clothing; but they are required to give four hours daily to such work as 
is necessary to relieve the home of the engagement of servants. 

The course of study requires thirteen years, and those who complete the full 
course secure the degree of Licentiate of Instruction, and have invariably on 
examination succeeded in obtaining first grade certificates, and teach in this and 
adjoining States. 

The industrial training of the boys provides for work in the machine and 
carpentry departments, including also plumbing, painting, shoemaking. farming 
and carpentering. The industrial training of the girls includes steam laundry 
work, cooking, dressmaking and tailoring, and all the various branches of the 
housekeeper's art. They are also taught shorthand, typewriting and book- 
keeping. 

There are fourteen cottages in which the pupils live, each under the direction 
of a matron, who looks after the comfort and guidance of the pupils. There 
are three buildings for the Primary, Intermediate and Collegiate classes, respect- 
ively, all equipped with modern appliances. There is a large three-story tech- 
nical building with $6,000 worth of machinery installed, and from this the water 
supply and the electric lighting are provided. The Industrial School for girls 
occupies three buildings, in which the laundry, sewing, cooking and dairy work 
are done. The Infirmary cares for the sick. There is a Library building, which 
contains 8,000 volumes and the number is constantly increasing. There is also 
a Museum building. All these buildings are of brick or stone. On the farm of 
125 acres all the dairy and garden supplies are provided. 

Since the opening of the institution, with only one dollar in the treasury and 
with eight pupils, about 900 have passed through the institution. Of these, 118 
have completed the full course of study. There is now accommodation for 250 
pupils, and that number is constantly cared for. There are many more applica- 
tions than vacancies. 

The total cost per month for maintenance is $25,000. This includes salaries 
of teachers, officers, matrons and foremen, of whom there are thirty-four, and 
the board, clothing, medical care, books and personal expenses of the pupils, 
which is about $100 per pupil. This sum is kept at this low figure only because 
the pupils make their own clothing, shoes, vegetables, milk, butter and many 
other supplies. 

The buildings are substantial, and are valued at $150,000. The Board of 
Trustees is seeking to raise a sufficient endowment to meet all salaries, but it 
is not desirable that the support of the individual child should be so provided 
for, as, were that the case, the bond of interest and affection between the insti- 
tution and its best friends would be broken. An endowment of $250,000 will 
be sufficient ; of this sum, about $100,000 is in hand. 

The support of the individual pupils comes almost entirely from Presbyterian 
people, although a full half of the children are from other denominations. 

Results: Many former pupils are successfully engaged in the different walks 
of life; sixteen have entered the ministry; a number are practicing medicine, 
one having recently graduated at the head of a class of thirty-eight; some are 
lawyers, among these a young lady practicing in Tennessee; some are successful 



214 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

farmers, merchants, mechanics, running plants of their own ; a large number are 
teaching, some of them in colleges and theological seminaries; some are in the 
United States employ at Washington, D. C, in the Navy, in the Army and the 
Civil Service; some in South America, Mexico, Korea, China, Japan, Africa, the 
Philippines, engaged in missionary, mining and official life. 

CONNIE MAXWELL ORPHANAGE. 

The Baptist State Convention at Union, in December, 1890, decided to estab- 
lish an orphanage. A committee was appointed with power to act, and in April, 
1891, decided upon Greenwood as a suitable location. 

The invitation from Greenwood involved a consideration of $2,000 from the 
citizens of the town towards erecting the first building, ten acres of land from 
Dr. and Mrs. Maxwell, and mortuary title to 483 acres near Greenwood, and 
also the town property of Dr. and Mrs. Maxwell, on condition that the Orphan- 
age should be located at or near Greenwood and bear the name of their only 
little daughter, deceased. 

The first building was begun in the fall of 1891 and was opened for the recep- 
tion of children in May, 1892. Since then year after year houses have been built 
until at present seventeen permanent buildings adorn the grounds. The most 
pretentious building is the school house, known as the Maxwell Building, and 
erected out of funds from the Maxwell estate. A beautiful home for girls was 
erected in 1896 by Mr. W. L. Durst, of Greenwood. Two houses were erected 
by Mr. J. Terrell Smith, of Williston, the home for boys bearing his own name, 
and that for girls the name of his devoted wife. 

The mechanical building was erected with funds realized from the estate of 
Mr. Andrew M. Woods, of Sumter County. A commodious oflfice building was 
paid for by Mr. J. K. Durst, a banker and mill president of Greenwood, and 
also for a great many years a member of the Orphanage Board of Trustees. 
The library building was paid for by Mrs. Sallie F. McKissick, of the town of 
Greenwood, and bears the name of her devoted son, Mr. Edward Perry Mc- 
Kissick. The other houses at the Orphanage have been built from year to year 
with money contributed by the Baptist denomination in the State of South 
Carolina. 

Connie Maxwell Orphanage is not a home-finding institution, and does not 
send children out for adoption by persons who wish to have them in their 
homes. This kind of work is left entirely to other societies or institutions. It 
is essentially an educational institution. It puts boys and girls through the 
tenth grade in school, and is now making an effort to provide something in the 
way of industrial training. Effort is made to provide for the children a genuine 
home. The boys and girls live in cottages and a limited number is committed 
to each house. Consecrated matrons and teachers are responsible for their care 
and training. The essential thing at Connie Maxwell Orphanage is Christian 
education. The most important features of the work are found at the school 
and at the chapel, where the head and heart are taught. 

EPWORTH ORPHANAGE, COLUMBIA. 

This Orphanage was established after urgent appeals through the press by 
Rev. T. C. O'Dell and Dr. S. A. Weber, of the South Carolina Conference, by 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, at its annual meeting in November, 
1894, at Laurens. 

An offer made by the city of Columbia of 115 acres, on which was a large 
brick building of fourteen rooms, was accepted by the Conference in 1895. Two 
very active promoters in this city were F. H. Hyatt and Edward Ehrlich. 

On January 20, 1896, the first children were received into this Orphanage. 
The total number received up to this date is 330. Today there are 160 in the 
institution, and others will be admitted soon. It has had a sure and steady 
growth from the beginning and a prosperous career. It has a church, a school 
of ten grades, and several domestic and industrial departments for the training 
of the children. There are nineteen substantial buildings upon the Orphanage 
campus ; nine of these are memorial buildings, representing large amounts given 
by certain individuals in loving memory of dear ones gone, and with the desire 
that they be blessings to those bereft of loving parents and protectors. 

About twelve years ago, with a $5,000 estate, this baby institution of the 
South Carolina Conference had its beginning. The Church has fostered and 
nourished it until it has ceased to be an infant. It has put off swaddling clothes 
and donned the dress of a young mother, now owning property worth at a low 
estimate $150,000 in buildings and real estate, a farm of 125 acres, $15,000 endow- 



EDUCATION. 215 

ment, which will be in a few years $100,000. She has 160 bright and happy 
children playing upon her lawns, feeding at her tables, clothed by her loving 
hands, warming at her fires, sheltered in her comfortable homes, learning in her 
churches and schools, and preparing to lead lives of humble and grateful obedi- 
ence. To the Superintendents, Rev. G. H. Waddell from 1896 to 1901, and Rev. 
W. B. Wharton from 1901 to 1907, most of this good work accomplished is due. 

THE DE LA HOWE GIFT. 

Dr. John De La Howe, of Abbeville District, on the "th day of September, 1796, 
made his last will and testament and thereby gave all of his estate, consisting of 
both personal and real, to the Agricultural Society of South Carolina, in trust, 
for the purpose of establishing on the plantation where he resided an agricultural 
farm and school, out of the yearly income, to feed, clothe and educate twelve 
poor boys and twelve poor girls, giving orphan children the preference. The 
testator requested Peter Gibert, Esq., to act as executor of the will until the 
Agricultural Society should name some of its members to perform that duty. 
By a codicil, without date, he appointed William Hutton a joint executor with 
Mr. Gibert. Dr. De La Howe died on the 2d day of January, 1797, and his will 
was admitted to probate on the 27th of March, 1797, by the County Court of 
Abbeville. An appraisement was made on the 5th of April, 1797. The appraised 
value of the personal property at that time amounted to $5,438.68. 

In 1805 the Agricultural Society surrendered their trust to the Legislature, 
who accepted it, and by Act passed on the 14th of December, same year, ap- 
pointed Col. Joseph Calhoun, Peter Gibert, Andrew Norris, Rev. Moses Waddel, 
Ezekiel Calhoun, trustees, to carry into effect the terms of the will, conferring 
on them the power to fill their own vacancies, and directed them to account 
annually to the Ordinary of Abbeville District. 

On the 30th of December, 1806, the trustees sold the residue of the personal 
property. This sale amounted to $6,556.14. On the 27th of June they returned 
a statement of the personal estate, at that time amounting to $10,639.69. 

The real estate consisted of quite a number of tracts of land situated in the 
Districts of Abbeville, Edgefield, and on the Edisto River. A certain part of the 
land was sold about this time, which produced a sum — added to the amount real- 
ized from sale of personal property — aggregating some $i2,2;i7. 

The institution has had a changing experience since the above date. Today 
the institution is in possession of 2,700 acres of land, valued at $54,000, besides 
having $14,000 invested in good bonds. There is erected on the premises one 
brick building containing twelve rooms for the use of Superintendent and girls, 
and one four-room brick building for the boys, a commodious chapel in which 
preaching is held regularly — preacher paid by the trustees. The annual income 
of the farm is $3,500; expenses for maintaining school. Superintendent, etc., 
are $2,000. 

In view of the above facts, it is strange to state that the trustees find great 
difficulty in procuring as many children as the school can accommodate. Not- 
withstanding the fact, the trustees are now begging for children from adjoining 
counties, offering to pay their transportation from and to the institution, educate, 
feed, clothe and pay their medical expenses. I must admit I am unable to 
explain this state of circumstances. 

Dr. De La Howe was buried on the hill opposite to the dwelling on the planta- 
tion named by him "Lethe Farm." He requested a substantial brick wall should 
be built around his grave — not less than ten feet square, eight feet above the 
ground, with an iron door and lock, and that the following inscription, in large 
iron capitals, shall ever be kept encased: "Joes De La Howe, fundator, hipes 
Seminarie .\griculturalis," with date of his decease. 

There are other orphan schools in the State. The I. O. O. F. organization 
has begun a school of this kind at Greenville, and the work done is highly 
creditable and successful. It is supported by funds raised by assessing each 
member of the organization $1.00, which amounts to a temporary endowment. 
It has a fine property, well equipped buildings, and all modern improvements for 
such work ; established in 1904, chartered in 1905. The Associated Reformed 
Presbyterians are al.so engaged in this laudable endeavor, and have had an 
orphanage at Hickory Grove, York County, and much good has been accom- 
plished. There is also an orphanage in Charleston, under the protection of the 
Grand Lodge of Masons of the State; and possibly others elsewhere in the Slate. 

Rev. Richard Carroll, near Columbia, conducts an orphan scliool and home for 
the parentless children of the colored race. His work is highly endorsed by the 
best citizens of Columbia and the State. 



2i6 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

All these schools are engaged in the double work of providing homes for 
■destitute children, as well as giving to them the rudiments of education — pre- 
paring them to become useful men and women. Their work in an especial way 
appeals to the sympathy of Christian people everywhere. 

THEOLOGICAL SEMINARIES. 
COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

In Lexington, Ga., in 1828, a theological school was established by the Pres- 
bytery of Hopewell, under the charge of Rev. Thomas Goulding, D, D. This 
was the result of an effort to establish a Theological Seminary and College by 
the Presbytery of South Carolina in 1824. In 1830 it was removed to Columbia, 
ample grounds having been purchased for the purpose. Dr. Goulding was 
assisted by Rev. George Howe, D. D. The Synod of South Carolina and Geor- 
gia assumed general supervision. The buildings now occupied by the Seminary 
were erected, other professors were added, and the institution prospered. The 
endowment constantly increased. At the beginning of the Civil War there were 
five professorships, with an endowment of $250,000, $50,000 of which was for 
contingent fund and scholarships. In 1859-60 Judge John Perkins, of Columbus, 
Miss., founded the "Perkins Professorship of Natural Science in Connection 
with Revelation," with an endowment of $40,000, to which Rev. James Wood- 
row, D. D., LL. D., was elected, and remained in charge to 1886, a period of 
twenty-six years. Owing to temporary financial embarrassments from loss of 
investments in 1880, the Seminary was compelled to close. By 1882 additional 
sums were added to the endowment fund and large amounts again became avail- 
able, and the Seminary reopened with five professors and an endowment of 
$150,000, which has been gradually increased. 

In connection with the Seminary is a library of more than 20,000 volumes, 
many of them books of rare value. 

The whole number of alumni is 734. Of these, about forty are foreign mis- 
sionaries. The Seminary is open to students of every denomination, though it 
is controlled by the Southern Presbyterian Church. The buildings occupy a 
block of four acres in the heart of the city. The campus is shaded with trees 
of native growth. Dr. W. M. McPheeters is chairman of the faculty at this 
time. 

ERSKINE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

1 This School of the Prophets was begun in 1834 at Due West Corner, Abbe- 
ville District, by the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church. At first it 
was called the Clark and Erskine Seminary, in honor of two of the noted 
divines of this denomination. It was established as a ministerial school ; $7,035 
were raised, a sum sufficient to start the enterprise, though it would be small 
now for such a purpose. A suitable building was erected and the school opened 
with twenty students. Rev. John Hemphill, grandfather of the editor of the 
News and Courier, and Rev. John S. Pressly were placed at the head of the 
institution. The name Pressly has been officially connected with Erskine for 
seventy-three years, handed down from father to son through all these years, 
for four generations of teachers. The school was the work of the Church, and 
was actively supported by it. 

With this Seminary, Erskine College has been connected from its origin, 
though in no sense a part of it. The funds are distinct from the funds of the 
College. The only connection is that the two schools belong to the same body 
of people, and occupy some of the same buildings. The financial support comes 
largely from annual collections from the churches comprising the Synod. How- 
ever, there are some permanent investment funds, amounting to $20,000 or 
more. The Seminary has three professors. The President of the faculty now 
is Rev. F. Y. Pressly, D. D., but recently President of Erskine College. The 
course of instruction covers a period of two years, of nine months each. 

Immediately connected with the Seminary is a Board of Foreign Missions, 
organized in 1875, all members residing at Due West. This Board has charge of 
the foreign missionary work of the Church, which is very aggressive in sending 
missionaries to different foreign fields.^ 

The work of this Seminary has always been of the most thorough nature, 
and the ministers sent out have ever taken stand with the foremost of the land. 
The names Grier, Hood, Pressly, Barron, McCain. Hemphill, Boyce and Moffatt 
are synonyms of profound learning and broad scholarship. 



EDUCATION. 217 

THE LUTHERAN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

The Lutheran Church in the South Atlantic States is not a strong body, but 
since 1830 it has had a Theological Seminary in which men were prepared for 
the ministry. In 1898 the United Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church 
in the South, the general body embracing most of the Lutherans in the South 
Atlantic States, re-established its Theological Seminary. Property was secured 
in Mt. Pleasant, Charleston County, and an endowment fund was raised, the 
income of which, together with annual contributions from the churches inter- 
ested, is adequate for the present needs of the school. The institution draws 
its students from the States of Virginia. North Carolina, South Carolina, Geor- 
gia, Florida and Tennessee. Its design is by a three years' course of study to 
train men in the knowledge of Christian theology from the Lutheran point of 
view and of the practical work of the ministry. Its standard of admission is 
graduation from a reputable college. The scope of its work is limited by its 
special design. It aims to teach nothing but theology and those arts which are 
necessary for efficient service in the Christian ministry. 

NEGRO COLLEGES. 
STATE COLORED COLLEGE. 

At the session of the Legislature of South Carolina (1896), the Colored Nor- 
mal, Industrial, Agricultural and Mechanical College was established for the 
education of the negro youth of this State. 

From 1869 to 1896 the College of Agriculture and Mechanics' Institute, for 
colored students, had been conducted in connection with Claflin College, but 
supported by the State. 

It was decided to locate this institution at Orangeburg, because: (i) The 
State owned a tract of land unsurpassed in strength of productiveness and 
fertility, especially adapted to mixed husbandry and rotation of crops. (2) There 
was already here an industrial plant which could not be duplicated elsewhere 
at the same cost, well established and thoroughly equipped for instruction in 
all the mechanical and industrial arts. (3) There was also a herd of registered 
dairy cattle, the equal of any in the State. (4) Orangeburg is a healthful 
locality, situated in the geographical center of the Black Belt of South Carolina, 
and a railroad center. 

Bradham Hall, an imposing structure, three and one-half stories high, 62x126 
feet, containing dormitories and class rooms, in convenience of arrangement, 
symmetry, beauty and comfort, is the equal of any building, for like purposes, in 
the South. 

The new dining hall, 36x75 feet, is the handsomest dining room owned by 
any college in the State. 

There is also a new college building, Morrill Hall, recently completed, 90 feet 
by 154 feet, containing chapel, library, reading room, laboratory, two literary 
auditories, gymnasium, commercial departments, class rooms and fifty sleeping 
rooms, heated by steam, with water works on each floor. The College campus 
consists of about eight acres, the main and industrial buildings occupying a 
beautiful, elevated site. 

A farm of 130 acres is adjacent to the campus, upon which have been erected 
dairy, barn and stables. 

The Industrial Hall, just erected, is a large two-story building, made of brick, 
every one of which was laid by student labor. It is to be devoted entirely to 
the industrial arts, and is the equal of any building of a like nature anywhere. 
Its dimensions are 120x90 feet, and it contains the following departments: 
Woodworking, Ironworking, Mechanical and Architcrlural Drawing, Spinning 
Room, Tailor Shop, Shoe Making, Harness Making, Painting, and Masonry. In 
addition, tiiere are in operation College Normal, Normal and Preparatory, Model 
School, Musical, Art, Industrial, Mechanical, Trained Nursing, Agricultural, 
Engineering, and Military Departments. 

The Normal Course gives the graduate the Degree of Licentiate of Instruction 
upon its completion, and also the privilege of teaching in the public schools of 
the Stale without examination. 

It is the best industrial plant for negro education south of Hampton Institute. 



2i8 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

The State intends to bring the best education easily within the reach of colored 
people of limited means. The school stands for the best education of the hand, 
head and heart of the negro race. 

The strength of any institution is dependent upon the ability and merit of its 
faculty. The Board of Trustees, while securing for the colored boys and girls 
of the State one of the best arranged college plants in the South, has also exer- 
cised the greatest care in the selection of the faculty, and is confident that the 
services of a strong corps of teachers has been secured. 

The College has been in existence ten school years. Alore than 7,800 students 
have been enrolled and 298 have been graduated. The students who have 
attended, and especially those who have been graduated, are located in several 
States of the Union. 

Reports of the efficiency of the students as teachers and mechanics are con- 
tinually received from members of both races. 

THE AVERY NORMAL COLLEGE. 

This school for negro students was organized in Charleston in 1865. A build- 
ing was erected at a cost of $25,000, in 1868, by the American Missionary Asso- 
ciation, and named for Rev. Dr. Avery, of Pittsburg, who gave $150,000 to the 
Society for educational purposes. 

The city school authorities have given their endorsement to the Avery Nor- 
mal, and the State Board of Education has placed the school upon the accredited 
list of those colleges whose graduates may teach in public schools without 
examination. 

CLAFLIN UNIVERSITY, ORANGEBURG. 

To Hon. Lee Claflin and family the existence of Claflin University is largely 
due. It occupies the site of Orangeburg Female Seminary, a school for women 
noted in ante-bellum days. This property of six acres with several excellent 
buildings was purchased in 1869 and set apart to its present purpose, and a 
charter obtained. Later sixty-seven acres adjoining were purchased. Since 
then many large and expensive buildings have been added, the farm and campus 
have been improved, everything kept in the best repair, so that the whole prop- 
erty presents a very attractive appearance. Such men as Andrew Carnegie, John 
Harney and Everett O. Fisk have made generous gifts to the College. The insti- 
tution is under the control of the Freedmen's Aid and Education Society of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, North. 

The Board of Trustees of the John F. Slater Fund in 1883 established a 
Manual Training Department and has since made generous annual appropria- 
tions for the payment of the salaries of the instructors. The Weber Scholar- 
ship Fund of $5,coo was established in 1889. 

The institution stands for the higher education of negro youth. It has the 
following departments: Manual Training and Domestic Science; College Prep- 
aratory Course; Technical Preparatory Course; Normal Course; Business 
Course; Collegiate Clinical Course; Scientific Course. It exceeds in size and 
equipment the famous school at Hampton, Va., also for negroes. Bishop Atticus 
G. Haygood said that it is the largest university for negroes between the Poto- 
mac and the Rio Grande, and the least expensive. 

BENEDICT COLLEGE 

Was founded in 1871, in the city of Columbia, as Benedict Institute, by the 
American Baptist Home Mission Society, through the benefaction of Mrs. B. A. 
Benedict, Pawtucket, R. I. In 1894 it was chartered as Benedict College, for 
the purpose of giving Christian education to the colored people, to prepare them 
for the ministry, as teachers, and to make them more useful in all the walks 
of life. It has a beautiful campus of twenty acres, on which are eleven hand- 
some buildings for the different departments of school work, among them a 
magnificent Carnegie Library Building, the only one for the negroes in the State. 
These grounds and buildings are, by a conservative estimate, easily worth 
$230,000. The College has an endowment fund of $125,921.37. to which $10,000 
will be added upon the settlement of a will now pending. The annual running 
expenses for the year ending May, 1907, were $25,400. During the life of this 
College there have been 464 graduates. There are 10,700 books in the library. 
The enrollment for 1906-07 was 667 — 282 men, 385 women. There are twenty- 
one teachers, eleven white and five colored. This school ranks very high in 
the estimation of the white people of South Carolina. During the thirty-six 



EDUCATION. 219 

years of its existence it has had four presidents : Dr. W. F. Goodspeed and 
Dr. W. T. Colby, from 1871 for the first ten years; Dr. E. E. Beaker, from 
1881 to 1904; Dr. A. C. Osborn, from 1894 to 1907. 

It is safe to say that at least $750,000 has been spent on the expenses of 
this College. Its industrial departments are : for the women, sewing, house- 
keeping and dressmaking ; for the men, printing, shoemaking and carpentry. 

ALLEN UNIVERSITY. 

Allen L^niversity embraces four acres of land just out of the corporate limits 
of Columbia, fronting on Taylor and Harden Streets. It was incorporated by 
the Legislature December 12. 1880, and was organized in 1881, under the control 
of the Columbia and South Carolina Annual Conferences of the African Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, and is sustained by contributions from the churches 
which compose the Conferences. It is in charge of negro educators. 

It confers all the degrees common to such institutions, including the Degree 
of Licentiate of Instruction, which gives the graduate the privilege of teaching 
in the public schools of the State without examination. 

Arnett Hall is a solid brick structure of three stories, with substantial base- 
ment. It contains fifty large rooms, used for office, recitation rooms and 
women's dormitory. There are also six cottages, which are occupied by as many 
men as could be accommodated upon the campus. 

The Coppin Hall is one of the most imposing buildings ever erected and con- 
trolled by the negro race. It is built of fine red brick, no by 45 feet, and four 
stories high, with Mansard roof. Four stately Grecian columns adorn the front 
portico of the building. It contains eight large recitation rooms on the first 
floor. The second floor is taken up entirely with the chapel. The third and 
fourth floors are to be used for sleeping apartments, and contain nineteen rooms 
each. There are forty-seven rooms in the entire building. This house was 
completed in 1907 and cost $25,000 without the furniture. Rev. Wm. D. John- 
son, D. D., Ph. D., has been President since 1904. He is assisted by a faculty 
of thirteen teachers, all negroes. The departments are: Collegiate, Theology, 
Law, Normal, Music and Industrial. The course of study has been approved 
by the State Board of Education for the Degree of Licentiate of Instruction. 

It has sent forth 556 graduates in the twenty-six years of its life. 

SCHOFIELD NORMAL AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 

In 1865 Martha Schofield (a Quaker) opened a school on Wadmalaw Island, 
at Rockville, S. C. Later she taught at St. Helena Island and at Charleston. 
Ill health compelled her to go to Aiken, and in 1868 the present school was 
opened in an old house. In a short time lands were bought, and the outcome 
is the present property, worth $65,000, with a valuable farm three miles distant. 
Besides ofl'ering a good high school education, the negroes are trained in all 
the industrial departments; the men in carpentry, farming, harness-making, 
blacksmitli, wheelwright and shoemaking, the women in sewing, cooking, milli- 
nery, housekeeping and laundry work. The equipment, shops, etc., are worth 
$5,000. Amount received in donations, about $200,000. Endowment fund, about 
$37,000. This school has sixteen teachers employed in school and shops, and 
library of 1,500 books. 

This institution bears the name of its founder, Schofield, who is President, 
General Manager, Trustee and Treasurer, and has raised most of the funds by 
her pen alone. 

TAYLOR-LANE HOSPITAL. 

This institution was established in Columbia by Martha Schofield in 1901 
and was chartered in 1902. Its purpose is to relieve the sick and afiflicted of 
the negro race and to train nurses to care for all classes of people. 

Dr. LeGrand Guerry, a leading white physician, is chief surgeon. Dr. F. D. 
Kendall and Dr. Jas. H. Mcintosh have done great service for this institution 
Dr. Matilda A. Evans is Treasurer and Medical Director of the Hospital. 

STERLING INDUSTRIAL COLLEGE (COLORED). 

This school was established in 1896 in the city of Greenville for the intellec- 
tual, industrial and religious training of the boys and girls of the negro race. 
Finding the city unsuitable for such a school, this property was sold and a 
small farm was purchased outside of tlic city limits. 



220 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

This institution has steadily grown until now it accommodates 200 students 
and employs six teachers. The students have the advantage of a good library. 

Dr. D. M. Minus is the efficient President. The Board of Trustees consists 
of both white and colored citizens. 

HARBISON COLLEGE. 

Harbison College, located at Abbeville, is an institution designed to promote 
the industrial, literary and religious progress of colored youth of both sexes. 

The literary course is adopted with the view of securing sound elementary 
training that will make those graduating from the College proficient for the 
active duties of life. 

The training afiforded by the various departments of the school are steps by 
which the students can attain to a higher plane of industrial life and Christian 
character. 

The College is located about one mile and a half from the public square on the 
road leading from Abbeville to Due West near the old Long Cane Presbyterian 
Church. 

The site upon which the following four brick buildings are erected consists 
of 67 acres of land: Ferguson Hall, for girls; the Henry Phipps Hall, for boys;* 
Harbison Hall, containing recitation rooms, the College chapel, reading room, 
library, president's office, and the Y. M. C. A. Hall, and the President's cottage. 
There are three annexes to Ferguson Hall which are used for laundry, rooms 
and a kitchen. The two dormitories are three-story, and the main building, or 
Harbison Hall, is two-story. 

The College owns a farm of 210 acres of fine farming land, which is to provide 
the boys with means whereby they can support themselves in school, and which 
is also to furnish them with an opportunity of learning practical farming. The 
main object of the farm is to teach the boys to be skilled agriculturists. 

Harbison College is the outgrowth of Ferguson Academy, which was estab- 
lished in the town of Abbeville a quarter of a century ago. Its development 
into a college is due to gifts received from the friends of Christian education — 
notably the gifts received from Mr. Henry Phipps, of New York, and Mr. Samuel 
P. Harbison, of Allegheny, Pa. The wife and sons of the latter have also made 
substantial gifts to the work, making possible at the present time accommoda- 
tions for about one hundred and twenty-five boarding students and a hundred 
day students. 

The College is under the auspices of the Board of Missions for Freedmen, 
whose headquarters are at Pittsburg. Pa. 

At a meeting of the State Board of Education, September 16, 1905. the College 
was placed on the list of the colleges in the State whose graduates are entitled 
to teachers' certificates on presentation of diplomas. 

Besides the colleges alread}^ mentioned for educating the negro race, there 
are many other good normal schools and colleges in other parts of the State: 
the Brainerd Institute at Chester, supported by the Northern Presbyterian 
Church, and one at Winnsboro, under control of the same church ; the Lan- 
caster Normal and Industrial Institute, under the care of the Zion Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and one at Kershaw, imder the Baptists; another at Camden; 
one at Cheraw ; a seminary at Mayesville, for the purpose of training negro 
women in the domestic arts ; two at Abbeville, the Harbison College and the 
Williams College — the latter is controlled by the Southern Presbyterian Church ; 
there is one at or near Beaufort. There are others in the State, but they can 
only be mentioned, as no definite information is furnished. It all goes to show 
that the negroes are being educated ; but whether along the proper lines or not, 
yet remains to be seen, as this is a question that perplexes the thoughtful men 
of both races. 

STATE REFORMATORY. 

The South Carolina Industrial School, or State Reformatory, is located at Flor- 
ence, where an admirable site has been secured by the co-operation of the people 
of Florence and the Atlantic Coast Line. The purpose of the institution is to 
provide a means of educating and training in honest trades boys to whom the 
doors of the public school are closed by reason of their tendency to vice and 
crime, to prevent the development of these tendencies and to reform those Jn 
whom the cancerous growth has made a start. 

The land on which the school is located consists of over a hundred acres of 
good lands, for which a hundred dollars an acre was refused by the Coast Line, 
but which was freely given by President Walters for this purpose. It is ideal 



EDUCATION. 221 

land for experimental farming. It embraces the old Confederate stockade, in 
which so many Yankee prisoners were confined during the Civil War. It over- 
looks the pretty city of Florence from something of an eminence just beyond 
the city limits and borders on the national turnpike from the city to the 
National Cemetery, and in the rear is bordered by a bold creek. 

Buildings will soon be erected for the accommodation and the training of 
about one hundred and fifty boys, who may be sent there by order of the circuit 
or probate judge of their county, and who will be educated in English and plain 
mathematics, history and geography, and taught some useful trade by which they 
may become worthy citizens of their State and saved from the career of vice 
and crime into which they may have made an entrance. 

The State has, so far, made appropriation for nothing but the preliminary 
work ; the city of Florence has subscribed $4,000, and, with the aid of the Coast 
Line, has given this ideal site for the building. The work of construction has 
been delayed by the failure of the last Legislature to make a sufficient appro- 
priation to carry on the work, but it is confidently believed that with better 
understanding of the intent and purpose of the institution and its board of trus- 
tees the work will be well under way in a short while, and this very necessary 
charitable and educational institution will be ready for its work of saving the 
unfortunate vouths of the State. 




TYPE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL. 



SUMMER SCHOOLS. 

In 1899 Superintendent J. J. McMahan and the State Board of Education, 
feeling the need of improving the condition of the teachers and advancing the 
interest of the public schools, organized a system of summer schools. These 
were to supplant the State and County Institutes, which had served their pur- 
pose and had done good for a time. A State Summer School is held each year 
for white teachers in some city where sufficient accommodations can be had, 
generally in Rock Hill at Winthrop College. There is also a State Summer 
School for negroes. 

These Summer Schools are under the direct control of the Superintendent of 
Education, and he personally supervises their work. Hundreds of teachers avail 
themselves of the advantages offered by the skillful teachers and noted educators 
employed and derive much benefit from this source. 

Nearly all of the counties have Summer Schools, one for each race, generally 
conducted by from one to three teachers. Thousands of the teachers have been 
reached in this way. There is now a disposition to have several counties join 
in one Summer School, called a District School, which would give a larger 
faculty and a broader field. 



222 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

The effect of the Summer School is threefold — it benefits the teacher tech- 
nically, socially and professionally, and all teachers should avail themselves of 
the adv-antages offered. 

PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. 

The War Between the States and the consequent demoralization and poverty 
of the people swept out of existence the private academies, so long the pride of 
the State as preparatory schools. It took a number of years for the public 
schools to become either popular or efficient. The revenue for the support of 
the common schools was inadequate, but by 1880 a few cities and towns were 
levying a special supplementary school tax. Now nearly every town of five 
hundred population is levying this supplementary tax. The larger towns added 
high school grades to their public schools, and for nearly twenty years these 
higher grades have furnished the greater part of the high school facilities in the 
State. In many places a tuitron fee has been charged in the high school depart- 
ment in order to maintain it. In most instances these high schools are not ade- 
quately equipped a» to teaching force or apparatus, consequently their courses 
of study are short and narrow. In the villages and rural communities the high 
school work has been of a very irregular and uncertain character. One year a 




TYPE CF PUBLIC SCHOOL. 



school may offer fairly good high school training; the next year, owing to a 
change of teachers, the same school maj' offer no real high school work. 

Through the efforts of the State Board of Education, the Association of City 
Superintendents, the State Teachers' Association, and a few earnest legislators, 
a high school law was enacted February, 1907. This law looks toward the estab- 
lishment of secondary schools under State aid and State supervision. At present 
the State appropriation is small — $50,000 annually, but it is to be used to sup- 
plement and encourage local effort. No high school can receive from the State 
more than fifty per cent, of its own income, nor can it receive more than $1,200 
aid. Each high school receiving State aid must employ not fewer than two 
teachers, nor have fewer than twenty-five high school pupils. The courses of 
study and the details of management are left to the local high school boards ; 
only the inspection and classification of these schools are given to the State 
Board of Education. 

Under this law a county, a township, or aggregation of townships, an aggre- 
gation of school districts, or an incorporated town of not more than one thousand 
inhabitants can establish a high school and receive State aid. Since this is the 
first direct attempt on the part of the State to foster secondary schools, a defec- 
tive law was to be expected. However, the defects are within easy remedy. 



EDUCATION. 



223 



Fifty-eight high schools are in operation under this Act at this time, December 
I, 1907. Nearly all these schools will be established either by several rural school 
districts combining to form a high school district and levying a high school tax, 
or by the union of a larger town with some adjoining rural districts. 

The high school movement means the enlarging of high schools already in 
operation, by lengthening and broadening the courses of study ; the establish- 
ing of schools where none exist; the employment of more competent teachers; 
the improvement of the common schools ; the raising of college entrance require- 
ments and college standards ; and the bettering of agricultural and other indus- 
trial conditions. 

THE RURAL SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION. 

In 1903 there was inaugurated a movement for the improvement of the school 
buildings and grounds in our rural districts. Already the good accomplished 
is marked. There are rural school improvement societies in every county in the 
State, in all numbering more than 2,000 inembers, mostly women. Prizes are 




TYPE CF PUBLIC SClibUL. 

offered annually for greatest improvement made, and there is a spirit of generous 
rivalry abroad in the land. New and beautiful buildings are being erected, the 
old ones are being repaired and improved, the grounds are being planted in 
shade trees or flowers. The enthusiasm shown in beautifying the grounds is 
wonderful. 

Due credit should Ije given to President D. B. Johnson for inaugurating this 
movement, and to his aljle coadjutors, Superintendent O. B. Martin and Miss 
Mary Nance. The latter is the President of the State .Association of Rural 
School Improvement Society and general field agent, and her work is vigor- 
ously pushed and well executed. There are three branches of this organization : 
I. The State Association; 2. The County Association; 3. The Local .Association. 

THE PRESS. 



The press is a powerful factor in education. It is a nnglily and potent agent 
in moulding the thoughts of the people and in controlling legislation. 

The kind, character and number of periodicals and newspapers [niblished in 
the State arc indicative of the tastes and morals of the people. Judged by this 
test. South Carolina can claim rank among the most eidightencd and progressive 
of the States that form the Union. 



224 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

The great prominence that South Carolina has taken in social, political and 
religious affairs can be attributed in a large measure to the enterprise and ability 
of her great dailies. ... 

The rural route delivery, now so successfully operated, brmgs this means of 
education to every door in the rural communities. No one, however remote 
from the cities, towns and villages, need be deprived of this privilege, which 
brings them in direct communication with the outside world. 

The newspaper is as necessary a means to education as textbooks. 

Dr. Ramsey says that "newspapers were first published in South Carolina in 
1730 by Lewis Timothy." Prof. Rivers doubts this and says that the first news- 
paper. The South Carolina Gazette, appeared January 8, 1731, under the manage- 
ment of Thomas Whitmarsh, a weekly at the cost of £3, a quarto, iii/4 inches 
by 7 inches, two columns to the page. A copy of the first issue is in the 
Charleston Library. 

This paper flourished till the death of the proprietor in T.72i2i- He was suc- 
ceeded by Lewis Timothy. The Gazette lived until 1837, when it was purchased 
by The Courier, founded in 1803. The Courier became a part of the News and 
Courier in 1873. 

From this the great daily can claim that it descended from Thomas Whit- 
marsh. 

Many newspapers sprang into existence from 1731 to 1865. It is needless to 
mention these except that one which had so great an influence on affairs, The 
States Rights and Free Trade Evening Post. This one was founded in 1831 by 
John A. Stewart to promulgate the doctrines of Nullification and Free Trade. 
It died when Nullification passed away. In 1812 The Investigator was estab- 
lished by John Mackey and John Lyde Wilson and earnestly advocated the 
second war with Great Britain. In 1814 Mr. Wilson became Governor of the 
State. He was a very literary man, codified the laws of the State in 1827, and 
was the author of the celebrated "Code of Honor." 

Up to the time of the War between the States the two leading ne\vspaper9 
were The Courier and The Mercury. The Courier stood for opposition to 
Nullification and Secession ; advocated co-operation instead, as a choice of evils, 
and in i860 reluctantly yielded to the withdrawal from the Union in vie\v of 
the election of Abraham Lincoln as a sectional President. During the Mexican 
War it showed much enterprise in sending special couriers, who outstripped 
the United States mails. This was the first step in the formation of press 
associations. The Courier was purchased by its rival. The Daily Nezvs, in 1873, 
and became Tlie Neivs and Courier. 

The Charleston Mercury was founded in 1812 by Edward Morford, and in 
1823 was purchased by Edward Pinkney. It represented the "Free Trade and 
State Rights Party of South Carolina," and was bold and eloquent in its utter- 
ances. It suspended in 1868. 

Says Col. T. B. Crews, of the Laurensville Herald, the nestor of South Caro- 
lina journalism : 

The earliest date of which I have any record of the existence of a newspaper 
in Columbia is the year 1792, just one hundred and fifteen years ago this month 
(July). The name of the publication was "The South Carolina Gazette," but 
who the publisher and editor were I have no way of finding out. That such 
a paper was published in Columbia, however, at such early date, is evidenced 
by the following extract, clipped from that paper and sent to the Philadelpliia 
National Gazette, from Camden, S. C, Julj' 5, 1792 : 

"From the South Carolina Gazette, printed at Columbia. 

"Camden, July 5, 1792. 

"The anniversary of our independence was welcomed with the usual demon- 
stration of joy by our citizens. * * * /^ well-served dinner was prepared at 
the State House, at which a very numerous and respectable company was 
present." 

Other papers published in Columbia, The Southern Chronicle, in 1838-48, and 
the Carolina Times, by Gyles, LaMotte & Greneker and E. H. Britton, 1850-54. 

The States Rights Republican, by Isaac C. Morgan, Alexander Carroll as 
editor, began in 1848 or 1849 and continued until the war began, and perhaps 
for a short time during the war. 

Edwin DeLeon and W. B. Carlisle published the Carolina Telegraph about the 
same time. 

The Daily South Carolinian was published by Johnson and Cavis. Dr. R. W. 
Gibbes subsequently bought and edited this paper. I. C. Morgan also published 

NOTE.^ — For further information in regard to the press of South Carolina see pages 
at end of volume as indicated by index. 



EDUCATION. 225 

the Pahnetto State Banner; and in 1S51 Major S. A. Goodman, a very able 
writer, published The Illustrated Family Friend, a handsome weekly. 

The Southern Guardian, a daily and also a weekly, was published in Columbia 
from 1857 to some years after the war, by Prof. Charles P. Pelham, editor and 
proprietor. The great novelist, William Gilmore Simms, was associated with 
Mr. Pelham. This paper did the State printing for a number of years. The 
editor published other periodicals and did bookbinding also. The plant occupied 
the spot where Bryan's Book Store and Printing Office now stands, extending 
back to Assembly Street. It was destroyed by Sherman's fire, and did not 
resume publication for two or three years, and then it did noble fighting against 
the corruption of scalazi'ags and carpetbaggers, and was a bitter foe to Radical 
misrule. The late Wm. H. McCaw, a brilliant journalist, who died in the midst 
of the fight, and the scholarly James Wood Davidson, were on the staff. The 
Southern Guardian lived a useful life and died revered by all good and true 
Carolinians, as it was a brave defender of right and truth. 

Other papers in Charleston, Columbia and different parts of the State had 
much popularity. They were chiefly political organs, lacking much of what is 
now considered essential to journalism. 

There were several literary periodicals. The Southern Presbyterian Review, 
Columbia, S. C, from 1847 to 1900, wielded great influence in the religious world, 
with such men as Thornwell, Palmer, Woodrow and Girardeau as contributors 
to its columns. 

The Southern Quarterly Review and Russell's Magazine contained thought of 
the highest order. Nearly all the papers suspended during the war for lack of 
material, want of patronage and compositors. 

The year 1865 was almost a blank in journalism. The Columbia papers were 
destroyed by Sherman. Due credit should be given to Julian A. Selby, who in 
1865 brought a bag of type on his back to Columbia from a neighboring town 
and founded The Phoenix, with William Gilmore Simms as editor. 

One by one the county papers resumed operation. Since that time the progress 
has been marked. Old papers have been consolidated and many new ones have 
sprung up. 

Notable among the editorial writers of the last quarter century in South Caro- 
lina journalism were Francis W. Dawson, of the Charleston Nezvs and Courier, 
and the able and lamented N. G. Gonzales, founder of The State, of Columbia, 
to whose memory a monument erected by the people of the State, stands in 
Columbia, just off the Capitol grounds. 

NEWSPAPERS. 

The following is a list of newspapers published in the State at the present 
time : 

Daily. 

Anderson Mail (except Sundays) ; Charleston Post (except Sundays) ; 
Charleston News and Courier; Columbia Record (except Sundays); Columbia. 
The State; Florence Times (except Sundays); Greenville News (except Sun- 
days) ; Orangeburg News (except Sundays) ; Spartanburg Herald (except Sun- 
days) ; Spartanburg Journal (except Sundays). — 11. 

Semi-Weekly. 

Aiken Journal and Review; Anderson Intelligencer; Pee Dee Advocate (Ben- 
nettsville) ; Charleston News and Courier; Chester Lantern; Chester Reporter; 
The State (Columbia); Gaffney Ledger; Georgetown Times; Greenville News; 
Lancaster News; Newberry News and Herald; Newberry Observer; Rock Hill 
Herald; Rock Hill Record; Union Progress; Yorkville Enquirer. — 17. 

Weekly. 

Abbeville Medium; Abbeville Press and Banner; Aiken Recorder; People's 
Recorder (Anderson); Bamberg Herald; Barnwell People; Barnwell Sentinel; 
Batesburg Advocate; Beaufort Gazette; Bcltf)n Times; ( Bcnnottsvillc) Marl- 
boro Democrat; (Bishopville ) Leader and Vindicator; Blacksburg Chronicle; 
Camden Chronicle; Camden People; Wateree Messenger (Camden); Cliarles- 
ton Deutsche Zeitung; Cliarlcston Protective League; Charleston Messenger; 
Keystone (Charleston, Woman's); Cheraw Chronicle; Chesterfield Advertiser; 
Clifton World (Spartanburg;; Clinton Chronicle; Clinton Gazette; Horry Her- 
ald (Conway); Farmers' Courier CDarlington) ; New Era (Darlington); Dar- 
lington News; Darlington Press; Dillon Advertiser; Dillon Herald; Progress 

15—11. B. 



226 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

(Donalds); Easley Progress; Edgefield Advertiser; Edgefield Chronicle; Edge- 
field News ; Florence Times-Messenger ; Fort Mill Times ; Fountam Inn Journal ; 
Cherokee News (Gaffney) ; Greenville Mountaineer; Greenville News and 
Views; Greenwood Index; Greenwood Journal; Observer (Greer's); Hampton 
Guardian; County Messenger (Hartsville) ; Chronicle (Honea Path); Johnston 
News-Monitor; Kershaw Era (Camden); Kingstree County Record; Kmgstree 
Mail; Laurens Advertiser; Laurens Herald; Laurens Vidette; Lexmgton Dis- 
patch; McCormick Messenger; Clarendon Sentinel (Manning); Farmer (Man- 
ning); Times (Manning); Marion Plane; Marion Star; Echo and Press 
(Monck's Corner); Mullins Enterprise; Ninety-Six Star; Orangeburg Patriot; 
Orangeburg Times and Democrat ; Pelzer Enterprise ; Pickens Sentinel-Journal ; 
Dorchester Eagle (St. George) ; Commercial Advance (St. Matthews) ; Echo 
and Press; (St. Stephens) ; Saluda Standard; Spartanburg Herald; Spartanburg 
Free Lance; Carolina Spartan (Spartanburg); Summerton Advance; Summer- 
ville News ; Sumter Herald ; Sumter Prospector ; Sumter Watchman and South- 
ron; Timmonsville Enterprise; Union Times; Keowee Courier (Walhalla) ; 
Oconee News (Walhalla) ; Walterboro Press and Standard; Horse Creek Valley 
News (Warrenville) ; News and Herald (Winnsboro) ; Woodruf? News and 
Views; Yorkville New Era; Farmers' Union Sun (Columbia); The Landrum 
Gazette (Landrum). — 93. 

Semi-Monthly and Monthly. 

Shields and Diamonds (Charleston College Bi-monthly) ; Tri-State Odd Fel- 
low (Semi-monthly, Columbia) ; Darlington Agricultural Herald (Monthly) ; 
Grit and Steel (Sporting, Monthly, Gaffney) ; Journal of South Carolina Med- 
ical Association (Greenville); Newberry Southern Farmer; Pendleton Record 
(Semi-monthly); Timmonsville Carolina Planter; Greenville Monitor; South 
Carolina Pythian (Columbia). — 10. 

Religious. 

Diocese (Monthly), Columbia; Synod's Home Missionary (Monthly), Green- 
wood; Beaufort Churchman (Weekly); Our Monthly (Clinton); South Caro- 
linian (Weekly), Columbia; Way of Faith (Weekly), Columbia; Associate Re- 
formed Presbyterian (Weekly), Due West; Florence Chronicle (Monthly); 
Baptist Courier (Weekly), Greenville; Greenwood Baptist Press (Monthly); 
Greenwood Christian Appeal (Weekly) ; Spartanburg Link (Weekly) ; Southern 
Christian Advocate (Weekly), Spartanburg; Union Baptist Press (Weekly).— 14. 

Negro. 

Southern Reporter (Weekly), Charleston; Chester Torchlight (Weekly); 
Southern Sun (Weekly), Columbia; Greenville Enterprise (Weekly); Friend- 
ship Banner (Weekly), Rock Hill; Messenger (Weekly), Rock Hill; Defender 
(Weekly), Sumter; Southern Ploughman (Monthly), Columbia. — 8. 

ILLITERACY. 

According to the United States Census Department, the term "illiteracy" in- 
cludes all persons at least ten years of age and upwards unable to read and 
write their own language — this means, of course, in this country the English 
language. 

In the United States these form about one-tenth (106.6 per 1,000) of the 
entire population. The proportion of illiterate persons in this country is less 
than that in any European country, except Germany, Sweden, Norway, Den- 
mark, Finland, Switzerland, and Scotland. In the Netherlands, England, and 
France, however, the percentage of illiteracy is but a slight degree higher than 
in the United States ; but in the remaining countries of Europe it is much more 
prevalent. It must be borne in mind that the term United States has reference 
to Continental United States, and not to the island possessions and Alaska. 

In the United States the proportion of illiterates has steadily declined for every 
class of population since 1880. This proportion is less for young persons than 
for those advanced in years; and as a general rule the illiteracy increases in 
each older age group above twenty-five. This reflects the extension and im- 
provement of elementary education, the younger generation having enjoyed bet- 
ter educational advantages than the older. 

This decline in illiteracy between the periods of childhood and youth is more 
pronounced in the States of the South and Southwest, where illiteracy among 
children was especially prevalent in former decades. The injurious effect of the 
Civil War, most marked in the South, is shown by the fact that among native 



EDUCATION'. 227 

white males in 1906 the proportion of illiteracy was much higher in the age 
group 50 to 59 than in the next older or next younger age groups. 

Child illiteracy varies greatly in different sections of the country. It is some- 
what less in the North and in the West than in the South ; but this is largely 
dependent upon four existing circumstances. First, the South is handicapped 
by a smaller per capita wealth ; second, it has a larger proportion of children ; 
third, it is an agricultural region, and, therefore, a thinly settled section ; fourth, 
it has separate schools for the races. Under equal conditions there is about the 
same proportion of illiteracy in the South among the native whites as elsewhere 
in the Union. 

In the larger cities and towns, the statistics show in favor of the South. The 
South, as has been said, is largely an agricultural section, thinly settled, with a 
large proportion of the population of the negro race, elsewhere in the Union 
called foreign; hence no fair or just comparison can be made between it and 
other sections of the United States. All reports from which census statistics are 
drawn are in a measure defective and misleading and inaccurate. This is espe- 
cially true of the Southern States, from the very nature of the case. 

It is known that more negro children, in proportion to the population, attend 
the public schools than do whites, and that they are rapidly being taught to read 
and write. These facts as they really are do not reach the Census Bureau in 
the light in which they should. 

There has been a steady gain, since 1880, in favor of females in respect to 
illiteracy. The excess of female illiteracy was less in 1900 than in 1890 and less 
in 1890 than in 1880. The change is shown by the following table: 

Illiterates per 1,000. Excess of 

Census. Males. Females. Female Illiteracy. 

1880 158.3 181. 6 23.3 

1890 123.5 143.8 20.3 

1900 101.4 112. 2 10.8 

But. if the test is applied to the school age groups, the figures are changed, 
and the excess of illiteracy is with the males. Hence the conclusion is easily 
drawn that the time is near when there will be no difference in illiteracy with 
the sexes — in fact, we may say that the preponderancy of illiterates will be male. 

This table shows the tendency : the older the group age, the greater the female 
rate of illiteracy : 

Illiterates per 1,000. 
Age Period. Males. Females. 

At least 10 101.4 112. 2 

10 to 14 years 79.8 63 

15 to 17 years 85.4 62.4 

18 to 20 years 91.6 78.7 

21 to 24 years .' 89.5 82.7 

25 to 34 years 87.6 95.2 

This is strictly in accord with the facts. Only till recent years has female 
education received just and equal attention with that given to the males. 

Again, nearly one-half of the non-Caucasian population and less than one- 
twentieth of the native whites are illiterate. These proportions are very mate- 
rially reduced if only children of school age are considered. In this case less 
than one-third of the non-Caucasian children of school age are illiterate, and 
about one-thirtieth of the native white children. Why? Because, as is well 
known, the negro children, which compose the larger part of the non-Caucasian 
population, as a rule live in the thinly settled country districts, where school 
advantages are poorer and the standards of education are lower, while the 
whites, as a rule, have their homes in the towns and cities, and enjoy excellent 
school privileges. 

Taking the United States as a whole, the ratio of illiteracy among the non- 
Caucasians is nine times as great as that for the native whites; but in the 
Southern States the proportion is not much more than three times as great. 
These statements are gathered from the most recent Census Reports of 1906. 

TVie difference, then, between the two races as regards child illiteracy is not 
so marked in the South as in the North. As the proportion of illiteracy de- 
creases for one race it usually decreases for the other also. Yet the Southern 
people are charged with doing little for the education of the negro. The facts 
show that within the last quarter of a century the ratio of illiteracy for South- 
ern whites has been reduced seven-twentieths and that for negroes has been 



228 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

reduced five-twentieths — the relative reduction has been greater for the whites ; 
but the absolute reduction is greater for the negro. This is because of the two 
facts : that the negro had but recently been in a state of slavery, and that they 
form a large majority of the population in the South. It is a truth, however, 
that the negro race is decreasing its rate of illiteracy faster than any other class 
in the United States. 

COLLEGE PRESIDENTS IN SUCCESSION. 

COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON. 

Rev. Robert Smith I79i'i797 L)!". Perronneau Findley 1846-1857 

Mr. Thomas Bee 1797-1805 Dr. N. Russell Middleton 1857-1880 

Rev. George Buist 1805 Dr. Wm. t. Shepherd 1882- 1897 

Rev. Jasper Adams 1824- 1836 Dr. Harrison Randolph 1897 

Dr. William Brantley 1836- 1844 

SOUTH CAROLINA. COLLEGE. 

Jonathan Maxcy 1804-1820 A. B. Longstreet 1857-1861 

Thomas Cooper 1-820-1834 Robert W. Barnwell 1866-1872 

Robert Henry 1834-1835 William Porcher Miles 1880-1882 

Robert W. Barnwell 1835-1841 John M. McBryde 1882- 1892 

Robert Henry 1841-1845 James Woodrow 1892-1897 

William C. Preston 1845- 185 1 Frank C. Woodward 1897-1902 

James H. Thornwell 1851-1855 Benjamin Sloan 1902-1908 

Charles F. McCoy 1855-1857 (New President to be elected latter part 

of 1908, vice Sloan, resigned.) 
SOUTH CAROLINA MILITARY ACADEMY. 

Arsenal. Citadel. 

*Capt. M. C Shaffer 1842 *Capt. C. R. Parker 1842 

Capt. Alfred Herbert 1843-1845 Maj. R. W. Colcock 1844-1853 

Capt. Joseph Matthews 1845-1856 Maj. F. W. Capers 1853-1860 

Capt. C. C. Tew 1856-1858 Maj. P. F. Stevens 1860-1861 

Capt. J. P. Thomas 1858-1865 Maj. J. B. White 1861-1865 

Capt. W. F. Graham 1843- 1844 Col. J. P. Thomas 1882- 1885 

Gen. Geo. D. Johnston 1885- 1890 

Col. Asbury Coward 1890-1908 

( New Superintendent to be elected lat- 
ter part of 1908). 

INSTITUTION FOR DEAF, DUMB AND BLIND. 

Newton P. Walker 1849-1861 John M. Hughston 1869-1872 

None from 1861-1865. Newton F. Walker 1872-1873 

James S. Henderson and New- Closed because of Radical rule. 

ton F. Walker 1866-1867 Newton F. Walker 1876-1908 

Closed from 1867- 1869. 

CLEMSON COLLEGE. 

H. A. Strode 1890-1894 H. S. Hartzog 1896-1902 

E. B. Craighead 1894-1896 P. H. Mell 1902-1908 

WINTHROP COLLEGE. 

D. B. Johnson 1886-1907 

ERSKINE COLLEGE. 

E. E. Pressly, D. D 1837-1847 W. M. Grier, D. D 1871-1899 

R. C. Grier, D. D 1847-1858 F. Y. Pressly, D. D 1899-1906 

E. L. Patton, D. D 1859-1865 J. S. Moffatt. D. D 1906 

R. C. Grier, D. D 1865-1871 

FURMAN UNIVERSITY. 

Dr. James C. Furman 1851-1881 Dr. C. H. Judson 1902-1903 

Dr. Charles Manly 1881-1897 Dr. E. M. Poteat 1903-1908 

Dr. A. P. Montague 1897-1902 

•When these military posts were changed into schools. 



EDUCATION. 229 

WOFFORD COLLEGE. 

W. M. Wightman. D. D 1854-1859 J. H. Carlisle, LL. D 1875-1902 

A. M. Shipp, D. D 1859- 1875 Henry N. Snyder, LL. D 1902- 1908 

LEESVILLE COLLEGE. 

Rev. J. E. Watson 1881-1885 L. B. Haynes 1887-1908+ 

J. E. Beard 1885-1887 

SOUTH CAROLINA CO-EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE. 
Col. F. N. K. Bailey 1891-1907 

PRESBYTERIAN COLLEGE OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

W. S. Lee 1880-1885 E. C. Murray 1894-1897 

R. P. Smith 1885-1888 A. E. Spencer 1897-1904 

J. W. Kennedy 1888-1890 Rev. W. G. Neville 1904-1907 

J. I. Cleland 1891-1894 Rev. Robert Adams 1907 

CLIFFORD SEMINARY. 

B. G. CliflFord, D. D 1881-1907 

CONVERSE COLLEGE. 
B. F. Wilson, D. D 1889- 1902 Rev. R. P. Pell, Litt. D 1902- 1908+ 

COLUMBIA COLLEGE. 

Rev. Whitford Smith, D. D.. ..1859- 1860 Hon. J. L. Jones, Ph. D 1876-1881 

Rev. William Martin 1860-1861 Rev. O. A. Darby, D. D 1881-1890 

Rev. H. M. Mood 1861-1864 Rev. S. B.Jones, D. D 1890-1894 

Closed from 1864-1873. Rev. J. A. Rice, D. D 1894-1900 

Rev. S. B. Jones 1873-1876 Rev. \V. W. Daniel, D. D 1900-1908 

DUE WEST FEMALE COLLEGE. 

Rev. J. I. Bonner, D. D 1859- 1881 Rev. C. E. Todd 1895-1899 

Prof. J. P. Kennedy 1881-1887 Rev. James Boyce 1899 

Mrs. L. M. Bonner 1887-1895 

COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. 

Rev. W. R. Atkinson, D. D.. ..1890-1896 Miss Euphemia E. McClintock..i9Oi-i907 
Rev. R. P. Pell, LL. D 1896- 1901 

GREENVILLE FEMALE COLLEGE. 

Rev. A. H. Duncan 1854- 1866 Rev. M. M. Riley, D. D 1894- 1900 

Rev. C. H. Judson, LL. D 1866-1878 Col. E. H. Murfee, LL. D 1900-1901 

Rev. A. S. Townes, A. M 1878-1894 E. C. James, Litt. D 1901-1908+ 

GREENVILLE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. 
A. S. Townes, Ph. D 1894- 1907 

LANDER COLLEGE. 
Rev. Samuel Lander, D. D 1872-1905 J. O. Willson, D. D 1905-1908+ 

LIMESTONE COLLEGE. 

Thomas Curtis, D. D., and 

William Curtis, D. D 1845-1865 Prof. John R. Mack 1896-1899 

Capt. Harrison P. Griffith and Prof. L. D. Lodge, LL. D. . .1899- 1908+ 

Prof. H. O. Sams 1881-1896 



230 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

REIDVILLE FEMALE COLLEGE. 

Rev. R. H. Reid 1857 Joseph Venable. 

Rev. Thos. Ward White. A. E. Spencer. 

Maj. John A. Leland. D. B. Simpson. 

Rev. G. B. Clifford, D. D. L. P. McGhee. 

Rev. R. P. Smith. J. Whitney Reid. 

M. L. Venable. Rev. B. P. Reid. 

REIDVILLE MALE SCHOOL. 

Rev. T. E. Davis. F. P. Neel. 

T. C. Duncan. W. D. McCorkle. 

Rev. E. F. Hide. Thomas Williamson. 

Preston C. Johnson. Geo. Briggs. 

Rev. Theo. Smith. R. F. Hutcheson. 

R. P. Adams. J. L. McWhorter. 

W. C. Kirkland. R. L. Goff. 

Sam'l F. Boston. W. D. Acker. 

William Tennant. J. H. Brannon igoS-j- 

CHICORA COLLEGE. 

Rev. J. F. McKinnon 1893- 1895 Rev. S. C. Byrd, D. D 1906 

Rev. S. R. Preston, D. D 1895-1906 

CONFEDERATE HOME COLLEGE. 
Mrs. M. A. Snowden 1867-1901 Miss Harriet E. Rouan 1901-1908+ 

LUTHERAN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 
Rev. J. A. Morehead, D. D 1898-1903 Rev. A. G. Voigt, D. D 1903-1908+ 

COLUMBIA SEMINARY. 
Chairman. 

Thomas Goulding, D. D 1828- 1834 J. H. Thornwell, D. D 1858- 1862 

Charles C. Jones. D. D 1834-1838 James Woodrow, D. D., LL. D. .1862-1886 

George Howe, D. D 1838-1853 J. L. Girardeau, D. D 1886- 1895 

B. M. Palmer, D. D 1853-1856 W. M. McPheeters, D. D 1895-1907 

A. W. Leland, D. D 1856- 1858 

ERSKINE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

Rev. J. T. Pressly, D. D 1837- 1842 Rev. W. L. Pressly, D. D 1870-1886 

Rev. R. C. Grier, D. D 1842-1854 Rev. F. Y. Pressly, D. D 1906 

Rev. James Boyce, D. D 1854-1870 

CHARLESTON ORPHANAGE. 

Chairman. 

♦Anoldus Vanderhorst 1790-1792 Thomas Roper 1825-1826 

*John Huger 1792-1792 James Jervey 1826-1838 

fCharles Lining 1792-1796 Henry Alexander DeSaussure. 1838-1865 

Rawlins Lowndes 1796-1797 William Cottell Bee .1865-1881 

John Bee Holmes 1797-1808 James Dexter Mowry 1881-1885 

Henry William DeSaussure. . .1808-1812 Jacob Small 1885-1893 

Daniel Stevens 1812-1819 Geo. W. Williams 1893- 1904 

John Dawson ...1819-1823 F. J. Pelzer 1904- 

Thomas Lee 1823-1825 

THORNWELL ORPHANAGE. 
W. P. Jacobs, D. D 1872- 1907 

CONNIE MAXWELL ORPHANAGE. 

J. L. Vass, D. D 1891-1900 A. T. Jamison 1900-1908 

•Ex-offlclo. 

tFirst chairman elected. 



EDUCATION. 231 

EPWORTH ORPHANAGE. 
G. H. Waddell, D. D 1895-1901 W. B. Wharton 1901-1908+ 

ODD FELLOWS' ORPHAN HOMK 
T. U. Vaughn 1904 

COLORED INSTITUTE FOR ORPHANS. 
Richard Carroll 1897- 1907 

ALLEN UNIVERSITY. 

Dr. J. C. Waters 1881-1885 Rev. W. D. Chappelle, D. D.. .1897-1899 

Prof. J. W. Morris, Ph. D 1885-1894 Rev. H. D. Johnson, D. D 1899- 1904 

Rev. John Q. Johnson. Ph. D..1894-1895 Rev. W. D. Johnson, D. D. .1904-1908+ 
Prof. J. W. Morris, Ph. D.. . .1895-1897 

NEWBERRY COLLEGE. 

Rev. J. P. Smeltzer, D. D 1856-1878 Hon. Geo. W. Cromer, LL. D..1895-1904 

Rev. G. W .Holland, D. D., Rev. J. A. B. Scherer, D. D...1904 

Ph.D 1878-1895 

AVERY NORMAL COLLEGE. 

F. L. Cordozo 1867 A. E. Gordon. 

M. A. Warren. J. A. Nichols. 

James T. Ford. M. A. Holmes. 

A. W. Farnham. E. A. Lawrence 1908+ 

J. A. Gaylord. 

BENEDICT COLLEGE. 

Dr. W. F. Goodspeed 1871-1876 Dr. E. E. Becker 1881-1895 

Dr. W. G. Colby 1876-1881 Dr. A. C. Osborn 1895-1908+ 

CLAFLIN COLLEGE. 

T. Willard Lewis 1869-1870 Edmond Cooke 1873-1883 

Alonzo Webster 1870-1873 L. M. Dunton 1883- 1908+ 

HARBISON COLLEGE. 

Rev. E. W. Williams 1881-1892 Rev. C. M. Young 1896 

Rev. T. H. Amos 1892-1896 

STERLING COLLEGE. 

Dr. D. M. Minus 1896-1907 

SCHOFIELD INSTITUTE. 

Miss Martha Schofield 1868-1907 

LANCASTER NORMAL COLLEGE. 

M. D. Lee 1897-1907 

CATHOLIC SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES. 

Ursuline Convent, Columbia — Dr. J. J. O'Connell 1858-1865 

" Mother Angela Brownfield 1872 

St. Angela's Academy, Aiken — Sister Celestine Quales 1900-1908-I- 

Sacred Heart Academy, Greenville — Madam M. Patricia 1905-1908-j- 

Catholic Mission School, Florence — Father C. D. Wood 1899- 1908-}- 

Cathedral School, Charleston — Sister Aloysius 1908 

St. Joseph's School, Charleston — Sister Philomena 1908 

Academy of Lady of Mercy, Charleston — Sister M. Benedicta 1908 

St. Joseph's Academy, Sumter — M. Raphael 1908 

Francis Xavier Infirmary, Charleston — Rev. Daniel Berberick 1908 

St. James (Charleston) School — Rev. Daniel Berberick 1908 

STATE COLORED COLLEGE. 

Thomas E. Miller 1896-1908-4- 

FRIENDSHIP COLLEGE (ROCK HILL). 
M. P. Hall 1891-1908+ 



232 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



CONCLUSION. 

It has been the endeav'or of this sketch to mention every college, high school, 
school for special instruction, orphanage, and, in fact, all institutions of learning 
and charity in the State at the present time. There are, no doubt, many schools 
not named, because of the very great difficulty in obtaining any data upon which 
to write. However, let it be said that they are all engaged in the great work of 
trying to enlighten the human race, to elevate mankind, and to make a better 
people and a stronger citizenship. An humble apology is made for any omission. 

On the whole our educational outlook is very bright. With a system of State 
colleges, better common schools, public high schools, and an awakened people, 
it is evident that a revival of learning is just before us — possibly the brightest 
period in our State's history. Commercial progress, manufacturing advance- 
ment, industrial and agricultural improvement on all sides, aided by better 
schools, betoken a bright future nearby. 

Total Expenditures for Public Schools. 

Compiled by Supt. A. R. Banka under the direetion of the Department of 
Immigiation and Agriculture. 

This table shows the development of the Public Schools in South Carolina since their estab- 
lishment in 1869. The figures for the first two or three years are not accurate, as the system 
was new and reports irregular. During the years 1878-80 there is apparently a decrease in funds 
because of the deficiency from J. K. Jillson'a administration as State Superintendent of Educa- 
tion. Otherwise the marked increase in attendance, expenditures, and number of teachers and 
schools is apparent. 



Jo- 



w 



Number of Teachers. 


>. 






c 




tfl 








a E 


"a 




a ! ^ 


5 


o 

55 






Ehts 



•^ 2 



1869-0. 
1870-1. 
1871-2. 
1872-3. 
1873-4. 
1874-5. 
1875-6. 
1876-7. 
1877-8. 
1878-9. 
1879-0. 
1880-1. 
1881-2. 
1882-3. 
1883-4. 
1884-5. 



168,819 
197,179 
206,610 
209,376 
230,102 
232,121 
239,264 
237,971 
237,971 
228,128 
228,128 
228,128 
281,664 
281,664 
281,664 
281,664 



1885-6 1 281, i 



1886-7. 
1887-8. 
1888-9. 
1889-0. 
1890-1. 
1891-2. 
1892-3. 
1893-4. 
1894-5. 
1895-6. 
1896-7. 
1897-8. 
1898-9. 
1899-0. 
1900-1. 
1901-2. 
1902-3. 
1903-4. 
1904-5. 
1905-6. 
1906-7. 



Total. 



281,664 
281,664 
281,664 
281,644 
281,664 
281,664 
281,664 
281,664 
281,664 
281,664 
281,664 
281,664 
450,200 
464,085 
464,085 
471,200 
476,840 
483,385 
490,214 
499,832 
511,896 



28,409 
45,436 
75,625 
94,842 
100,448 
125,846 
140,964 
123,085 
102,396 
116,239 
122,463 
134,072 
133,458 
145,974 
173,095 
185,619 
178,0231 
183,966 
175,017 
193,434 
194,264 
203,140 
209,559 
206,749 
223,150 
226,766 
223,021 
232,337 
232,337 
258,183 
275,889 
281,891 
285,206 
272,443 
288,713 
292,115 
318,075 
314,399 



23,441 
30,448 
66,056 
76,322 
85,594 
100,719 
110,416 
101,085 
45»S79 
104,239 
99,463 
102,345 
98,476 
101,816 
110,996 
114,144 
122,11931 
126,696 
125,531 
139,557 
136,358 
147,799 
148,603 
148,761 
162,300 
165,115 
159,254 
172,201 
172,201 
182,559 
205,407 
201,295 
208,114 
208,378 
209,389 
214,133 
218,862 
222,189 



255 
353 
1,185 
1,363 
1,384 
1,625 
1,723 
1,914 
1,639 
1,844 
1,934 
1,887 
1,904 
1,940 
2,000 
2,115 
2,119| 
2,091 
2,227 
2,242 
2,210 
2,16;3 
1,967 
2,043 
2,114 
2,141 
2,140 
2,028 
2,028 
2,245 
2,282 
2,422 
2,536 
2,537 
2.. 588 
2,526 
2,592 
2,540 



273 
381 
713 
822 
926 
1,002 
1,082 
1,154 
1,035 
1,273 
1,232 
1,294 
1,345 
1,473 
1,494 
1,569 
1,654 
1,744 
1,767 
1,961 
2,040 
2,210 
2,192 
2,355 
2,421 
2,453 
2,425 
2,419 
2,419 
2,728 
2,960 
3,142 
3,278 
3,295 
3,359 
3,290 
3,452 
3,688 



528 
734 
1,898 
2,185 
2,310 
2,627 
2,855 
3,068 
2,674 
3,117 
3,166 
3,181 
3,243 
3,413 
3,494 
3,684 
3,773 
3,835 
3,994 
4,203 
4,250 
4,364 
4,159 
4,398 
4,535 
4,594 
4,565 
4,407 
4,407 
4,973 
5,242 
5,564 
5,814 
5,832 
5,947 
5,816 
6,044 
6,228 



100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
60 
62 
67 
70 
75 
80 
80 
80 
70 
70 
72 
72 
68 
69. 
70. 
73. 
74. 
86 
70 
72 
72 
83. 
90. 



$57 
112 
261 
268 
333 
385 
369 
377, 
212 
261 
284, 
256 
309 
349, 
341 
343 
374 
373 
368 
385 
396 
384 
392 
422 
443 
t474 
470 
•536, 
•737 
705 
726, 
827 
950 
962 
1,191 
1,304 
1,404 
1,415 



$77,949 
177,950 
277,949 
320,451 
369,433 
448,252 
426,463 
423,872 
226,021 
316,197 
319,320 
351,417 
352,910 
373,598 
389,884 
423,473 
428,419 
425,902 
424,426 
430,670 
460,434 
460,399 
419,856 
485,839 
456,103 
532,747 
563,744 
661,389 
671,975 
893,575 
827,586 
980,683 
,184,029 
,211,092 
,565,136 
,681,600 
,740,490 
,853,572 



630 

796 
1,639 
1,919 
2,081 
2,353 
2,580 
2,776 
2,483 
2,922 
2,901 
2,973 
3,057 
3,183 
3,269 
3,482 
3,562 
3,660 
3,531 
3,922 
3,948 
3,510 
3,392 
3,487 
3,406 
3,503 
3,792 
4,238 
4,238 
4,342 
4,465 
4,880 
4,718 
4,712 
4,860 
4.911 
6,024 
4,995 



.|$19,749,209|$23,479,806| 



tState CoUeges $212,645.84. 
vention. 



•Only one report for two years owing to Constitutional Con- 



EDUCATION. 



233 



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^34 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



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35 



ON IN SOUTI 



^3 

M 



$44,165 60 
50,000 00 
25,000 00 
36.199 37 
193,500 00 
121,756 68 
12,000 00 
26,000 00 



$514,621 65 



$30,000 0( 



21,766 3f 

18,244 (X 



$70,000 S( 



th 
Mr 
to 

es, 



$15,000 00 
IS 749 nnl 



$100,000 OC 



he 

ns 



:s 



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c- 

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rd, 



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Id, 
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TABLE SHOWING RECORD OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN SOUTH CAROLINA. 

State Colleges. 



O 



Sunt. 


^.^. 


■g 


ll — 


Deaominatioi). 


xr„" 


.1 
II 


^1 

II 


°t 


ll 


ll 




13.000,000 


if 

> I6;i2; 
ll ''^ 


■s 

li 

1100.000 

»i«.aoo 


"T«*cher«. 

^ ll 


■si 

wo 00 


i 

z 

an 


Namr ot Prcddoit. 




CharlMton.'.' .' .' .' '. 
' CharlHton 

&X"(i«c-. ■. -. 

Charleaton'. '. '. ' '. 
Orangeburg 

1 


-m 


1806 Legialalure. . . . 
lSi2 Lt^rialalure. . . . 
1832 Legislature. . . . 
1860 1 Lcgisblure. . . . 
ISO ' Legislature. . . . 

1867 1 LegUlat^e. '. '. .' 

1 


Sut« 

SUte 


Men! '.'.'.'. 
ffomeii '. '. '. 

Total. . . . 


28.&n 


"728 
S.W 

M 

O.GCD 


«:SSS 

«o!o« 

»a.386.96e 


2S,00O0( 


m«5jo 

IU3.600 0( 


MoJ. Oenjanila Slun. 
Col. Aabury Coward. 

Capt. N. F. Walker. 
1'. U. Mdl. UU D. 
D. B. JohnRm, UL. D. 


South Carolina HiliUry Acadeinj-. . 
S. 0. Institution for Deaf and Blind. 
Winthrop Normal and In. College'. * 
LViIored Nor., In. and Agr. "College. 




...^.^ 

n.VooM 




(SM.SMOO 


t6M.Kl OS 


»7«.000 38 


(13.0»,032 















I IlarrisoD Randolph, L.L. 



Potest, D. D., UL. 1 



— ^ Orangeburg Colltsiatc Innilute. 



Spartanburg. 
Columbia. . 
Qreenvillc; '. 

Qaflney. . . 
Charleston. . 



I Theological Scmioarr. . . 
'hcologicsl Seminar}'. , . 
lieologlcBl Seminarj. . . 



Columbia Theological Seminar}'. 



DciiominatloDal — Female. 



^,000 001 tSSO 000 ( 



Jl Col. V. '^K 








Colleges For Special TnUnlng. 






















otsl . . . 1,170 


30 


$16.00C 




f,:5SS 


tSO.000 00 


120. TOO 00 
1.000.000 K 


J.O00 
£0,000 


W.ax 

JS0.000 


.1 














. . , .\. R. Presbyterian Me 


I:-.::;;: 




U p. Y. Pr.wly, D. D. 








tI8,IIS0 03 


»MS,00 





«1.17«.70O OO 


u — 




■ 














Cliuloilon ban Home 


OrSn 


M^.\-:\ 


1 


1700 


Legislature. . . . 
Legislature. . . . 

Secretnrj' of Stste. 


Prubrterian.. . 
Baptist 

Non-sectari&n.' ' 


ilioth! '.'.'.'. «3 "a 

IjBoth. ". ". : "SSS 25 

Total . . . 12,063 2.186 


1i-S 

35'.00( 


»M.0OOOO 


iss.oeo 

35.000 
10,000 

3,000 


1 »13,e00 8S 


ts.ooc 


ll 


6.000 
10,6M 


$0,000 
(13.350 


2 
2 

— 


J 




list Ml 














i«o' f ■ '"'■ V "b'"\v 






a lo.raioo 










» K. U. Vaughn. 

K> Rer. Rlclmnl Carroll. 




















^SG.OOO 


»25.000 00 


(83,080 


ll »«8.0»82 


W.SI2 


000 00 




1,0,1 











Colleges For Negroes. 



Allen Univmlty. . . . 




Columbia. 

Cbarloston 

Columbia 

Oraoffeburg 


1 


1 


Legislature. . . . 

ugiliatuK: : : : 

SecreUry of SUte. 
SecreUry of State. 


Congregational.. 
Molhirfiat ■ ' * 

Baptist.' ...'.' 


I Both: : : ; 


■s 

8.000 
7.0SJ 


1 


»10C 


nnn 




0'.640 00 
OsioiOO! 




2,!M:oOO « 


S^OOf 
1.SIH 


H 


■ 1 


to 00 




m 






js.o 
ao!o 


is 
















Schotlcld College 

Sterling. 






Oroenyilie 




ox D H Minus. 




ndustrial.* .' . 












a!!0 M P Hall 










48,051 


3.H7 


tow mo 




|15»,OT 11 


9100,000 OO 


H.07S.0OO 00 




" - „ 


— flo — ^i' 


1 












j_"r 


[_ 





















High Schools, 






















Charleston High School 


Charleston 

York County 

•Spartanburg . 

;ISX.- .■.•.■.■:: 

Columbia 

Spartanburg 


iK 


:::::: 


Leglsliiluri.-. . . . 
Secretary of SUte. 
Legislature. . . . 

Secretiir>- of SUte. 
LcgliUture. . . . 
LcglsUture. . . . 
Ugialature. . . . 


A. R. Presbyterian 
Episcopalian.. . . 
Prcabyterian.. . . 

Baptist 

Metbodln 

Baptist. .' .' .* .' '. 
NoB-MctsirUn. . 


Boys ... . 

BojL. : : ; : 


s.oa 


aoool 'ti«,iM 




tio.ooo 0( 

WIOOOK 


tlOO.000 00 


I7M.0OO 00 
25.000 00 

»iog.ooo 


3.00( 


"C 


■i 


::■ 


ii 


123 Henri- j"*'iSuhcll, A 
60 Ocorie Brigg*. 




!.m 


laM.W 






ToomerPorter High School 

PrcBhj-terian High School 

Welsh NL-ck High School 

WolTord Fitting School 

Carlisle Fitting School 

Uni^rslty High School.'.'.'.* -' ." '■ 




^.666 66 










25,bwo6 




































Boy» 







6.0M 




3,SOO0O 










1 




60 00 


'.'.'.'.'.'.'. H. T. Shoekliy. 




















Boys 


































15.379 


6.1S2 






«..1«0. 


•826,000 00 


»1,1«0,000 00 


B.OOO 


tl3,8M 


31 





















Catholic Schools. 



— 


^gil^l^l" 






i: 


ISfiS 1 L<«ialature. 
1900 Legiiiature;' 


. .1 OMhoUc. 


. .1 Womm. . . . 


1.000 
2,000 


1 


I 






•10.0 

o!o 

B.0 

m'.o 


nno 




lsoa.cw)oo 


>.»0 


ROOO 


> 




« 


8,m 

0,000 












si 








odemy 








40!000 00 
1,000.000 00 


241.310 


10.000 


] 


sister Ccteclinc Quale. 




.' ." ! .^'*'.?""'.." '..'.'. '..'.'. 






Coth 






























18,«0> 
102,760 


20.327 


iS06,000 
t8.I61,2«S 




' 1158.000 00 




»l,e8O,0M 00 
|«,2il.7»2 00 










»3M,21 


«oe 


«a,»5.ao M 


ma.2oo/^ ial M 








1 








■d College. tS 


c Fiuu.-.. U.u.wJt,. 




















1 























EDUCATION. 235 

FROM IHE UNITED STATES CENSUS STATISTICS OF 1906. 

No. Children Percentage 

State. Population. Attending School, of Population. 

New York 8,066,672 1,311.108 ,16.59 

Massachusetts 3.003,636 497,904 16.12 

South Carolina i,340,3i6 302,663 21.61 

Michigan 2,670,000 521.463 20.39 

From this it will be seen that, comparing one New England State, one North 
Atlantic State, one Southern State, and one Western State, all typical of their 
respective sections, that the percentage of school attendance in proportion to 
population is higher in South Carolina, and in fact in all the Southern States, 
excepting Louisiana, than in the other sections. 

SHOWING NATIVE WHITE POPULATION, SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 
AND PERCENTAGE OF SAME. 

States. Population. School Attendance. Percentage. 

New York 7,953,639 1,303,108 16.40 

Massachusetts 3,062,750 492,404 16.07 

South Carolina 582,400 I47,0S3 25.23 

Michigan 2,636,875 5i7,8i3 19-64 

This table shows that, when the native white population is considered, the 
percentage of attendance in the South is still greater than in the other portions 
of .the United States. 

SHOWING COLORED POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES 

SCHOOL ATTENDANCE AND COLORED POPULATION IN 

SOUTH CAROLINA, AND SCHOOL ATTENDANCE. 

Population. Illiterates. Percentage. 

United States 8,840,789 2,853,194 34-53 

South Carolina 782,321 171,022 36.28 

This table shows that, while the preponderance of the negro population is 
greater in South Carolina that in any other State, the ratio of illiteracy is prac- 
tically the same. In the last ten years the illiteracy among the negroes in South 
Carolina has decreased 20 per cent. 

Grateful acknowledgments are made all the College Presidents who have rendered 
valuable assistance in the preparation of this slsetch, but especially to Col. A. Coward, 
Prof. E. L. Green, R. B. Cunningham, Dr. H. N. Snyder, Prof. J. I. McCain, Dr. Har- 
rison Randolph, Miss Harriet E. Ronan, Dr. R. P. Pell, J. W. Reld, Prof. Osborn, Miss 
Irving, Dr. W. P. Jacobs, Dr. Edward F. Parker, Hon. Hartwell Ayer, Rev. Dr. Mlkell, 
Col. Crews, Father Hegarty, Supt. O. B. Martin and W. II. Barton, Prof. W. H. Hand, 
Mr. A. S. Salley, Miss Mary Nance — and to the sketch of Prof. R. Means Davis In 
X882, and to the "History of Higher Education In South Carolina," by Colyer Meri- 
wether — and to the uniform kindness of Miss Linnie LaBorde. the State Librarian, 
and, lastly, to Col. E. J. Watson and his office force. 




CHAPTER Vlll.--Agriculture. 



From the foundation of the colony, South CaroHna has been an agricultural 
State, the population engaging in the growing of cotton, rice, corn and tobacco 
principally. Indigo was in the early days a staple crop, and of late years tobacco 
and trucking have become leading crops, though cotton and corn are still the 
chief staple crops. Agriculture was supreme in the State until the coming of the 
marvelous development of the cotton manufacturing industry, and as this volume 
is being prepared it is a close contest between these two great industries in the 
matter of the value of annual production— agriculture, however, havnig the 
advantage that its competitor is dependent upon its maintenance and ever-mcreas- 
ing development. Though cotton manufactured products had exceeded in value 
the agricultural products in 1905 by $3,000,000, in 1907 the values were almost 
balanced. Agriculture has not developed with the phenomenal rapidity of the 



Acreage of Crops in South 
Carolina. 

Crop. Acreage. 

1908. 1907- 

Cotton 2,512,260 2,463,000 

Corn 1,993,740 1,974,000 

Wheat .• 314,347 

Oats 195,000 

Hay 60,682 

Rice 19,036 

Tobacco 27,000 

Potatoes 9,065 

Rye 4-226 



Value of All Farm Products. 

1907 (cotton crop alone). $72,657,817 

1900 68,266,912 

1890 51,337,985 

1880 41,108,112 

1870 41,909,002 

Expenses for Fertilisers. 

1900 $ 4-494,410 

1890 3,867.418 

1880 2,659,969 

Expended for Labor. 
1900 $ 6,107,100 

Total of Neat Cattle on Farms. 

1900 255,164 

1890 268,293 

1880 363,709 

1870 249,303 

i860 506,776 



cotton manufacturing industry, but in the last few years there has been a general 
and substantial revival of interest, and the trucking branch of the industry has 
developed with remarkable speed. The immediate future is full of promise to 
the honest and ambitious tiller of the soil. 

Climatic, soil and shipping conditions are ideal for yielding large returns from 
intensive and diversified modes of agriculture, and all indications point to the 
dawn of a new era in the agricultural history of the State. After scourge of 
civil war had passed, the people of this State— distinctly an agricultural people- 
were forced to face, with empty purses, entirely new social and economic con- 
ditions, and it has taken some decades for them to adapt themselves to the new 
conditions. 



AGRICULTURE. 



2Z1 



A Summary of Actual and Estimated Values of Agriculture and 

Live Stock. 

Per ct. of Per ct. of 

Increase Increase 



Value of all farm 
property 

Value of all agri- 
cultural products 

Value of all live 
stock 

Value of all domes- 
tic animals . . . . 

Value of horses . . . 

Value of mules . . . 

Value of milch cows 

Value of other 
cattle 

Value of goats. . . . 

Value of sheep . . . 

Value of hogs. . . . 



1900. 



1905.* 1900- 1905. 1907.* 1900- 1906 



$i53>59i>i59 $170,462,102 



68,266,912 
20,199,859 

19.167,229 
4,846,903 
8,415-523 
2,541,723 

1,792,991 

24,450 

111,770 

1,411,516 



76,721,789 
26,765,732 

22,754,973 
6,610,239 

11,746,672 
2,703.107 

1,890,053 

120,374 
3.670,287 



10.9 $173,836,290 
10.8 78,412,764 

28,078,906 



32.9 

157 
36.3 
39 
6.3 

5-4 
160 



22,472,421 
6,962,906 

12,413,901 
2,735.383 

1,909,465 

122,094 
4,122,041 



13- 1 

14.8 

39-0 

17.2 
43-6 
47-5 

7 

.6 
•9 




a le.xington county farm scene. 

Farm Life More Attractive.— The tendency has been for two decades for the 
farmer's son to leave the farm for the city, and for the farmer to turn li'^/^Vn 
over to negro renters, tenants or share-croppers. This has gone on until the 
agricultural industry, particularly during the period of the rapid dcvdopment ot 
cotton manufacturing, has been left almost entirely to the inferior race But 
with the increase of manufacturing population the opportunity for the ambitious 
young man to rise higher than an operative without a bitter struggle gradually 
decreased. The glamour of greater variety in social life m the city died in the 
full realization of what a clerkship in an office or a store meant at a salary 
insufficient almost for board and lodging. 

The people in the cities became so numerous and the people on the tarnis so 
few that there was created a great demand for vegetable, fruit, poultry, dairy 



•EBtl mated. 



AGRICULTURE. 239 

and other diversified agricultural products at excellent prices, and soon some 
were returning to the farms. The farmer's son is beginning to realize that the 
farm offers him a quick and a sure road to competency— even wealth, a life of 
independence and satisfaction, good health, steady nerves, and real happiness; 
that when he wants a taste of city life he can take a fast train, spend a short 
vacation among the steel and brick canyons, politely termed city streets, and 
come back to his happy, health-giving home glad to get there. Educational 
advantages are today being offered every farmer's boy, and he is beginning to 
take advantage of them to a greater extent than ever before. The agricultural 
colleges are no longer turning out the bulk of their young men loaded with a 
merely classical education and starting them off in various professional pursuits. 
These boys are getting a good, substantial education and are paying attention to 
practical subjects as applied to agriculture. In other words, there is a marked 
tendency on the part of the farmer's son of today to get a substantial, practical 
education that he can apply to his farm work. Throughout this State social 
conditions on the farm are steadily being made more attractive. The advent of 
the rural delivery mail service and the consequent access to that greatest of all 
educators, the daily newspaper, has placed the farmer and his family in touch 
with what is going on in the world as much so as if he were in his chief city. 
He knows what is going on around him, he learns of the demands for certain 
agricultural products, of what his neighbors in the adjoining counties are doing; 
he gets and reads the practical agricultural bulletins ; he is living a broader and 
more satisfying life. 

The rural service has perhaps done more to develop the tendency of the 
farmer's boy to remain on the farm and seek success than any other influence 
in a half century. His ideas are no longer confined to the narrow boundaries 
of his own farm; they have been broadened, and the farmer boy of today sees 
things with a very different pair of eyes than he did even a few years ago. 

Education. — In the last decade or more 
very much more attention has been paid 
in South Carolina to agricultural educa- 
tion than for many years preceding. The 
establishment of Clemson College, the 
splendid work of which in this regard is 
detailed fully elsewhere in this volume, 
has stimulated the young men in the 
State engaging in agriculture to the em- 
ployment of better methods looking to 
larger yields per acre. The State main- 
tains scholarships in this institution and 
at the institution the full experiment 
station of the Federal Government, in 
cooperation with the College, is main- 
tained and well managed. The College, 
in addition to the education of the young 
men in scientific agriculture, has been conducting State and county farmers' 
institutes, and an institute train has been sent on several occasions on a tour 
over the State, carrying the exhibit of agricultural products and a corps of 
scientists giving lectures to such farmers as come to the school on wheels. 
Herewith are shown pictures of this train and of the interior of the exhibit car. 
The trustees of Clemson College appropriate between $3,000 and $4,000 a year 
with which to pay the expenses of the farmers' institute work which the College 
conducts. A director of institutes, who is paid a salary by the College, and 
prominent scientific lecturers and practical growers are employed to give instruc- 
tion to farmers on subjects relating to their profession. The railways of the 
State have been assisting the institution in its work of education extension, 
furnishing coaches which the College equips with lecturers and material, the 
companies transporting them free of cost over their lines. The president 
reported, January 7, 1907, that two cars were then out on a tour of instruction 
through the southern half of the State, to be gone for about two months, and 
that in the summer the same process will be carried on in the upper portion of 
the State. They are side-tracked as long as the farmers in any particular locality 
desire information from the officials. It is a school on wheels, and during the 
year the College devotes from three to four months' steady work to giving this 
outside instruction. 

During the summer vacation from 1,000 to 1,500 farmers assemble annually 
at the College for the study of agricultural and industrial problems. It is the 
purpose of the College to enlarge the scope of the farmers' institutes so as to 



Farmers' Institutes for Season 


Ending June 30, i 


906. 


Number of meetings. . . 


54 


Number of sessions. . . . 


74 


Total attendance 


11,149 


Speakers 


15 


Amount appropriated 




for year ending June 




30, 1906 


$4,524.40 


Amount appropriated 




for year ending June 




30, 1907 


$5,000.00 



AGRICULTURE. 241 

reach the entire population of the State, including the mill people, the school 
children, and all who are interesetd in scientific industrial education. 

The State also maintains a State college for negroes, in which the negro youth 
are trained in practical agriculture, carpentering, and such callings. 

Demonstration Work. — Recently, after consultation with the Commissioner of 
Agriculture, Dr. S. A. Knapp, who is at the head of that branch of agricultural 
work under the Bureau of Plant Industry known as the Farmers' Cooperative 
Cotton Demonstration Work, has seen fit to put this work in full operation in 
South Carolina, and a full corps of special agents, who will conduct the opera- 
tions, all of which are conducted practically upon existing farms, has also been 
sent into the State. Nothing in regard to the present agricultural situation in 
South Carolina, along the line of making two blades of grass grow where one 
grew before and teaching the farmer farming as a business proposition, promises 
more excellent results. 

Summary of Conditions. — It is particularly noteworthy that the most conspicu- 
ous increase on agricultural lines have been in live stock, horses, mules, hogs, etc., 
while most material increases are shown in the matter of the growing of the cereal 
crops, the percentages of which may be seen in the condensed tables printed else- 
where. Very many branches of the agricultural industry which have tended to pile 
up wealth for States not growing the product as well as South Carolina have been 
sadlv neglected, but at this time in various portions of the State efforts upon these 
lines are beginning to make themselves felt. Some idea of the different lines 
upon which the chief farming operations are conducted in the State may be 
gathered from the brief summary showing the number of farms deriving their 
principal income from the products indicated, which table is found elsewhere. 

In this connection the following in regard to the progress in farm manage- 
ment in 1906, by Dr. W. J. Spillman, Agriculturist in charge of Farm Manage- 
ment Investigations of the Bureau of Plant Industry of the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, is particularly applicable to South Carolina: 

"Progress in the development and extension of agricultural industries and 
efforts looking toward the adoption of improved methods of farming have been 
hampered in all sections of the United States during the past year by a lack of 
farm labor. The amazing development of transportation and manufacturing 
industries has absorbed the available labor, and the farmer has been compelled 

to operate with an 
insufficient sup- 
ply. Especially in 
New England and 
in the Southern 
States the labor 
is dirfting toward 
the cities. The 
State of South 
Carolina has been 
making efforts to 
remedy this diffi- 
culty by securing 
immigration. The 

State of Maryland is taking steps in the same direction. Modification of our 
immigration laws has been suggested as a means of ameliorating this condition. 
It is believed that the present interest in agricultural education will lead to the 
development of schools of a type that will open the door of opportunity on the 
farm, and thus hold a larger proportion of the rural population, to some extent 
remedying the difficulty. 

"Because of insufficient labor, many farmers have been compelled to abandon 
types of farming which require much labor and to seed much of their land to 
grass, thus reducing the amount of labor needed, but at the same time reducing 
the income from the land. 

"One of the most notable movements in connection with progress in farm 
management during the past year has been the tendency toward diversified farm- 
ing in the cotton belt. The primary factor in this movement is the injury done 
to the cotton crop by the boll weevil. Diversified farming in that section is 
taking the direction of an increase in trucking and fruit-growing, dairying, hay 
production, the raising of hogs, and to some extent the production of beef. 
The development of trucking and fruit interests has been greatly hampered 
because of difficulties coiniected with the marketing of perisliable farm products. 
On account of the absence of statistics relating to acreages of such crop.s, the 
farmer has no idea of the acreage of any particular crop it is safe for him to 
plant. Because of lack of organization for marketing such products, he does 

Note. — See Appendix for data In regard to new work InniiKiirntpd In .Tiily, 1908, by 
the U. S. Department. 

*See page 585 for 1907 yields Jiml v.nliifs. 

16— H. B. 



*The Annual Cereal Harvest. 

Acreage. 1906. 

1906. 1907. Bus. Value. 

Corn 1,935-347 i,974.ooo 23,611,233 $17,236,200 

Wheat . . . . 318,284 314,347 2,960,041 3.256,045 

Oats 191,259 195,000 3,538,292 2,016,826 

Rye 4,015 4,226 34,128 42,660 

Barley . . . . 2,090 2,098 3,127 3,012 

Rice 19036 19,036 418,792 418,792 



AGRICULTURE. 243 

not know where to send his material when it is ready for market. The further 
fact that the producer has no adequate protection against unfair treatment from 
consignees has discouraged many farmers from engaging in trucking. In some 
sections icing charges and high freight rates leave no profit to the producer. If 
these difficulties could be remedied there would undoubtedly be an enormous 
increase in truck farming throughout the South. 

'"The present effort to eradicate the cattle tick in the South causes renewed 
interest in all types of cattle farming. If the effort is successful it will undoubt- 
edly result in a large extension of cattle raising just at a time when range cattle 
in the \Vest are decreasing rapidly, because of the occupation of range land by 
settlers on the one hand and the extension of sheep grazing on the other. The 
elimination of the cattle tick would also doubtless cause a large increase in the 
dair\' industry in the South. 

"The increased price of wool for the past few years has caused renewed interest 
in sheep raising in all sections of the country, and the number of sheep on 
American farms is increasing. 

"The recent demonstration of a cheap and effective method of eradicating 
Johnson grass will doubtless render it possible for that valuable hay grass to be 
utilized in crop rotations in the South, somewhat as timothy is now utilized^ in 
the North. Taken in connection with the eradication of the cattle tick, which 
is now in progress, this fact cannot fail to have an important influence on the 
development of live-stock farming in the cotton belt. 

"Alfalfa continues to occupy an important place among those crops which are 
increasing in area on farms in the eastern half of the United States. Its suc- 
cessful culture is having an important influence in modifying cropping systems 
and types of farming, and where it has become established it has considerably 
increased the income from the land." 

Sice of Farm Reduced. — In 1850 the average sized farm was 541 acres; in the 
succeeding decade this dropped to 488 ; in 1870 it had come down to 233. and in 
1880 to 143. It is now less than 90 acres, and the tendency is to still smaller and 
more diversified and better cultivated farms. The trend of agriculture in the 
State since 1850 can easily be seen from the accompanying comparative tables. 
Much clearing up of lands was accomplished in the period between 1845 and 
i860. The period covering the early portion of the nineteenth century is inter- 
estingly reviewed by Mills, whose work is available to those in search of the 
details of the agricultural development of the State. 

Relative lvalue of Crops. — In South Carolina cotton continues the ranking crop, 
both in acreage and value, the 1907 acreage being '2.463,000, which, if the average 
price of 10 cents is obtained, will bring the farmers in over $56,500,000. Corn 
comes second, with a value of product of about $18,000,000. Then wheat and 
hay in the order named. The accompanying condensed tables show the present 
status of the several crops, however, and at a glance the progress of the last 
five years may be seen. 

Striking Improvement. 
— The most noteworthy 
evidence of the general 
improvement made in the 
methods of agriculture is 
contained in the percent- 
ages of increase between 
1900 and 1906. Invari- 
ably the percentages of 
production and value of 



Percentage of Increase Between 1900 and 1906. 
Acreage. Production. Value. 

Cotton 5-9% 

Corn 9-3% 

Wheat 83 % 

Oats 14 %* 

Rye 5.9% 

Potatoes II % 



19% 


23% 


.35% 


88% 


91% 


234% 


32% 


64% 


70% 


131% 


14% 


132% 



♦Decrease in acreage. product have exceeded 

the percentage of increase of acreage. Note the figures. 

The percentage of increases in trucking has been by far the greatest in the 
agricultural industry. 

There was a decrease in all three regards in tobacco, but the year 1907 has 
brought the record acreage, crop and prices.* 

The lvalue of Farm Products in South Carolina, which was nearly $42,000,000 
in 1870, fell greatly during the period of Reconstruction. In 1890 the figures 
were $51,337,985, and in 1900, $68,266,912. In 1905 the value was $76,721,786, an 
increase of 10.8%, and in 1906 the value was about $83,000,000, according to 
figures available. 'Ihere has been since 1906 an increase of 5.9% in the acreage 
of cotton, and 9.3% in the acreage of corn, and a much larger percentage of 
increase in the production of corn is expected, owing to the general utilization 



•See page 585. 



244 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



of .the Williamson method of corn culture, and the stimulation of interest due 
to the winning of the world's contest, the result of which was announced early 

in the spring of 1907. 

The farmers of the State are spending 
approximately $5,000,000 a year for ferti- 
lizers, and considerably over $6,000,000 a 
year for labor. At last, also, as will appear 
from the chapter on the live stock industry, 
the people of the State are paying more 
attention to the raising of home supplies, 
and saving thousands upon thousands of 
dollars they have been since the war spend- 
ing for such products with Western pro- 
ducers, as well as the freight. 

In another chapter complete information 
is given as to South Carolina's chief ag- 
ricultural product, cotton, and the new 
and most important trucking industry is 
treated. 
History. — While this chapter is primarily intended to deal with the present 
condition of agriculture and to point out the rare opportunities the industry oflfers 
for development and the financial success of those who push its development, the 



Average Yield of Cotton per 
Acre, in 500-LB. Bales, on 
Farms of White and Negro 
Farmers and by Classes of 
Operators. 

White Farmers : Bale. 

Owner 0.462 

Cash Tenant 0.416 

Share Tenant 0.397 

Negro Farmers : 

Owner 0.377 

Cash Tenant 0.367 

Share Tenant 0.374 




A field of good corn. 



State's record as an agricultural State is too important to be passed over lightly. 

Governor Glenn, in 1749, according to McCrady's History, made a report in 
regard to the yield of agricultural products in South Carolina : "Indian corn 
delights," he says, "in high, loose land ; it does not agree with clay and is killed 
with much wet. It is generally planted in ridges made by a plough or hoe, and 
in holes about six or eight feet from each other. It requires to be kept from 
weeds, and will produce from fifteen to fifty bushels an acre. Some extraordi- 
narily rich land in good seasons will yield eighty bushels, but the common com- 
putation is that a negro will tend six acres, and that each acre will produce from 
ten to thirty-five bushels ; it sells generally for about los. currency a bushel." 

Governor Glenn's report on rice, made in 1748 and 1749, is interesting even to 
this day. McCrady says of this report: "Thirty slaves are reckoned a proper 
number for one plantation, tended by one overseer ; these, the Governor says, 
in favorable season and on good land, produce a surprising quantity of rice. 
Lest he should be blamed by any induced to come out upon such favorable 
accounts, and who might not reap so great a harvest, or lest he should mislead 
their Lordships of the Board of Trade, he chose rather to send the common 
computation throughout the province, communibtis annis, which is that each good 
working hand employed in rice makes four barrels and a half; each barrel weigh- 
ing five hundred weight net, besides a quantity of provisions of all kinds for all 
his slaves, horses, cattle, poultry, of the plantation, for the ensuing year. Rice, 
he reports, last year (1748), as being a medium, about 45s. currency per hun- 
dred; and all this year (1749) at 55s., or three pounds, though not many years 
ago it was sold at such low prices as los. and 12s. per hundred." 

"The first permanent settlers," says Hammond, "established themselves on the 
seacoast of South Carolina in 1670. Bringing with them the traditions of a 




HOW A FATKFIELD FARMER GOT HIS HAY IN I906 — FROM THE WEST 




HOW THE SAME MAN GETS IT IN I908 




CORN GROWN WITHOUT FERTILIZER 



AGRICULTURE. 245 

husbandry that must have been very rude at a period so long ante-dating the 
Tullian era of culture, and adapted solely' to the requirements of colder latitudes, 
they met with such poor success in the cultivation of European cereals that they 
soon found it would be more profitable to employ themselves in collecting and 
exporting the products of the great forests that surrounded them. In return for 
the necessaries of life, they exported to the mother country and her colonies 
oranges, tar, turpentine, rosin, masts, potashes, cedar, cypress and pine lumber, 
walnut timber, staves, shingles, canes, deer and beaver skins, etc. It is interesting 
to remark, in the accompanying diagram that after being more or less in abeyance 
during a period of two hundred years, amid the fluctuations of other great staple 
crops, these forest industries seemed, in 1870, about to assume their ancient 
supremacy once more. With the settlement of the up-country the culture of 
small grain became more successful, and when Joseph Kershaw established his 
large flouring mills near Camden, in 1760, flour of excellent quality was pro- 
duced in such abundance as to become an article of export of considerable con- 
sequence. In 1802 flouring mills had proven so profitable that quite a number 
were established in the counties of Laurens, Greenville and elsewhere. About 
that time, however, the attractions of the cotton crop became so great as to divert 
attention from every other, and the cereals lost ground, until the low prices of 
cotton prevailing between 1840 and 1850 prepared the way for a greater diversity 
of agricultural industries, and the small grain crop of 1850 exceeded four million 
bushels. Since then the cereal crops have declined, and seem likely to do so, 
unless the promise held out by the recent introduction of the red rust proof oat 
should be fulfilled and restore them to prominence. 

"In 1693, Landgrave Thomas Smith, of whose descendants more than five 
hundred were living in the State in 1808 (a number doubtless largely increased 
since), moved perchance by a prophetic sense of the fitness that the father of 
such a numerous progeny should provide for the support of an extensive popu- 
lation, introduced the culture of rice into South Carolina. The seed came from 
the Island of Madagascar in a vessel that put into Charleston harbor in distress. 
This proved a great success, and as early as 1754 the colony, besides supplying 
an abundance of rice for its own use, exported 104,682 barrels. Great improve- 
ments were made in the grain by a careful selection of the seed. Water culture 
was introduced in 1784 by Gideon Dupont and General Pinckney, rendering its 
production less dependent on the labor of man or beast than any cultivated crop. 
In 1778 Mr. Lucas established on the Santee River the first water power mill 
ever adapted to cleaning and preparing rice for market — the model to which all 
subsequent improvements were due — diminishing the cost of this process to a 
degree incalculable without some standard of reference as to the value of human 
labor, on which the drudgery of this toil had rested for ages. In 1828, 175,019 
tierces were exported, and the crop of 1850 exceeded 250,000 tierces, that of i860 
was somethmg less, and in 1870 the product tumbled headlong to 54,000 tierces." 

While the fertility of the soil was understood by DeSoto's party, when the 
expedition to the Savannah River was made in 1538, it was a century and a 
third longer that the territory virtually remained a wilderness. The hunter was 
the pioneer leading the way into the interior, driving the deer and other animals 
before him and gradually clearing the land, being followed by the Indian trader. 
As the wild animals were driven inward the domesticated stock brought from 
Europe by Columbus on his second voyage came up through Florida and began 
to spread over the country. It is asserted that the last elk was slain by Robert 
Newton, near Winn's Bridge in Fairfield County. Following the Indian trader 
soon came the cow driver, or "cracker," as he was termed because of the sound 
made by his long whip. All this led to the development of a live stock exporting 
industry from Charleston about 1748. Fine breeds of horses were encouraged 
and protected by law from the infusion of inferior blood. 

Following the cow driver naturally came the farmer, making permanent settle- 
ments, and he began with the getting of his seeds from European countries. The 
beginnings with rice, indigo, cotton, corn, peas and tobacco, as well as silk, are 
detailed elsewhere. The first notable shipment of cotton from Charleston was 
made in 1795, consisting of 1,109,653 pounds. During this period the forester 
began his active operations, and soon pitch and tar were being exported. 

Tracing the development of agriculture a few years ago, Maj. Hammond takes 
the subject here most entertainingly: "Early in the nineteenth century cotton 
became the leading crop in the Southern States. Starting in 1800 with a crop 
of 155,000 bales, selling at an average price of 28 cents per pound, the crop 
increased to 1,000,000 bales in 1826. Ilie price then declined to 9 cents, and for 
the ensuing six years there was a continuous reduction in the crops, and in the 
prices, until in 1832 the price fell to 7 cents. The price rose again in 1833 to 18 
cents, and by 1840 the crop had increased beyond the 2,000,000 bale mark, and 



AGRICULTURE. 



247 



the price fell again below 9 cents and continued below that figure, reaching its 
lowest point, 5.62 cents, in 1845. The succeeding short crop falling below 
2,000.000 bales, in 1847, was accompanied by a rise in price to 11.21 cents. With 
the increase in the crops of two succeeding years the price again went down to 
714 cents. Cotton growers became hopeless. They were ignorant of modern 
commercial methods bv which capital may gain considerable profits regardless of 
the losses by producers. They believed the days of growing cotton profitably 
had passed and that 8 cents cotton would never be seen again. ?Iowever, the 
momentum acquired in half of a century of strenuous effort carried the crop on, 
and in 1850 a crop of 2,500,000 bales was produced. Contrary to all expectations, 
this large crop brought an average price of 12.24 cents. Then ensued a period 
of unparalleled prosperity for agriculture in South Carolina. The price of cotton 
was maintained for eleven years, averaging during that period 11 1-3 cents. The 
crop meanwhile increasing until in i860 it had nearly readied 5,000,000 bales. 
But the farmers did not forget the severe lessons they liad learned during the 
fluctuations of the preceding decades. They continued to practice the_ all-round 
agriculture that had grown up under the stress of low cotton prices. The large 
corn crop of 1850 was maintained and increased. On the Cowden plantation. 




CORN AND COWPEAS. 



cleared in 1849-50, there was harvested in 1858, from 600 acres, 37>ooo bushels 
of corn. The yield of wheat was sustained. The hay crop was increased three- 
fold ; rice, 47 per cent. ; tobacco, 42 per cent. The number of cattle fell off 34 
per cent., but in i860 they numbered 48 per cent, more than in 1900. There was 
a reduction of 9 per cent, in hogs, but in i860 they were double the number 
counted in 1870. Imphee, or African sorghum, was brought to Carolina first, 
and spread thence throughout tlie country, displacing Chinese sorghum. Vine- 
yards were trenched and planted and wine in quantity was made, c(iuai to good 
Rhenish wine, without any addition whatever to the juice of the grape. Exten- 
sive peach orchards were set out and shipments of the fruit ni carload lots some- 
times realized as much as $500 to the acre. 

"Nowhere was improvement more marked than among tlie slaves; their pro- 
gress in the arts of civilization and the amelioration in their management was 
very great since the earlier decades of the century. The increasingly higher 
money valuation placed upon them gives evidence of this. In 1731 negroes sold 
one with another for $100 round. In 1847 all on a plantation would bring only 
$300 each. Ten years later they sold, big and little, old and young, at $700 to 
$1,000. These values are much higher than the generally accepted estimate of 
the average value of an agricultural laborer between the ages of 10 and 70 years, 



248 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



given by Dr. Farr as $695. With their increased market value (pardon the com- 
mercial brutality of the expression) came great improvements in their manage- 
ment and in their moral status (see Johnston Pettigrew's report to the South 
Carolina Legislature in 1858, against reopening the African slave trade). 

"Federal taxes were low. State and local taxation was $1.81 per capita and 
23 cents per $100. The taxes of Carolina especially favored land owners, and 
encouraged them to improve their property. The lands were classified and a 
specific valuation placed on each class ; taxes were collected simply on that valu- 
ation, without reference to any impr' "-ts placed upon them afterwards. 
Taking it all in all, it is not surprising >, iring this golden decade the value 
of property rose from $431 per capita to ^JjS; that is, the $288,257,694 true 
valuation of 1850 became $548,128,754 in i860. 

"Then came the overwhelming catastrophe of the war. In 1870 there remained 
of the property of i860 less than 25 per cent. State and local taxes were increased 
116 per cent.; on top of this was piled a Federal tax on raw cotton, higher tariflf 
and internal revenue taxes, with heavy and increasing exactions for Federal 
pensions collected here to be disbursed elsewhere. Seldom has heavier indem- 
nity been required of any people. 

"During the widespread devastation of the decade, 1860-70, the production of 
rice fell from 7,500,000 to 2,000,000 pounds, tobacco was one-third of what it was 




COTTON AND COWPEAS. 



before, corn one-half, swine one-third, cattle three-fifths, sheep one-half. The 
cotton crop was reduced one-third, but prices had been high. On the 24th of 
August, 1864, it sold in New York for $1.89 per pound. In 1866, the year after 
the war, prices averaged 43 cents. On the 30th of August, 1867, the average 
price for the season just closed was 31 J/^ cents; by the 27th December of the 
same year it had fallen to 15^ cents. In some of the interior towns farmers 
sold their crop at 9 cents to pay advances and interest. The ensuing spring it 
had again risen to 33 cents on the 28th of April. On that day it happened by 
accident that the writer spent twenty minutes in a cotton factor's office and 
during that time heard the announcement of the sales of three several shipments 
of cotton to England which netted the factor $80,000 — a striking contrast with a 
loss of $30,000 made that season by the best planter in our section on his cotton 
crop. What a cotton speculator loses some other speculator gains ; there is only 
a change of title and no reduction of the public wealth, but when a farmer loses 
on his year of hard work there is so much forever subtracted from the world's 
values. 

"South Carolina had furnished largely of her population to the Western States 
from Georgia to Texas. She had sustained the credit of her sons to the waters 



AGRICULTURE. 249 

of the Mississippi River and beyond with loans from her banks at a time when 
the notes of the South Carohna State banks were the only notes that passed 
generally current in the Union and even in the seaports of Europe. Now she 
was bankrupt. Her heavy battalions of organized labor had been mustered out 
and disbanded. Her capital was sunk. The land was there, but even the seed 
for planting was often wanting. The world was starved for cotton. Every acre 
in cotton could command a loan, and nothing else could. The people borrowed 
on the cotton acreage, borrowed on the crop before it was planted, for the most, 
at ruinous rates of usury. Foreign capitalists gathered in this profit and the 
world profited by the material the crop furnished for manufacture and commerce. 
Nature has not refused her bounties to Carolina. Without immigration or any 
outside aid her agriculture has worked its way forward. The crop of 224,000 
bales of cotton grown in 1870 has increased to 837,000 in 1900. The corn crop 
has more than doubled; the wheat crop is larger; the oat crop is more than 
four- fold what it was; the rice crop has increased 47 per cent.; the hay crop is 
twenty times as large ; 570 pounds of tobacco is made where one was made 
in 1870. 

"From the earliest times it has been seriously questioned by many Carohna 
farmers whether it was wise to depend in so great a degree upon the cotton 
crop. It is called 'the money crop,' but communities do not make solid progress 
and prosperitv on money crops." 

Gradually Carolina farmers have learned this and are looking more and more 
to diversity, notwithstanding the invention of the cotton gin. the feeder and 
co'-'denser. and dozens of other labor-saving farm implements have reduced the 



r ■ ■■'. .. 


.,.. -T'-'fy .T ■■ ■'■'C't^. 




w ^KJm ^ 



HANDSOME YOUNG COTTON. 

cost of production of cotton. Cultivators, harrows, mowers, binders and such 
machines have immensely aided in the cause of diversification and larger yields 
per acre, and the progress in this regard would not have been so much retarded 
had the bulk of the white young men stood by the farms rather tlian leave them 
to the inferior race. The manufacture and use of commercial fertilizers have 
also had a marked influence, particularly since the Civil War, upon agriculture 
as a whole, leading to a lack of effort to make the land itself produce its maxi- 
mum as a result of proper, systematic and intelligent handling. 

Referring to this period — prior to 1900 — Maj. Hammond recently wrote: "Some 
years after the war it was discovered that extensive deposits on the Carolina 
coast were rich in phosphate rock, and in 1874 operations were undertaken to 
mine these deposits and prepare the rock for market to be sold as a fertilizer. 
Before the war Carolina made little or no use of these commercial fertilizers, 
they depended entirely on home-made manures, stable manures and cotton seed, 
either alone or in compost with woods mould and litter. Great attention was 
paid to their preparation and large manure piles marked all well-managed plan- 
tations. The great reduction in the number of cattle during the war, and their 
still greater reduction after the passage of the fence law in 1877, requiring the 
enclosure of stock, together with the increasing number of small farmers, with 
no live stock, led to the substitution of artificial for home-made manures. In 
this change Carolina has gone beyond any other State, while the farmers of the 
country at large pay only one dollar out of every eighty-six of the gross value 
of the products of the farm, those in South Carolina pay one dollar out of every 
fifteen of gross products." And again he writes: "The lien law, an invention 
of the Reconstruction oirpetbaggers, securing the collection of advances made 



250 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



on growing crops, often even before they were planted, and the fence law requir- 
ing the enclosure of all live stock, leaving land under crops unenclosed, promoted 
existing tendencies in agriculture. Removing the cost of fencing on land under 
crops led to a wide deforestation and careless cultivation." 

The Negro in Agriculture. — The negro before the war as a slave was of course 
the sole agricultural field laborer, and even today he is practically the only 
laborer available. As indicated by the conditions referred to elsewhere, he is 
becoming daily less of a day-laborer and more of a tenant and share-cropper. 
In 28 out of the 41 counties in 1900 there were more negro than white farmers, 
the negroes forming a majority of the farmers in two-thirds of the counties. 
The actual negro owners of small farms in South Carolina numbered 18.970. 
Nearly all of the negro-owned farms, however, are along the coast, where many 
negroes secured farms as a result of the Civil War and subsequent conditions. 
In the above classification, however, it is important to note that many negroes 
who are scarcely more than laborers, under the system of tenant farming pre- 
vailing, must be classed as "farmers." 

The negro population in the decade from 1890 to 1900 increased 93,3^7' while 
the white population increased 95,799. The State's population was 58.4% negro 
and 41.6% white. The bulk of this black population was under 20 years of age, 
and the majority illiterate. Engaged in agricultural pursuits there were, in 1900, 
173,278 negroes, male, 95,352 being field laborers, and 94,048 female, 85,002 being 




IN THE CORN FIELD. 



laborers. More than 9,000 of the latter were classed as "farmers, planters and 
overseers," against 75,752 of the same class for negro males. The tendency that 
has prevailed to turn the farms over to negro tenants is thus seen at a glance. 
Charleston, Orangeburg, Sumter, Beaufort. Georgetown, Richland, Clarendon, 
Colleton and Barnwell are the counties most thickly populated with negroes, 
though the percentage in several of these is no larger than in some others. 
South Carolina's total rural population is 1,169,060 (1900), and of this, 697,963 
persons are negroes — a percentage of 59.7. The percentage of the negro popu- 
lation living in the country districts is 89.2 (1900). It is much less in 1907, 
causing a constant demand for farm labor. Negroes were "operating" — that is, 
as owners, tenants, renters or croppers — in 1900, 85,361 farms in the State, 
representing an acreage of 3,791,510, with 60% of it improved, the value of the 
property being $43,992,879, yielding a total of $26,586,962 in agricultural products. 
Of this number of farms, 15,503 were operated by their owners and 66,231 by 
tenants, of which 23,806 were share-croppers, the others being cash tenants. _ The 
vast majority of these farms were between 10 and 50 acres. The vast majority 
also showed value of product between $50 and $500 per annum. Nearly 70,000 
of these farms were devoted almost exclusively to cotton. The domestic animals 
of all descriptions on these farms, including $1,555,386 worth furnished to share- 
croppers, were only valued at $6,135,820. 



AGRICULTURE. 



251 



The above figures show that under the system that has grown up between the 
Civil War and 1900, 55% of the farms are being operated by negroes ; that they 
operate 27.1% of the total farm acreage and 39.4% 6i the improved farm acreage, 
and their operations cover 28.6% of the value of all the farm property in the 
State; that they raise sS.g'/c of the farm products, and represent 33.5% of the 
expenditure for fertilizers. 

In this connection the general state- 
ment of farms by specified tenure in 1990 
is of interest. Of all the farms in the 
State. 72.6% derived their principal 
source of income in 1900 from cotton; 
6.1% from hay and grain, and only 2.2% 
from live stock, these being the largest 
percentages. South Carolina farmers ex- 
pend $29 per acre for feriilizers, the 
average for the whole United States be- 
ing $9, this bill in a numl^er of the States 
with soil not so fertile naturally ranging 

from only $1 to $4 per acre. South Carolina's acreage in all crops in 1900 was 

4,751,385. 

The conditions indicated by the above statistical information are already being 

ameliorated by the enlightened work referred to earlier in this chapter. 



F.'\RMs IN South Carolina 
Operated by — 

Number. 

Owners 60.471 

Cash tenants 57.046 

Share tenants 37,838 

Total farms 155.355 




a coast country farmer s home. 



AGRICULTURAL SECTIONS. 

No better division of the State into physical and agricultural regions could be 
prepared than that made by Hammond in the early 8o's. In addition to the two 
grand divisions of South Carolina into the "up-country" and "low-country,"' it 
facilitates the consideration of the agricultural characteristics of the State to 
treat of them under certain minor natural and parallel subdivisions, which are 
quite well marked. These are as follows : 

I. The Coast Region. — It coincides very nearly with the post-pliocene formation, 
rarely extending inland more than ten miles from the shore line. It consists — 

1st. Of the sea islands lying south of Santce River, and containing about eight 
hundred square miles, where sea island cotton and tropical fruits tlourish. 

2d. The salt marshes, uncovered at low tide, bordering and intercalating with 
the sea islands, capable of being reclaimed, and embracing six hundred square 
miles. 

3d. The continuous shore line north of Santce River and Georgetown entrance, 
three hundred square miles in extent. 

II. The Lower Pine Belt, or Savannah Region, lying inland and parallel with 
the Coast Region. It has a width of about fifty miles, attains a maximum ele- 
vation above the sea of one hundred and thirty feet. It may be divided— 

1st. Into the region below the influence of the tides, the rice fields of South 
Carolina. 

2d. The region above tide water, notable for its turijcntinc farms and its cattle 
ranges. Fruits of all kind thrive. 

III. The Upper Pine Bell, or the Central Cotton Belt, having a width of 
twenty to forty miles. It is covered with a growth of long leaf j)inc. mixed 
with oak and hickory. The soil consists of a light sandy loam uiukrlaid liy red 
and yellow clays. It has an elevation above the sea from one hundred and thirty 



252 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



to two hundred and fifty feet. Lar^e inland swamps, bays and river bottoms of 
unsurpassed fertility, covering five thousand five hundred square miles, are inter- 
spersed among the two regions last named. All crops grown successfully. 

IV. The Red Hills are immediately north of the last region. They have an 
elevation of three hundred to six hundred feet above the sea. The soil is red 
clay and sand, and there is a heavy growth of oak and hickory. They embrace 
the range of hills extending from Aiken County through Orangeburg to Sumter, 
where they are known as the High Hills of Santee, and also the ridge lands of 
Edgefield and Saluda, famous for their fertility. Cotton, corn, oats, wheat and 
legumes flourish, as do fruits. 

V. The Satid Hill Region. — A remarkable chain of sand hills, attaining an 
elevation above the sea of six hundred to seven hundred feet, and extending 
across the State from Aiken to Chesterfield Counties. Exceptionally good for 
fruits. 




AN EXHIBIT OF GRAINS. 



VI. The Piedmont Region includes that portion of the State known as the 
upper country. It has a mean elevation above the sea level of four hundred to 
eight hundred feet. Exceptionally well suited to every kind of agriculture and 
horticulture. Its soils are — 

ist. The cold gray lands overlying for the most part the clay slates. 
2d. The gray sandy soils from the decomposition of granite and gneiss. 
3d. The red hornblende lands. 

4th. The trappean soils, known as flat woods meadow or black-jack lands in 
various sections. 

VII. The Alpine Region is the extreme northwestern extension of the rocks 
and soils of the region just mentioned, differing from the former by its more 
broken and mountainous character, and by its greater elevation, ranging from 
nine hundred feet to three thousand four hundred and thirty feet at Mount 
Pinnacle, near Pickens Court House, the highest point in the State — 3,4.30 feet. 



AGRICULTURE. 



253 



Chief Characteristics. 

In the Coast Region the length of the coast line is 190 miles, S. W. to N. E. 
There are numerous islands and inlets south of Winyah Bay. There is a 
smooth, hard beach on the north. Strata of sand, clay and mud 60 feet. Growth 
of palmetto and live oak. The soil is a tine sandy loam, with a subsoil of fine 
textured yellow sand or clay ; at places it has a red color. A few salt marshes 
have been reclaimed, and are of great fertility. .Agricultural products : truck 
and sea island cotton, marsh and otiier hay. oats and corn, olives, oranges, figs, 
grapes, indigo, rice and hemp. 

In the Lower Pine Belt, next to the Coast Region, there are eight rivers navi- 
gable for short distances, aggregating about i,cco miles. The country is generally 
flat, but there are numerous elevations amounting to hills of from 100 to 250 feet 
in elevation. The average slope is 21-2 feet to the mile, hence numerous swamps 
and marshes. Drainage is difficult except by skillful engineering and under an 
extensive and comprehensive system. Individual effort is hardly adequate for 
the magnitude of the undertaking. In a general system large and exceedingly 
fertile lands could be brought under cultivation. The low-lying land is very 
well suited for irrigation, as the water supply is abundant, but pumping plants 
would be necessary rather than irrigating dams. The region has underlying it 
mostly cretaceous rocks of secondary formation. The area is 10,226 square miles. 
There are also phosphate rocks. Four leading varieties of soil are noted: ist. 
A sandy loam w-ith white sandy subsoil ; 2. Sandy loam with yellow subsoil ; 
3. Sandy loam wnth yellow or red clay subsoil ; 4th. Clay lands with clay sub- 
soil. Forest growth : long leaf pine, scrub oak and new Coast Region live oak, 
tulip, sweet and black gum, cypress in low lands, on higher lands white oak, 
black walnut, hickory and elm. Agricultural products: Rice, confined largely to 




W.\lE;,.MLiA .\. 



portion adjoining Coast Region, although capable of being extended to cover a 
much larger portion of the region, especially the central and southern parts. 
A large portion of the soutlicrn part is not under cultivation, owing to the 
difficulty of draining the lands. The western and northern parts are mostly 
under cultivation. 

The Upper Pine Belt. — Between the Lower Pine Belt and the Sand Hills, from 
Savannah River to the North Carolina border, with an elevation of from 130 
to 250 feet, are the counties of Barnwell. Bamberg, Orangeburg, Clarendon, 
Sumter, Darlington, Florence, Marion and Marlboro, and parts of Colleton, 
Hampton. .Aiken. Richland, Kershaw and Lee. The surface is level, but rolling, 
with good drainage, i'he average slope is about five feet to the mile, licing 
greater along the western and northwestern border. The area is 61,000 square 
miles, one-sixth of which is swamp. The soil is generally fine, light gray, sandy 
loam, with red or yellow clay subsoil, and fertile. The swamps have heavy 
alluvial loam. 

The black soil is largely composed of decomposed vegetable matter. The 
woods are yellow pine, oak, liickory, the gums and cypress, ash, beech, elm, black 
walnut, dogwood, hickory, black-jack oak, with many other varieties. Agricul- 
tural products: Yield best in the State. .Actually raised in 1899: Wheat, 7 to 
43 bushels per square mile; oats, 86 to 250 bushels per square mile; corn, 648 
to 1,055 bushels per square mile (greatest in State in Bamberg County) ; cotton. 
41 to 75 bales per square mile. Minor crops: Sugar cane, peanuts, melons (com- 
mercial), legumes. Fruits: Peaches, phuns, cherries, .-ipricots, pears, few apples, 
and cherries. Gardens flourish. The average i)0]))i!;ition is about 60 per square 
mile. 

The Red Hill Region is irregular in outline, not continuous, and has high 
hills. It is between the Upper Pine Belt and Sand Hil! Region. It begins at 



254 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



the Savannah River near Augusta, includes the parts of the "Ridge Section," 
attains its greatest width near Fort Motte, and has its northern terminus in the 
"High Hills of Santee" in the western part of Sumter County. The soil is 
reddish loam, and, because hard in dry weather, it is of easy tillage under certain 
conditions, but when not in condition is difficult of tillage ; responds quickly and 
favorably to vegetable manures, but is of low fertility naturally. The forest 
growth consists of short leaf pine, hickory, red oak of enormous size, chestnut 
and pecan nut. Agricultural : Marked shading in production ; grain in the 
Upper Pine Belt, but nearly all the crops are cultivated. Owing to lack of 
natural fertility and need of scientific tillage, these lands are of low productive 
capacity under present occupancy, but are capable of great improvement. The 
area is 1,620 square miles. 

The Sand Hill Region stretches across the State from the Savannah River, 
opposite Augusta, to the North Carolina line, where it intersects the Great Pee 
Dee River; it includes the parts or the whole of Aiken, Edgefield, Lexington, 
Richland, Kershaw, Lancaster and Chesterfield Counties. Its greatest width is 
about 30 miles in Lexington County. It is cut into by the Upper Pine Belt, 
touching the Piedmont rocks in Richland County. These hills .reach an eleva- 
tion of about 600 feet in Aiken County and a maximum elevation of between 
700 and 800 feet in Lexington County. In Chesterfield County there are conical 




A I-.\kM L.AKE. 



hills that bear evidence of the surrounding lands having suffered denudation of 
from ICO to 150 feet. The long slopes of the Sand Hills face west and south, 
the short slopes north and east. The streams that originate in the "up-country" 
here have abrupt descents into the "low-country," and in many instances furnish 
considerable water power. Soil : Loose, rounded sands, very unproductive, but 
river bottoms are as a rule fertile, and elevated flats can be brought to a high 
state of fertility by proper methods of farming. There are large areas that have 
clay subsoils. The area is about 2,000 square miles. Forest growth : Long leaf 
pine, some varieties of black-jack. This is the healthiest portion of the State. 
Agricultural products : Superior for peanuts, sweet potatoes, sorghum, water- 
melons and the staples, oats, cotton, corn and some wheat. Distinctly less fertile 
than the Upper Pine Belt on the south and east and the Piedmont Region on 
the north and west. Fruits : Peaches, apricots and plums ; grapes, especially 
scuppernong. 

The Piedmont Region includes the whole of the counties of Abbeville, Ander- 
son, Newberry, Laurens, Union, Fairfield, Chester and Lancaster, York, Saluda, 
and the northern parts of Aiken, Edgefield and Richland, as well as the southern 
parts of Oconee, Pickens, Greenville, Spartanburg and Cherokee Counties. The 
elevation varies from 119 at Columbia to about i.oco feet, from which elevation 
the Alpine Region begins. The face of the country is undulating, with a rapid 
upward slope northwestward. The streams have worn deep beds by erosion, 
and are bordered by narrow, very fertile valleys, subject to inundation at times 
of freshets. There are numerous rapids that can be, and many have been, utilized 
for furnishing cheap water powers. Soils: Granitic, clay slates, trappean. This 



AGRICULTURE. 



255 



region is very healthy. Forest trees: Oak. hickory, chestnut, short leaf pine; 
on streams, willow, beech, birch, black walnut, ash, poplar, gum. sycamore; 
raises sugar maple and sugar trees, a distinct variety of the maple, very rare. 
Agricultural: 1899 — wheat. 24 to 156 bushels per square mile; oats, 39 to 374 
bushels per square mil» (heaviest in State in Saluda) ; corn. 411 to 898 bushels 
per square mile ; cotton. 30 to 55 bales per square mile. The second best cotton 
lands are found in Anderson and Laurens Counties. Legumes : Cotton does 
well; apples, cherries, pears and peaches all minor crop; grapes and berries. 

The Alpiue Region occupies the extreme northwestern border of the State. 
It is a rolling, hilly, broken table-land, but, with the exception of small scat- 
tered areas, capable of tillage. Elevation, 1,000 to over 3,000 feet, reaching a 
maximum elevation of 3,436 at summit of Mt. Pinnacle in Pickens County. 
Beautiful scenery; healthy. Soil: Generally decomposed gneiss and some sand 
and clay. Forest growth : Oak, chestnut, short leaf pine, hardwoods. Agricul- 
tural productions similar to Piedmont and only slightly less productive. Grasses 
predominate. Fruits same as Piedmont. 



-^ 




f^ 


^^^H^^^l 


B^S^f^^^^ 




^^^^1 


Vat,^^ 




HHI 








|^j» ^MF-^gjCMH 





In any of these regions, save in the portions of the Coast Region, where drain- 
age is needed so badly, and which, when reclaimed, will indeed be the garden 
country of all America, the possibilities for agricullural development are good. 
Some of the coast sections are today, without drainage, not only perfectly healthy 
for people of all climes — notably the sea islands and the Beaufort and Horry 
trucking districts. It is a just claim when the assertion is made that South 
Carolina affords opportunity for every variety of agriculture. 



COTTON. 

It is almost needless to refer to this crop again after what has been said, and 
in view of the complete information and details given in a separate section of 
this chapter. This brief reference is made merely to call attention to the fact 
that there is no county in the Stale in which cotton is not most successfully 
grown. 

CORN. 

The second ranking crop in the State, which is now ulili/ing 1,974,000 acres, 
is worthy of consideration. The wonderful records that have been made in 
South Carolina with corn, capturing world's prizes on yields, are treated sepa- 
rately. The marked headway made in the last few years marks this as a crop 



256 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

soon to rival cotton, and perhaps South Carolina is destined to take a prominent 
position among the corn-producing States of the Union for export purposes. 
The statistics of corn in this State since 1880 are given herewith, and the steady 
and substantial increase in the average value per acre of the product speak well 
for the future development of the industry. 



CORN. 

Year. Acreage. 

1907 1,974.000 

1906 l,935>347 

1905 1,878,978 

1904 1,789.503 

1903 1,807,579 

1902 1,825,837 

1900 1,772,057 

1880 



Production, 




Av. Val. 


bushels. 


Value. 


per acre 


29,807,000 


$23,249,000 


$11.70 


23,611,233 


17,236,200 


8.91 


20,480,860 


15,155,836 


8.07 


22,189,837 


15,532,886 


8.68 


18,618,064 


12,846,464 


7. II 


18,988.705 


13,102,206 


7.18 


17,429,610 


9,149,808 


4.48 


11,767,099 




5.80 



WHEAT. 

Production, Av. Val. 

Year. Acreage. bushels. Value. per acre 

1907 314,347 2,669,000 $3,203,000 $10.18 

1906 318,284 2,960,041 3,256,045 10.23 

1905 318,419 1,942.355 2,156,015 6.77 

1904 279,926 2,267,401 2,856,925 10.21 

1903 • 270,261 1,756,696 1,774,263 6.56 

1902 267,673 1,498,969 1,528,948 5.71 

IQOO 174,245 1,017,319 958,158 9-09 

1880 962,358 8.62 



Wheat growing has been gradually increasing in South Carolina until now 
about three million bushels are being produced. The story of the development 
of the industry is told in the accompanying table, and in what is said in this 
volume of the flouring mills of the State. At one time the average value per 
acre fell so low that there was necessarily an abandonment of wheat growing, 
but prices are now better, and there is a noteworthy supply of wheat being raised 
in the State. 



OATS. 

Acreage. 

1907 195,000 

1906 191,259 

1905 187,509 

1904 191,336 

1903 203,549 

1902 . . . 216,541 

1900 222,544 

1880 



Production, 




Av. Val. 


bushels. 


Value. 


per acre 


3,900,000 


$2,808,000 


$14.40 


3,538,292 


2,016,826 


10.54 


3,056,397 


1,681,018 


8.96 


3,271,846 


1.963,108 


10.26 


2,849,686 


1,681,315 


8.26 


2,836,687 


1,673,645 


7-7Z 


2,661,670 


1,226,575 


7-44 


2,715,505 




9.80 



The fourth largest crop in the State is oats, and the growing of this crop is 
general through South Carolina. The condition and development of this crop, 
as shovvn by the figures, is most substantial, from the standpoint of value and 
production, regardless of acreage. The story of the crop is told in the accom- 
panying figures. 



AGRICULTURE. 



257 



RYE. 

Year. Acreage. 

1907 4,226 

1906 4.015 

1905 4.226 

1904 4.226 

1905 • 4,269 

1902 4,227 

1900 4,256 

1880 



oduction, 




Av. Val. 


bushels. 


Value. 


per acre 


38,000 


$48,000 


$11-35 


34,128 


42,660 


10.63 


34.231 


40,735 


9.64 


31,695 


39.936 


9-45 


32,444 


34.715 


8.13 


32.125 


30.301 


8.59 


19,372 


18,405 


7.87 


27.040 




8.55 



This is not yet a well developed crop in South Carolina, it being principally 
sown for winter pasturage. For this reason the figures herewith scarcely show 
the real acreage planted in this cereal. The figures, however, show a steady 
growth in value. 




A MODEL B.ARN. 



HAY. 

Year. Acreage. 

1907 60,682 

1906 60,682 

1905 59,492 

1904 60,706 

1903 61.319 

1902 61,938 

1900 145.798 

1880 



roduction. 




Av. Val. 


tons. 


Value. 


per acre 


92,000 


$1,518,000 


$25.01 


88,596 


1,351,089 


22.27 


84.479 


1,128.639 


18.97 


92,880 


1,131,278 


18.64 


89,526 


1.049.245 


17. II 


75.564 


850,095 


13-72 


192.453 


2,213,210 


15-18 
16.03 



South Carolina produces as good a quality of hay as is to be found in this 
country, as is shown by the figures as to value, and the development of the 
industry is creditable. The chief hay-producing sections are the river bottoms 
and the lands of the Piedmont and Alpine Regions. There is a manifest dispo- 
sition to go more extensively into hay raising, and another year is certain to 
witness a material increase. 



17— H. B. 



258 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



Year. 
1907 .. 
1906 . . 

1905 •• 
1904 .. 

1903 •• 

1902 . . 

1900 . . 

1880 .. 



IRISH POTATOES. 

Production, 
Acreage. bushels. 
9,065 630,000 


Value. 

$693,000 
780,496 
790,782 

775.567 
720,673 
561,053 
335.946 


Av. Val. 

per acre 

$76.40 

86.10 

85-49 

88.88 

84.24 

66.24 

78. 

77- 


9,065 743.330 


9.250 767,750 


8,726 767.888 


8.555 692,955 


8,470 584,430 


8,068 651,916 


144,942 





Showing a marked increase in value is the Irish potato crop. The acreage 
is not as yet very large, but the increases in production and value are indicative 
of a rapid and substantial development of the growing of Irish potatoes for the 
market. 




SOME HIGH CORN. 



COWPEAS. 



The cowpea is grown generally throughout the State of South Carolina and 
is used for hay and for the renovation of soils. It is somewhat difficult to 
attempt to give the statistics, for practically all of the crop is consumed upon 
the farm. The cowpea is unquestionably the best summer legume for the South. 
It is perfectly adapted to South Carolina soils and climate. The cultivation of 
the cowpea in America dates back to the early part of the eighteenth century. 
According to certain authorities, a South Carolina planter received a small quan- 
tity of seed from a captain of a trading vessel from India. From this small and 
obscure beginning the cowpea has spread throughout the South. The most 
important of the varieties is the "Iron," and there are ninety-one so-called 
varieties growing in this State. Almost any kind of land will grow cowpeas. 
When the crop is grown for hay, the usual rule is the richer the land the larger 
the crop. The chief use for the cowpea in this State is for the purpose of soil 
improvement and for hay. The yield of hay varies from one-half to three tons 
of cured hay per acre. 

The other forage crops are referred to in the chapter on live stock. 



AGRICULTURE. 
YIELD PER ACRE. 



^59 



The following table, showing average yield per acre of the various crops other 
than cotton, will prove interesting and valuable to the home-seeking farmer ; 
they should be taken, however, as average yields, including the productions of 
careless negro tenant farmers : 



AVERAGE YIELD PER ACRE. 



Corn. Oats, 

bu. bu. 

1897 9- I. 

1898 10. 17, 

1899 9- 12, 

1900 7- 15 

1901 6.9 15, 

1902 10.4 13. 

1903 10-3 14. 

1904 '. . . 12.4 17, 

1905 ro.9 16. 

1906 12.2 i< 

1907 15 -I 20. 



Wheat, 
bu. 

8.7 
10.6 

6.5 
9- 
8.8 
5.6 

6.5 
8.1 
6.1 

9-3 

S.; 



Rve. 
bu. 
6.6 



Po- 
tatoes, 
bu. 

65 
65 
56 
78 
70 

69 
81 
88 

83 
82 

70 



Hay. 
tons. 
10.00 

1.60 

1.22 

1.32 

I 

I 

I 

I 

I 

I, 



,46 
,22 

,46 

53 
.42 
46 



io- 

bacco. 

lbs. 



873 
768 
734 
610 
703 
736 
670 
9C0 



Rice, 
bu. 



25 
26 
22 




A GERMAN SETTLER S FARM HOME. 



AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS. 

The following statistics are of interest : 



VALUE OF FARM PROPERTY. 



Farm land with 
improvements, 
Year Census. including buildings. 

iSHo $68,679,482 

1890 99,104,600 

1900 126,761,530 

1906 



Value of- 

Implements 

and 

machinery. 

$3,202,710 

4,172,262 

6,629,770 



Live 

stock. 

$12,199,510 

16,572,410 

20,199,859 

26,765,732 



All farm 

property. 

$84,079,702 

1 19,849,272 

1 53.59 1. 1 59 
170,462,102 



Year 


No. of 


Census. 


Farms. 


1880 . . . 


. 93-864 


1890 .. . 


. 115,008 


1900 . . . 


■ 155.355 



NUMBER AND ACREAGE OF FARMS IN SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Avg. No. Per ct. of 

I No. of Acres in Farms. \ of acres- farm land 

Improved. Unimproved. Total, to a farm. inii)rovcd 

4,132,050 9,325.563 13.457.613 143-4 30.7 

5.255.237 7.929.415 13-184.652 1 14-6 39.9 

5.775.741 8,209.273 13.985.014 90.0 41.3 



"he figures for later years are not available. 



26o 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



Average Value per Acre Crops. 
1904. 
, U. S. S. C. 

Wheat $12.40 $10.21 

Corn 11-79 8.68 

Oats 10.50 10.26 

Rye 10.46 9-45 

Potatoes 49-96 88.88 

Hay 13-23 18-64 

Tobacco 66.20 57.65 



Soil Survey. 
1907. (insq. mi.) 

Abbeville Area 1.006 

Campobello Area 515 

Charleston Area 352 

Cherokee County 361 

Darlington Area 599 

Lancaster County 486 

Orangeburg Area 709 

York County 669 

Total 4,697 



Other agricultural statistics are given on separate pages and in other places, 

and the particular attention of the student of agricultural development is directed 

to them. . , , . , . „ , „ ,. 

Soil Survey.— Oi very great value to the agricultural industry of South Carolina 

IS been the work of the United States Soil Survey. In the State's agricultural 



has 




INTERIOR FARMERS INSTITUTE TRAIN. 



development, accurate and detailed knowledge of the soil, its characteristics, vari- 
eties, capabilities and adaptations, is of supreme importance-. The soil survey has 
done excellent work in South Carolina, and this work will be prosecuted until the 
entire State has been surveyed. At present no such intensity of cultivation is 
demanded as in Germany, where the average farm comprises 19 acres, or in 
France, where it is 34 acres, but the time may come, and no doubt will, when the 
population of South Carolina may be five times what it is today and the farm 
land must be handled more intensively and more effectively. From the view- 
point of the increase of population, the value of such survey as the Federal 
Government is now making cannot be overestimated. 

Agricultural Education and Good Roads. — A strong contributor to the general 
agricultural development of the past decade in South Carolina has been the intro- 
duction of good roads, coupled with the establishment of the rural mail delivery 
system. These two things have been a strong factor in the agricultural growth 
of the State, and as the building of good roads is now an established function 
of the Government, still greater good will be credited to them in the next 
few years. 

Agricultural Societies and Clubs. — Throughout the agricultural history of the 
State agricultural societies and associations have wrought a marked influence 
upon the course of the development of the industry. One of the very oldest — 



AGRICULTURE. 261 

as far as the records go, the oldest — of these societies is the Winyah Indigo 
Society, in Georgetown, founded in 1757, charitable education being its chief 
feature. This society grew from a social club formed about the year 1740 by 
the planters of the Georgetown District. This organization exists today. 

The first purely agricultural society, perhaps, was the South Carolina Agri- 
cultural Society, composed of planters in and around Charleston, which has had 
a continuous existence since August 5, 1785. This organization is believed to be 
the first agricultural society organized in America. 

On June 16, 1818, there was organized at Columbia, the capital, a State society 
called "The South Carolina Agricultural Society"— W. R. Davie, president; 
Francis K. Huger, John Taylor, John J. Chappell and Wade Hampton, vice- 
presidents : Edward Fisher and D. J. McCord, secretaries. This society was 
short-lived, but published some valuable agricultural papers during its existence. 

In 1826 another effort was made to organize a State society. It was called 
"The United Agricultural Society of South Carolina," and was constituted of 
delegates from the several agricultural societies of the State, many of which 
are now in active operation. In 1828. W. B. Seabrook was president; he was 
succeeded by Thos. Pinckney, and the last meeting was held in 1831, after which 
it ceased to exist. 

In November. 1839, there was again organized another State Agricultural So- 
cietv at Columbia. Patrick Noble was president; W. B. Seabrook, Whitfield 
Brooks, W. K. Clawney, James Gregg and B. F. Dunkin, vice-presidents, and 
George McDuffie, anniversary orator. This society was in existence until 1845. 
During this time it published some very valuable papers, notably Chancellor 




F.\RMERS INSTITUTE TRAIN. 

Harper's essay on slavery, Hammond on marl, and Seabrook's memoir on the 
cotton plant. These efforts at a State organization of the agricultural interests 
had other results. Their influence upon the Legislature caused a geological and 
agricultural survey of the State to be made and induced the establishment of 
more than one journal devoted to agriculture, which in their day accomplished 
good. Among these were the Southern Agriculturist, edited by J. D. Legare 
and B. R. Carroll, published at Charleston; The Carolina Planter, edited by 
R. W. Gibbes. published at Columbia; The Farmer and Planter, published by 
Seaborn & Gillman, of Pendleton, and The Southern Agriculturist, edited by 
A. G. and William Summer, of Pomaria, and published at Laurens. 

On the 8th of August, 1855, an agricultural convention met in Columbia, and 
resulted in the organization of the society of which the present South Carolina 
Agricultural Society is the successor. A. P. Calhoun was elected president; 
A. G. Summer, secretary. Mr. Summer was afterwards succeeded by R. J. 
Gage as secretary, but Mr. Calhoun served by reelection as president until the 
outbreak of the Civil War. The Legislature aided the society by an appropria- 
tion of $5,000. It was handsomely endowed by the city of Columbia with 
grounds and buildings, and it had a considerable fund derived from payment 
for life membership. The annual fairs and stock shows of this society were 
large, well attended and produced a marked improvement in the live stock of 
the State. Its transactions were published first in The South Carolina Agricul- 



262 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

turist, then in The Farmer and Planter, and for 1858 and 1859 were compiled 
in a volume and published by the secretary. 

The Civil War suspended the operation of this society. Its buildings were 
destroyed in the burning of Columbia, and its investments became worthless 
from the results of the war. 

In 1868 the society was reorganized with Johnson Hagood, president, and 
D. Wyatt Aiken, secretary. The city of Columbia reconstructed the buildings 
in part, and a fund was raised from sale of life membership with which to renew 
the operations of the society. The society has been without other resources than 
these until 1878. The Legislature then appropriated $2,500 annually in its aid 
until 1890, and still makes annual appropriations. 

Another society still existing is the famous old Pendleton Farmers' Club, in 
the Piedmont section of the State. In 1844 the "A B C Farmers' Club" \\'zs 
organized near Silver Bluff, being an association of farmers for the suppressing 
illicit traffic with slaves. In 1855 this society suspended its meetings and from 
it grew the Beech Island Farmers' Club, one of the oldest surviving agricultural 
societies of the State. It numbered among its members Gov. Hammond, Jona- 
than Miller, H. L. Mason and other well known men of that section. This club 
still holds regular meetings and discusses agricultural subjects. At one time it 
attempted the introduction of white labor. 




IN A COUNTRY FARMYARD. 

An old sketch of this club says : 

"On the 24th day of January. 1846, the Beech Island Farmers' Club, of Aiken 
Comity, was organized at Matlock Church, (then) Barnwell District, and was 
known as the *A B C" Farmers' Club.' A chairman for the day is appointed by 
..the members present. On the last meeting for the year (first Saturday in Decem- 
ber) the secretary, corresponding secretary and treasurer are elected for the 
ensuing year, and twelve stewards, whose particular duty consists in preparing 
a bountiful club dinner, in which they never fail. 

"The club has a neat debating room and dining hall and three acres of land, 
■two of which at the last meeting were presented to the club by E. S. Hammond, 
Esq. Application for a charter was made a few days since. There are 38 regular 
members of the club and five 'honorary.' The meetings are generally very fully 
attended, but, like most associations of the kind, there are times of gloom and 
despondency as well as of cheer and prosperity. The good resulting from the 
organization of clubs in this neighborhood is beyond question, not only in an 
agricultural point of view, but socially. An idea may be formed of the interest 
manifested by the farmers and citizens from one simple fact, that they have 
maintained it in full force and vigor for 36 years. Even during the war, when 
every form of organized society had to yield to its arbitrary demand, the meet- 
ings were suspended for only three months. The club is on a firm financial basis 
and employs its surplus cash in improving its property. Distinguished gentle- 
men from all sections who have visited the club, both before and since the war, 
have expressed themselves as highly pleased, especially with, as they term it. 
the admirable constitution of the club, and did not hesitate to attribute much of 
its success to that instrument." 

A real factor for good in the agricultural history of the State has been, and 
is at this time, this society, which has since 1868 held annual State fairs in the 
city of Columbia in the fall of the year, at which fairs the agricultural and live 
stock products of the State are displayed and the people of the State annually 
gather to meet and mingle with each other, exchanging ideas and keeping alive 
friendships. 



AGRICULTURE. 



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2-THE STORY OF KING COTTON 




SAMPLING THE COTTON. 



Cotton has been for many years the leading money 
crop in the agriculture of South Carolina, and this 
State ranks fourth in acreage and in the number of 
bales produced — one-tenth of the South's entire crop. 
The cotton grown in this State is as good as any 
grown in the cotton belt ; its staple is as good and 
it often grades higher on the market. This applies to 
upland or short staple cotton. In the case of Sea Island 
cotton the South Carolina long staple so far outranks 
all other long staple cottons that comparisons are un- 
necessary. As this is written, a South Carolina planter 
of Sea Island cotton has sold his entire production of 
long staple cotton for a period of five years to come at 
80 cents a pound — a price that makes it almost worth 
an equal quantity of silk. 

At this time South Carolina's cotton crop consider- 
ably exceeds seventy-two millions of dollars in value. 
The effort is herewith made to present carefully pre- 
pared and strictly accurate statistics in regard to every- 
thing relating to cotton. 

The value of the South's cotton crop of 1907 is 
$700,956,011, compared with $632,298,332 for 1905. The 
value of the crops for the five-year period ending with 
1906 is $3,168,423,569, compared with $1,529,502,325 for 
the five-year period ending with 1899. The average 
value of a 500-pound bale of upland cotton for the later period is $50.05, exclud- 
ing the value of the seed, compared with $31.75 for the other period, an increase 
of $18.30 per bale. 

The average prices of upland cotton have ranged from 8.20 cents to 12.16 
cents in five years. Sea Island cotton in 1906 grown in South Carolina sold 
at an average of 36.70 cents per pound, while that grown in Georgia and Florida 
averaged 28.65 cents. 

The increase in acreage in South Carolina, North Carolina, Georgia and 
Alabama since 1879 has been 45.6 per cent., while the increase in production 
has been 96.8 per cent. 

History of Cotton. — "Cotton is mentioned in the records of the colony," says 
Hammond, "as early as 1664, and in 1747 seven bags appear on the list of 
exports from Charleston. In 1787 Samuel Maverick and one Jeffrey shipped 
three bags of one hundred pounds each of seed cotton from Charleston to 
England as an experiment, and were informed for their pains by the consignee 
that it was not worth producing, as it could not be separated from the seed. 
In 1790 a manufactory of cotton homespuns was established by some Irish in 
Williamsburg County, the lint used being picked from the seed by hand. A 
task of four pounds of lint per week being required of the field laborers in 
addition to their ordinary work. All this speedily changed with the invention 
of the saw gm by Eli Whitney in 1794. The first gin (patented by Ogden 
Holmes), moved by water power, was erected on Mill Creek, near Monticello, 
in Fairfield, by Capt. James Kincaid, in 1795. General Wade Hampton erected 
another near Columbia in 1797, and the following year gathered from six hun- 
dred acres six hundred bales of cotton, and cotton planting became soon after 




COTTON PICKING SCENES. 



AGRICULTURE. 



267 



the leading industry in nearly every county in the State. The crop steadily 
increased in size until i860, when the three hundred and fifty thousand bales 
produced in the State were worth something over fourteen millions of dollars. 
From this date to 1870 there was a great decline, the crop of that year being 
more than one-third less than the crop of ten years previous, and reaching 
only two hundred and twenty-four thousand five hundred bales." 

Cotton is mentioned by Mc'Crady as being obtained from the West Indies in 
1724 in exchange for lumber, etc. He says, further, that cotton had been ex- 
ported from South Carolina before the end of the seventeenth century. Just 
after 1737 Elizabeth Lucas tried cotton culture, but "met with little success." 
The Crop of Today.— It is needless to trace the growing of cotton through 
the several stages of development of the industry. It is today South Caro- 
lina's chief "money crop." and facts about it are desired. It is difficult, even 
under the favorable conditions existing in this State, to produce cotton at much 

less than 554 cents 
per pound, but the 
cost of production 
necessarily varies 
very materially. 
South Carolina's 
cotton crop for 
the past six years 
has reached pro- 
portions that now 
make the average 
crop in this State 
a crop of 956.672 
bales, worth $42,- 
579,831, and her 
manufacturing de- 
velopment has 
grown to such an 
extent that the 
cotton mill plants 
are consuming a 
total of 761,410 
bales, giving an- 
nual production worth $51,341,689,. thus more closely bringing together the cot- 
ton manufacturer and the cotton grower of the State. 

The largest crop ever produced by the State was in 1904, when it reached 
1,192,925 bales, as will be seen from the tables herewith. 

The Culture of Cotton. — In order that those not thoroughly familiar with the 
culture of cotton may be possessed of needful information, the following is 
given : 




COTTON FARMER S HOME. 



COTTON CULTURE. 
Ddti'S to Commence Preparations and to Begin and Finish Planting, Picking, Etc. 



Ordinary Staple. 



Sea Island. 



Begin prep.Tration of land .. 

To begin planting 

To finish planting 

To begin pirking 

To finish picking 

.\v('rage length of staple finches) 

.\verage yield lint cotton per acre, census to 1900 (hundredths 

of a l)ale) 

Average yielil of seed cotton per acre 

Extremes of short and long staple.. 



Feb. 25 

April 15 

May 7 

Aug. 15 to Sept. 1 

Dec. 1 

% tol 

.40 
677 pounds 



Feb. 1 
April 1 

May 1 

Aug. 25 

Dec. 10 

1% inches 

125 pounds 
500 pounds 
1>4 to 2'/4 



AGRICULTURE. 



269 



Of Value. — There is a 
constant demand for the 
information given in the 
tables contained in this 
chapter. It may be men- 
tioned that the prices of 
cotton from 1850 to i860 
ranged from 8 cents to 16^/2 
cents; from i860 to 1870, 
from 10 cents to $1.90, the 
latter being the maximum 
price ever paid ; from 1870 
to 1880, from 25^ cents to 
9^ cents ; from 1880 to 
1890, from 13^ cents to 
51^ cents, and from 1890 to 
1900, from 75-16 cents to 
13/4 cents in rare instances. 
South Carolina's Cotton Statistics. — Special attention is called to the two 
tables herewith, which show that cotton is raised generally throughout South 
Carolina, and indicate the principal locations for productiveness. 



SOUTH CAROLINA 


COTTON 


CROP. 






i8 














u 


e-u . 


^1 


Years. 


Ch 


^IS 


<u ° 




X .• 


c 


gift- 




bc,2 


a y^o 


fcS 




^« 


o.St. 


>&. 







< 


1907-S 

1906-7.. ..'.. .. 


481.3 






481.2 


.48 


10.01 


1905-6 


486.1 


45 


.10.94 


1904-5 


486 


45 


.08.66 


1903-4 


483.5 


40 


.12.16 


1902-3 


490 


.40 


.08.20 


1901-2 


485 


.39 


.07.77 


1900-1 


485 


.40 


.09.44 


1S990 


492 


.38 


.07.12 



SOUTH CAROLINA COTTON CROP FOR PAST SEVEN YEARS, BY COUNTIES. 
(Including Sea Island in Beaufort, Berkeley, Charleston and Colleton.) 



Counties. 



1902. 



Maxi- 
mum 

Crop. 
1904. 



1906. 



1907. 



Average 

Crop. 



Abbeville. . . . 

Aiken 

Anderson . . . . 
Bamberg.. .. 
Barnwell.. .. 
Beaufort. . . . 
Berkeley.. .. 
Calhoun*. . . . 

Charleston 

Cherokee. . . . 

Chester 

Chesterfield... 
Clarendon. . . . 

Colleton 

Darlington 

Dorchester. . . . 
Edgefield. . . . 

Fairfield 

Florence.. .. 
Georgetown . . . 
Greenville. .. 

Greenwood 

Hampton . . . . 

Horry 

Kershaw . . . . 
Lancaster. . . . 

Laurens 

Lee 

Lexington . . . 

Marion 

Marlboro.. .. 
Newberry. . . . 

Oconee 

Orangeburg. .. 
Pickens . . . . 
Richland.. .. 

Saluda 

Sumter 

Spartanburg. . 

Union 

Williamsburg. . 
York 



Totals. 



27,007 
25,360 
47,827 
15,962 
30,975 
7,524 
14,882 



26,528 
20,671 
43,557 
13,928 
28,992 
3,997 
12,083 



36,290 
35,694 
66,067 
23,917 
46,400 
7,101 
18,409 



10,340 
11,038 
22,211 
13,784 
27,921 
11,892 
27,700 

8,418 
23,456 
23,953 
21,174 

1,657 
32,523 
27,769 
12,895 

5,314 
19,1.58 
20,151 
37,155 
26,856 
14,837 
34, .336 
41,144 
32,640 
12,806 
70,211 
13,462 
13,871 
17,093 
30,937 
42,894 
17,296 
21,027 
80,744 



8,690 
10,270 
19,417 
14,120 
22,659 

9,256 
22,779 

6,662 
21,445 
18,960 
19,979 

1,950 
27,704 
24,237 
10,537 

6,181 
14,025 
18,834 
32,005 
23,571 
13,752 
a3,969 
37,907 
29,847 

9,520 
47,912 
10,068 

8,599 
16,546 
22,072 
37,453 
16,404 
20,215 
28,106 



10,650 
15,293 
26,531 
15,891 
34,499 
14,977 
32,342 
10,230 
28,668 
26,931 
27,962 

2,338 
40,956 
31,058 
18,268 

9,601 
19,901 
22,263 
43,555 
36,168 
20,323 
45,150 
42,038 
40,074 
16,205 
87,991 
16,063 
17,042 
22,613 
39,062 
57,970 
20,298 
25,909 
40,207 



769,681 



948,200 8U,361 



1,102,925 



34,414 
33,393 
55,754 

22,238 

41,349 

8,159 

17,720 



10,812 
14,311 
25,259 
14,974 
30,964 
14,576 
27,948 

8,848 
28,862 
27,024 
27,756 

2,496 
37,269 
31,811 
19,088 
■ 7,158 
19,645 
22,152 
43,645 
27,022 
20,656 
42,738 
44,375 
39,453 
14,254 
75,355 
15,681 
14,391 
21,172 
32,440 
60,401 
18,282 
25,176 
37,342 



32,925 
23,018 
60,791 
16,186 
31,031 
6,041 
12,242 



7,636 
12,466 
23,013 
14,994 
21,696 
11,324 
24,513 

8,313 
22,205 
23,578 
22,574 

1,334 
30,881 
28,641 
11,343 

5,997 
15,042 
19,880 
36,874 
19,628 
17,144 
33,565 
40,821 
34,793 
11,876 
60,319 
13,501 
10,549 
19,218 
22,645 
48,328 
15,436 
15,463 
84.778 



1,112,863 



912,602 



41,812 
34,720 
65,182 
16,562 
39,012 

7,570 
17,668 
17,216 
11,717 
14,915 
27,351 
16,647 
29,608 
14,745 
31,129 
10,629 
31,663 
28,467 
28,041 

2,348 
40,670 
37,486 
14,390 

6,613 
18,084 
22,501 
46,431 
26,624 
23,270 
44,675 
5;j,366 
40,656 
16,761 
47,961 
18,957 
14,739 
24,.S53 
28,811 
60,961 
19,528 
26,298 
43,538 



1,163,666 



30,684 
27,235 
50,779 
17,456 
34,193 
6,189 
14,315 



9,023 
11,932 
22,163 
13,765 
26,291 
11,8&S 
26,832 

8,081 
26,249 
23,227 
22,335 

1,831 
32,505 
28,524 
13,961 

6,742 
17,037 
10,616 
38,019 
26,683 
16,587 
35,219 
38,364 
33,899 
12,652 
65,961 
12,959 
12,381 
18,501 
30,208 
45,391 
16,498 
20,282 
32,262 



956,672 



•Calhoun Coimty organized In 1908 from parts of Lexington and Orangeburg. 



AGRICULTURE. 



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AGRICULTURE. 



■21Z 



Some Data. — For the benefit of those interested in the commercial cotton crop 
and who give attention to estimates of the crop, based on actual conditions, the 
following information is given : 

CROP (Bales) BY YEARS. 



1907. I 1006. 



1905. 1 1904. 



1902. 



1901. 



1,186,672 



912,602|1,112,363 1,192,925 814,351 948,200 



769,581 



CONDITION. 



May 

June.. .. 
July.. .. 

.\UgrU8t . . . 

September. 
October. . 



MEAN TEMPER.VTURE. 



Mav 


70.8 
75.4 

82 
80 


70.7 
78.4 
78.4 
80.6 
78.0 
61.9 


73.7 
78.9 
80.4 
77.9 
76.2 
64.2 


70.6 
77.0 
79.4 
77.6 
75.8 
62.4 


70.7 
74.2 
80.4 
80.6 
72.7 
62.0 


74.0 
78.5 
80.8 
78.6 
72.1 
63.2 


71.4 




76.7 


July 


81.4 


August 


78. C 


September 


73.1 
62.4 









AVERAGE RAINFALL. 



May 


4.51 

5.92 
3.6 
4.7 


3.00 
8.88 
8.40 
6.62 
4.85 
3.69 


5.70 
1.92 
6.16 
5.69 
1.91 
1.97 


2.04 
4.06 
5.96 
8.47 
2.46 
1.10 


2.69 
8.09 
3.59 
7.15 
3.62 
2.63 


2.69 
4.48 
3.79 
5.07 
3.74 
4.40 


7.31 




6.55 


July 


4.52 




9.01 


September 

October 


4.6fl 
0.8:t 









D.\TES OF EARLIEST KILLING FROST. 



Year. 



Charleston. 



Columbia. 



In State. 



Location. 



1907 




1908 




1905 


December 11. 


1904 


December 13. 


1903 




1902 


November 28. 



October 29. 
October 29. 
November 22. 

November 15. 



November 28. 
November 28. 



Nov 


4 


Spartanburg. 


Oct 11 Northwestern part. 


Oct. 


22 


(Six Stations), 
f Aiken. 
•( Soivem. 


Oct. 


16 






1 Siintuc. 






f Scivern. 


Oct. 


28 


( Walhalla. 


Nov. 


28 


(Oenersl). 



Grown Generally. — Cotton is grown generally throughout the State of South 
Carolina from mountains to seacoast. It is noteworthy that the largest yield 
per acre — four bales — is credited to Lancaster County, in the Piedmont section 
of the State. 

18— IL B. 



AGRICULTURE. 



275 



I 111 pro-ling the Staple. — For some years experiments have been in progress, 
conducted by the Federal Government, having in view the hybridization of 
upland short staple. Sea Island and. Egyptian. These experiments have been 
conducted on a farm near Columbia, S. C, and have had in view the lengthen- 
ing of the staple of cotton grown on uplands, and. consequently, increasing its 
market value. Noteworthy success has been attained, and an illustration here- 
with shows the highest form of culture yet reached as a result. Near Bates- 
burg W. \V. \\ atson has been raising hybrid cotton with marked success, get- 
ting excellent prices for his entire product. Dr. Webber, of the United States 
Department of .Agriculture, is the expert who has had these experiments in 
charge. 




STALK WITH FIBRE SHOWING THE HIGHEST FORM REACHED IN COTTON HYBRI- 
DIZATION OF SEA ISLAND AND UPLAND COTTON — THE SIXTH GENERATION 
(OCTOBER, 1905). I.N THE FRAME ARE SEa'iSLAND FIBRES FOR COMPARISON. 



SEA ISLAND COTTON. 

A Cousin of Silk. — Sea Island cotton is one of the most valuable of all of 
South Carolina's crops. It is the fibre that is exported to France and is sent 
back to .America, after proper mixture, and often sold as silk. '!"he fibre is long 
and silky, and is admirable for silk manufactures. South Carolina's Sea Island 
cotton leads the world in length of staple and in market value. It is claimed 
that it has been spun into No. .300 thread in France. The statistics of the crop 
are given with this chapter, and they speak for themselves. 

Origin of Long Staple Cotton. — "It would be a matter of much interest to 
determine the origin and history of the varieties of cotton now in cultivation," 
says Hammond. "The difficulties of doing this are much increased by the very 
wide geographical range occupied by the plant. The earliest explorers — Colum- 
bus, Magellan, Drake, Capt. Cook, and others — seem to have found it almost 
everywhere in the broad belt extending from the equator to 30° S., and to 40° 




SCENES ON A SEA ISLAND PLANTATION. 



AGRICULTURE. 277 

and 45° N. latitude, where it now grows. Although it is not found among 
those oldest of vestments, the wrappings of Egj'ptian mummies, its use was 
known to man in Europe, Asia, Africa, America and the outlying islands of 
the sea in the remote past, far beyond the historic age. Its very name itself 
bears evidence to this, occurring as it does in many and in the most ancient 
languages. 

Thus through the Dutch ketoen, Italian cotone, Spanish algodon, we pass to 
the Greek kiton, turned wrong side out in the Latin tunic, to the Arabic katan, 
the Syriaic kethene, the Samaritan kitana, the Sanscrit katan, the Hebrew 
kutonneth (Gen. xxxvii 123, 31), the Ethiopic kethan, the Chaldee kethan, and 
Gesenius. conducts us to a most ancient and obsolete semetic root, kathan, 
signifying to cover. Nevertheless, nothing can show more clearly the impor- 
tance of tracing and understanding the history of plants under cultivation than 
the variations and improvements in black seed cotton since its introduction on 
the Carolina coast. It is known that the first bale of long staple cotton exported 
from America, in 1788, was grown on St. Simon's Island, Georgia. That this 
bale was grown by a Mr. Bissell. from seed that came from either the Bahama 
or the Barbadoes Islands — singularly enough the authorities leave this matter 
in doubt — the Hon. W'm. Elliott saying it came from Anguilla, one of the 




A TYPICAL COTTON FIELD. 



Bahamas, and Signor Filippo Partatori (Florence, 1866) saying it came from 
Cat Island, one of the Barbadoes. 

"But as Anguilla is one of the Barbadoes, and Cat Island one of the Bahamas, 
it would seem difficult to decide to which group of islands we are indebted for 
these seed. However, as Mr. Thomas Spalding, of Sapels Island, says in a 
letter to Governor Seabrook, in 1844, that three parcels of long staple cotton 
seed were brought to a gentleman in Georgia, from the Bahamas, in 1785 and 
1786, it would seem that the seed reached our coast from those islands. In 
the Bahamas it was called gossypium barbadense, in consequence, doubtless, of 
being brought from Barbadoes. 

"In the latter island it was known as Persian cotton (Edward's H^cst Indies, 
vol. IV, p. 363), and was thought to have come from that country, where it 
was originally derived from the gossypium arboreum of India. Be this as it 
may, Mrs. Kinsey Burden, of Burden's Island, Colleton County, S. C, obtained 
some of these seeds from Georgia and planted them. This crop failed to ma- 
ture, and the first successful crop of long staple cotton grown in South Caro- 
lina was planted in 1790, by William Elliott, on the northwest corner of Hilton 
Head, on the exact spot where Jean Ribault landed the first colonists and 
erected a column of stone, claiming the territory for France, a century before 
the English settled on the coast. Mr. Elliott's crop sold for io^4d. per pound. 
Other planters made us of this seed, but it was not luitil Kinsey Burden, Sr., 
of Colleton County, began his selections of seed, .ihout the year 1805, that 



AGRICULTURE. 279 

attention was strongly called to the long staple. Mr. Burden sold his crop of 
that year for twenty-five cents per pound more than did any of his neighbors. 
He continued to make selections of seed and to improve his staple, and in 1825 
he sold a crop of sixty bales at $1.16 per pound. The year subsequent his crop 
sold for $1.25. and in 1828 he sold two bales of extra fine cotton at $2.00 per 
pound, a price not often exceeded since. The Legislature was on the point of 
offering ^Ir. Burden $200,000 for his method of improving the staple of cotton, 
and Mr. Wm. Scabrook, of Edisto, was prepared to pay him $50,000 for his 
secret, when it was discovered that the fine cotton was only due wholly to 
improvements made in the seed by careful and skillful selections. Since then 
the greatest care has been bestowed upon the selection of the seed, and to such 
perfection was the staple brought by this means that the crops of some planters 
were sold, not by sample, but by the brand on the bale, as the finest wines are. 
During the war (between the States) the cultivation of the finest varieties being 
abandoned on the islands, the seed removed to the interior greatly deteriorated 
in quality. So scarce, on this account, was good seed directly after the war that 
I. T. Dill, a cotton merchant in Charleston, at one time had in an ordinary letter 
envelope the seed from which all the better qualities of long staple cultivated now 
was derived. Nor have the improvements made by careful selection of the seed 




A COUNTRY COTTON GIN. 

ceased in later years. The staple has kept fully up to the best grades of former 
days, and the proportion of lint to seed cotton has been increased. Formerly 
one pound of lint cotton from five pounds of seed cotton of the fine varieties 
was considered satisfactory. Thanks to the efforts of Mr. E. M. Clark, a fine 
variety of cotton has been recently found, which yields one pound of lint to 
three and one-half pounds of seed cotton, preserving at the same time the 
strength, length and evenness of fibre characteristic to the best varieties." 

In another place in the South Carolina Handbook Hammond says: 

'"The first crop of Sea Island cotton was raised on Hilton Head, in 1790, by 
William Elliott. This crop reached its year of maximum production in 1827, 
when 15.140,798 pounds of long staple cotton was exported from the States; 
in 1841 it had fallen to 6,400,000 pounds. Since 1856 this crop has fluctuated 
from a minimum in 1867 of 4,577 bales to a maximum in 1872 of 13.150 bales." 

Again he says: "The finest cotton ever produced is the long staple cotton of 
Edisto Island, which has sold for $2 per pound, when other cottons were bring- 
ing only 9 cents." 

W. A. Orton, the pathologist of the United States Bureau of Plant Industry, 
in his bulletin dealing with Sea Island cotton (1907), says: 

"Our country can feel a just pride in the Sea Island cotton industry, for it 
produces the longest, finest, and most valuable cotton grown in the world. Its 
silky staple is used for spinning fine fabrics and laces and is of paramount 
importance to the thread industry, which requires a considerable part of the 
crop. Where great strength and durability are essential, as, for instance, in 
United States mail bags and in pneumatic tires, Sea Island cotton is also 
employed. The highly organized and laborious methods of culture, the excel- 
lent system of seed selection, and the painstaking care of the product which 
have maintained the high quality of the cotton grown on the Sea Islands are 
matters of special interest. 



280 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



"It is quality rather than quantity that gives economic importance to the Sea 
Island cotton industry, for the total annual production is less than i per cent. 
of the American crop, or an average for the past seven years of 94,000 bales 
per annum. , • > r 

"An improvement in quality, an increase m production, and a greater proht 
to the acre are all possibilties of the future. They will result from the general 
adoption of improved methods and the extension over the whole Sea Island 
cotton belt of the careful system of seed selection and handling now practiced 
in one portion of the area. On the other hand, conditions are such that the 
industry may in time be crushed by competition unless the farmers are awake 
to the necessity of considering the needs of the consumer as regards quality 
and purity and learn that the cost of production per pound can be reduced by 
increasing the yield per acre and that a diversified cropping system is safer 
and more profitable than the all-cotton plan. 




A SPECIMEN STALK CF EXCELSICR PROLIFIC COTTON (SEASON I905), GROWN BY 

C. F. MOORE, BENNETTSVILLE, S. C. 

"The Snow of Southern Summers."— Timrod. 

"The successful cultivation of Sea Island cotton in this country is confined 
to the area lying southeast of a line drawn from Georgetown, S. C., to a point 
in western Florida. * * * 

"In South Carolina the center of production is on the Sea Islands along the 
coast, where the finest staples are grown. The chief of these islands are James, 
Edisto, John, and Wadmalaw. * * * 

"Atmospheric humidity appears to be a prominent factor influencing the 
quality of the staple. On the Sea Islands, fields having an ocean exposure are 
said to produce a finer and glossier staple on account of the moisture-laden 
ocean breezes, and in the interior one advantage of the lower lands is doubtless 
their moist air, which is conserved by protecting forests and near-by swamps. 



AGRICULTURE. 281 

"The cotton grown in South Carolina is marketed at Charleston, while the 
interior crop is handled at Savannah. Blackshear, and Valdosta, Ga., Madison, 
Fla., and other interior towns. There is a marked difference in the style of 
bale in the two cases. South Carolina cotton is put up in bags. 75/4 feet long 
and about 2^/2 feet in diameter, containing 300 to 400 pounds. They are filled 
by hand and pressed in a light hand-screw press. Compression for export is 
not practiced. As the use of this bag has been confined to the Sea Islands, it 
serves as a trademark to distinguish the crop in foreign markets. 

"In the Charleston district the finest cotton is that grown by a limited number 
of planters who have for many years paid the most careful attention to seed 
selection. Their cotton is not only long and fine but is picked with so much 
regard to cleanliness and uniformity that the grower's private brand on the 
package is often a sufficient guarantee of its quality. 

''These fine 'crop lots' comprise about 35 per cent, of the cotton marketed 
in Charleston and sell for from 30 to 60 cents per pound. They are all exported. 
The demand for this extra-fine and high-priced cotton is very limited. The 
remainder of the South Carolina crop is sold in the usual manner at lower 




A MODERN CUTTON COMPRESS. 

prices. The higher price secured for South Carolina cotton is largely because 
of its superior preparation, all stained and weak cotton and bits of leaf being 
removed before baling. 

"']"he best practice in handling the crop may be briefly stated by describing 
the method followed on the Sea Islands, which should be adopted in the 
interior in so far as the labor conditions will permit. 

"Picking is done whenever enough cotton is open, about every ten days. The 
cotton is gathered as free from trash as possible and carried to the storehouse, 
where the next morning each picker sorts his own picking. The cotton is then 
spread on arbors to dry in the sun. It is watched and turned frequently, and 
usually dries in one day. After sunning, the seed cotton is assorted by women, 
who remove any yellow locks, bits of leaf, etc. If very dirty, it is whipped over 
a coarse wire screen stretched across a small box to take out the sand. Very 
fine cotton is again sorted or overhauled by another set of laborers. The cntlon 
is then bulked and allowed to remain from four to six weeks before ginning. 
During the ginning, one or two hands inspect the cotton as it passes to the gins, 
to remove impurities, and one or two others 'mote' the lint as it passes from 
the gin to the press, by picking out yellow tufts, etc. By all these means a 
high grade is maintained for Sea Island cotton, which is reflected in a price 
per pound several cents higher than that paid for interior cotton." 

Essential Facts. — In the ginning of Sea Island cotton the ordinary cotton gin 
cannot be used. Sea Island cotton is ginned by the Piatt roller gin, which is 



AGRICULTURE. 283 

manufactured in Oldham, England. It is impossible to handle the Sea Island 
product in the ordinary cotton mill. The Piatt gin costs about $125. It is 
operated by steam power and each gin requires at least two horse power. The 
yield from each gin is from 90 to 100 pounds an hour of lint cotton. The 
average ginnery in South Carolina consists of about three gins, although there 
are some ginneries in Georgia and Florida which have a larger capacity. None 
of the ginneries in any of these three States run full time. It costs about •>4 
of a cent per pound to gin the cotton. The Sea Island planters, in preparing 
the bales, use bags which are made in Scotland. These bags are 514 yards 
long, weighing 2^^ pounds to the yard. The bags of the size indicated are 
sold to the planter at $1.25 apiece. 

In packing the cotton a special Sea Island cotton press is used, and at least 
one is found in every ginner. This press is made and furnished by Charleston 
manufacturers. The press set up complete costs about $75. It has to be oper- 
ated entirely by hand. One press can easily bale the lint cotton furnished 
from six gins. 

In regard to the matter of the cost per bale of making the cotton ready for 
market, in general terms it might be said that for the 50-cents-per-pound grade 
of cotton it costs on the average 30 cents per pound to make, gin and market 
the product. The prices of the South Carolina Sea Island cotton — prices paid 
to the producer — range from 25 cents to 80 cents per pound. 

The ginnery is usually a wooden building, which does not cost very much 
money, consisting of three stories. The seed cotton is always stored on the 
third floor, whence it passes to the gin on the second floor, and the first floor 
is devoted entirely to the reception of the cotton seed, the transition, of course, 
being downward naturally. 

The amount of help required in the operation of the South Carolina Sea 
Island ginnery is not great, about four laborers to the gin being required. Up 
to the present season this labor has been costing the ginner 50 cents per day. 

The South Carolina crop of Sea Island cotton raised during 1905 amounted 
to about 12,500 bales. 

Including negroes and all others engaged in any way in the raising of Sea 
Island cotton, the total acreage in this State devoted to this crop is, in round 
numbers, 50,000 acres. Upon the same basis it requires on the average four 
acres of land to produce one bale of Sea Island cotton. 

The long staple cotton raised on the Sea Islands of South Carolina is regarded 
as the finest staple in the world. The Sea Islands off Georgia and Florida raise 
excellent long staple, but the seed cannot be produced there. The South Caro- 
lina Sea Island growers have recently come to a realization of the fact that 
their seed was being used to produce each season's crop for the other States, 
and they have now combined and agreed not to sell any of the South Carolina 
reproducing seed beyond the borders of their own territory. This action will 
probably have a marked effect upon the values of the long staple raised off the 
coast of the other two States named. 



COTTON SEED PRODUCTS. 

It is impossible, in the scope of this work, to go into interesting details of 

cotton by-products. The cotton 
seed oil and meal industry has 
assumed noteworthy dimensions, 
and the cotton seed is a note- 
worthy item, as is shown by the 
accompanying table. Elsewhere 
is mentioned the establishment of 
the first cotton seed oil mill by 
Mr. Waring at Columbia. At 
present the cotton seed oil and 
meal industry is in a flourishing 
condition and is destined to be- 



COTTON SEED PRODUCTS 1906. 

Number of establishments 104 

Total value of products $6,258,132 

Oil (gallons) 10,347,040 

Meal and cake (tons) 105,152 

Hulls (tons) 93,770 

Linters (pounds) 9,053,660 

Linters (bales) 1!),124 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



come one of ex- 
port and import 
importance. The 
many valuable 
uses to which the 
oil and the meal 
and cake are capa- 
ble of being ap- 
plied are only just 
beginning to be- 
come known. At 
this date the cot- 
ton seed mill in- 
terests, by con- 
certed action, are 
undertaking to ac- 
quaint the rnar- 

WHERE THE COTTON CIL IS MADE. ^tS of the WOrld 

with the qualities 
of these products, and a marked development of the industry may be expected. 




COTTON CULTURE 



J. S. NEWMAN. 

While the natural habitat of the cotton plant is in the tropics, its cultivation 
has reached its highest perfection in the North Temperate Zone. 

This is no doubt due largely to the fact that in that region it has received 
more intelligent cultivation, but mainly to the influence of climatic conditions, 
which, while diminishing the tendency to weed-production, increase fruitfulness. 
These circumstances, together with the favorable meteorological conditions for 
harvesting the crop, have rendered the Southern United States the most suc- 
cessful producers of this most important textile plant of the world. 

Since profit to the producer of the raw material depends upon the margin 
between the cost of production and the market price of the lint, it is natural and 
proper that he should seek all available information looking to realizing maxi- 
mum production at minimum cost. 

Preparation of the Soil. — No stereotyped rule can be prescribed for this impor- 
tant part of the work. The character of the soil and subsoil must exercise a 
controlling influence in determining how and when this necessary preliminary 
work shall be done. 

On stiff soils, covered with vegetation, other than that of leguminous plants, 
fall plowing is desirable, (a) to expose the soil to the action of the winter frosts, 
and (b) to afford the necessary time for the decay of the grass and weeds 
turned in. 

If a strong clay subsoil underlies the soil, the plow should be made to bring 
to the surface a small portion of the subsoil to be aerated, pulverized and by the 
subsequent preparation incorporated with the soil. At the same time, while the 
subsoil is comparatively dry, it should be broken as deeply as possible without 
being brought to the surface. It the remains of legumes, such as pea vines, the 
growth of the previous season, cover the surface, the plowing should not be 
done so early, lest through their rapid decomposition the nitrogen which they 
contain be leached and lost to the next crop. Sandy soils, unless covered with 
vegetable matter, need not be turned, nor subsoiled unless underlaid by clay 
subsoil. In spring, when drying winds prevail, causing rapid evaporation and 
consequent baking of the surface, the land remains in good condition for the 
plow Imt a short time. This desirable condition may be prolonged by the use 
of the cutaway or disc harrow by means of which the surface may be rapidly 
stirred, the evaporation checked, and, besides extending the period of the sea- 
sonable condition for plowing, reduces the labor of the team and prevents the 
surface from breaking in clods. 

The importance of deep and thorough preparation of the soil cannot be too 
strongly emphasized. Why is this thorough tillage so important? A certain 
degree of temperature, varying with different plants, a supply of moisture and 
presence of oxygen of the air are necessary as well for the germination of seed 
as for the healthful growth of plants. Tillage enables the soil to absorb moisture 



286 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

and allows a free circulation of air, which, in spring, is warmer than the soil. 
It promotes the multiplication of certain beneficial micro-organisms, which, 
though not seen by us, are nevertheless most valuable co-laborers in promoting 
the growth of our plants. 

In the preparation of our soils our object is to bring them into good texture 
to induce prompt and vigorous germination of seed and healthful growth of 
our plants. 

Good texture cannot be secured, however, without the presence of humus or 
decayed organic matter. No soil can be profitably productive without this con- 
stituent, and yet millions of acres of the cultivated lands of this State are sadly 
deficient in this necessary constituent, and other millions have been rendered 
unproductive and abandoned to gulleys, old field pines and broom-sedge, because 
of its absence. 

Besides promoting good texture in all classes of soils, it furnishes all of the 
natural supply of nitrogen, and, by absorbing and retaining moisture, enables our 
cultivated plants to appropriate soluble plant food from the soil. 

The farmers of South Carolina will spend about $5,000,000 for commercial 
fertilizers this season, a very large per cent, of which will be wasted by appli- 
cation to poorly prepared soils or those incapable of retaining sufficient moisture 
to enable the plants to utilize the plant food furnished them. 

No country has ever been permanently productive or prosperous without a 
system of rotation involving the perpetuation of a humus supply. 

Application of Fertilisers. — The soluble plant food upon which plants are 
dependent for their growth must be conveyed into their circulation in solution. 
The moisture is obtained by contact of the fertilizing material with soil particles. 
If, therefore, very heavy applications are made in the drill the fertilizer does not 
come in contact with sufficient soil to secure the moisture necessary for this 
solution. It is wise, therefore, to apply small quantities in the drill, but very 
heavy applications should be made broadcast over the open furrow. Applied in 
this way, a part falls in the drill and the remainder is mixed with the soil as 
the land is bedded, and is less liable to cause injury to the plants by being taken 
into their circulation in too concentrated solution. 

Bedding the Land. — The cotton plant, being a native of the tropics, demands 
a high degree of temperature for the germination of its seed, and hence the 
universal practice of planting upon beds. The prompt drainage of the beds 
facilitates the entrance of the warm spring air into the soil and thus raising its 
temperature. The fertilizers should be applied and listed upon some eight or 
ten days before planting, in order that the base of the bed may become firm 
before the seed are deposited. Just before planting finish the beds, covering with 
fresh soil the list. Draw a smoothing harrow across the beds to reduce their 
height, drag out trash and clods and flatten the surface preparatory to the use 
of the planter. 

In order to facilitate all subsequent work, it is of prime importance to have 
the seed planted in a straight line. 

Much labor will be saved and seed economized by using a planter which drops 
the seed at the desired intervals in the row. 

If rain falls before the seed vegetate, causing the formation of a surface crust, 
a weeder or smoothing harrow should be drawn across the rows as early as 
practicable after the rain. This not only prevents loss of moisture and destroys 
germinating grass and weeds, but economizes the vitality of the young plants by 
reducing the difficulty of lifting their seed leaves above the surface. 

Cultivation. — While no fixed rules of universal application can be given or 
followed, the conclusions derived from the study, experiment, practice and 
experience of thirty years may prove of service, at least, to the inexperienced. 
The most serious obstacle to success in cotton growing results from long- 
continued drouth during the growing season. Assuming that the soil has been 
deeply and thoroughly prepared before planting, and that an abundant supply 
of humus is present, the constant aim of the cultivator should be to preserve the 
proper surface condition of the soil amongst the plants. 

The most important lesson for us to learn is that the destruction . of weeds 
and grass is not the sole object of cultivation. This is a mere incident to a 
correct system properly understood and executed. The two purposes to be kept 
constantly in view are: (a) Avoid the mutilation of the roots of the plants; and 
(b) Keep the surface constantly mulched with loose soil, known now as a "soil 
mulch." This prevents loss of moisture by evaporation from the whole surface, 
retaining the moisture below the mulch for use in dissolving and conveying plant 
food into the plant. 

A crust upon the surface hastens the escape of moisture which brings the 
soluble plant food to the surface and leaves it there, out of reach of the roots 



AGRICULTURE. 287 

of the plants. From a plot of cultivated land upon which the crust was allowed 
to form and remain for ten days a sample of soil to the depth of six inches was 
taken. From an adjacent plot on which the surface was stirred to the depth of 
two inches immediately after the rain and the formation of the crust prevented, 
a similar sample was taken. 

The chemist found nearly twice as much moisture in the latter as in the former. 
Based upon this fact and the observation of long experience, the following system 
of cultivation is recommended for general practice : 

The writer has found no implement so satisfactory in the cultivation of cotton 
and corn as the Terrell heel scrape, illustrated in this bulletin. As soon as the 
stems of the young plants have attained their full length below the seed leaves 
and the first true leaf starts from the bud, side with a sixteen- or twenty-inch 
scrape having narrow blade. This, properly used, scrapes off the edges of the bed 
and fills the middle furrow. At the same time fine soil is sifted amongst the 
young plants, covering the young grass in the drill. Leave it in this condition 
until the grass is smothered. Next hoe the cotton, reducing to a stand and 
leaving it absolutely clean. 

The number of plants to the acre should depend upon the fertility of the soil 
and the habit of growth of the variety cultivated. It is seldom desirable to have 
the rows narrower than four feet, and on very fertile soil they are often five 
and even six feet apart. 

If planted in rows four feet apart and one foot in the drill a perfect stand will 
give 10,890 plants to the acre or one to every four square feet. If two feet in 
the drill, there will be 5,445 plants per acre, or eight square feet to the plant. 
If eighteen inches in the drill, there will be 7,260 plants per acre, or six square 
feet per plant. 

Continuing the cultivation, follow the hoes immediately with the scrape, using 
in this and all subsequent cultivation scrapes twenty to thirty inches wide. Fine 
soil is sifted amongst the young plants, supporting them and mulching the soil 
around them. Two furrows with the scrape stirs the whole surface between the 
rows, leaving a fine soil mulch to prevent loss of moisture. Under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, no more hoeing will be necessary. Instead of four furrows to the 
row, cutting the roots and leaving an open furrow in the middle to encourage 
washing, and two or three more hoeings, the scrape does all future cultivation 
with two furrows to the row without more hoe work. The scrape will cultivate 
a given area in one-third the time required by the deep-running narrow plows, 
with one-fourth the labor, and keep the crop in a thrifty growing condition. 
After a rain the scrape can be used often two days before the soil is sufficiently 
dry to be plowed deep. As far as practicable, the whole surface should be stirred 
as early as practicable after every rain, and the cultivation should be continued 
as long as the plants continue to grow and develop fruit, or until the limbs meet 
across the rows. 

Under this system the cost of production is reduced more than half. 

There are five mistakes in common practice in the cultivation of cotton: (a) 
Poor preparation of the soil, (b) Failing to rotate to supply humus, (c) Leav- 
ing the plants too thick, (d) Deep cultivation with narrow plows, (e) Laying 
by the crop too early. 

The accompanying illustrations of the Terrell heel scrape, a cheap and effec- 
tive cultivator, will aid in showing just how the parts are adjusted for shallow 
cultivation. It is usually found necessary to have the wings flattened in order 
to have them slip under the surface without dragging the soil. 

In handling the scrape the handles should be pressed down and held firmly, 
so that the wings will cut as deeply as the point. 



288 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 
COTTON SEED OIL MELLS — 1907. 



County. 


Location. 


Corporation. 


.S 

*3 
a 

a _ 


hi 


Abbeville . . . 


Antreville, S. C. . 

Donalds 

Lowndesville. . . 
McCormick. . . . 

Abbeville 

Sally 

Aiken 

Kathwood 

Belton. ...... 

Anderson 

Anderson 

Honea Path. . . . 

Pelzer 

Pendleton 

Anderson 

Starr 

Townville 

Williamston. . . . 

Bamberg 

Denmark 

Fairfa.x. 

Allendale 

Barnwell 

Charleston 

Blacksburg. . . . 

Gaffney 

Wilkinsville. . . . 

Chester 

Cheravv 

St. Paul 

Manning 

Walterboro. . . . 

Hartsville 

Darlington 

Darlington 

Johnston. . . . . 
St. George. . . . 

Winnsboro 

Timmonsville. . . 

Florence 

Timmonsville. . . 
Travelers Rest. . . 
Fountain Inn. . . 

Greer 

Piedmont 

Simpsonville. . . . 


Antreville Oil Mill 


10 
15 
15 
15 

20 
20 


$12,000 




Donald Oil Mill 


15,000 






16,000 




*McCormick Oil Mill 


16,000 




Southern Cotton Oil Co.. .. 


26,000 




Sally Oil Mill 


36,000 




Southern Cotton Oil Co 


30,000 






16 
20 
30 
35 
20 
30 
15 
40 
20 
20 
20 
26 
20 
16 


20,000 






32,000 




*Excelsior Oil Mill.. .. 


32,000 




*Farmers Oil Mill 


35,000 




*Honea Path Oil Mill 


20,000 






32,000 




*Pendleton Oil Mill 


20,000 






36,000 




Starr Oil Mill 


20,000 




Townville Oil and Fertilizer Co 

*Williamston Oil Mill 


5,833 
18,000 


Bamberg 


The Cotton Oil Co 


28,500 


The Cotton Oil Co 


20,000 


Barnwell 


Fairfax Cotton Oil Co 


25,000 






38,500 




Southern Cotton Oil Co 


33 
100 
20 
30 
10 
40 
18 
20 
18 
10 
45 


37,500 




Southern Cotton Oil Co 


80,000 


Cherokee 


Blacksburg Cotton Seed Oil Co 

Victor Cotton Oil Co 


16,000 
33,334 




Wilkinsville Cotton Oil Co 


10,000 


Chester 


Southern Cotton Oil Co 


35,000 


Chesterfield. . - . 


South Atlantic Oil Co 


30,000 




Clarendon Cotton Oil Co 


16,000 




South Atlantic Oil Co 


35,000 


Colleton 


Walterboro Cotton Oil Co 


25,000 


Darlington 


Hartsville Oil Mill 


45,000 


Pee Dee Oil and Ice Co 


27,000 




South Atlantic Oil Co 


46 
30 
20 
30 
20 
20 
25 
9 


60,000 


Edgefield 

Dorchester 

Fairfield 




25,000 


St. George Cotton Seed Oil Co 

Southern Cotton Oil Co 


20,000 
30,000 




South Atlantic Oil Co 


17,000 




Southern Cotton Oil Co 


40,000 




Timmonsville Oil Co 


30,000 




Blue Ridge Cotton Oil Co 


16,000 




Fountain Inn Oil Mill 


16,000 




Greer Cotton Seed Oil and Fertilizer Co.. 
♦Saluda Oil Mill 


"io" 

16 


20,000 
15,000 




Simpsonville Oil Manufacturing Co 


13,333 
5,000 




Greenville 

Greenville 

Bradley 

Coronaca 

Greenwood 

Greenwood 

Ninety-Six 

Troy 

Brunson. . . . . . 

Camden 

Kershaw 

Lancaster 

Goldville 

Clinton 

Cross Hill 

Lanford 

Gray Court. . . . 

Laurens 

Bishopville. . . . 

Leesville 

Dillon 

Hamer 

Marion 

Bennettsville.. . . 
Newberry. . . . . 
Little Mountain. . 

Pomaria 

Prosperity 

Newberry 

Seneca 

Westminster. . . . 
Westminster. . . • 
Cameron 


South Carolina Cotton Oil Co 

Southern Cotton Oil Co 


85 
20 
20 


75,000 
20,000 


Greenwood 


Bradley Cotton Oil Co 


20,000 






12,000 




Southern Cotton Oil Co. (Mill No. 1).. .. 

Southern Cotton Oil Co. (Mill No. 2).. .. 

*Ninetv-Six Oil Mill 


30 

' '26' ' 
20 


35,000 
21,000 
20,000 




Trov Oil Mill 


20,000 


Hampton 


Fanners Cotton Oil Co 


26,000 


Kershaw. . . . 


Southern Cotton Oil Co 


40 


60,000 


Lancaster 


Kershaw Oil Mill 


45,000 


Lancaster 

Laurens 


Lancaster Cotton Seed Oil Mill 

Blalock Oil Mill 


40 
20 
25 
20 
12 
15 
30 
26 
8 
50 
18 
18 
40 
40 
12 
15 
20 
36 
20 
10 
10 
14 


60,000 
7,500 




Clinton Oil and Manufacturing Co 

Cross Hill Oil and Hosiery Mill 

Farmers Oil Mill Co 


22,500 
26,667 
15,000 




Gray Court Oil and Manufacturing Co. . . . 
Southern Cotton Oil Co 


16,000 
25,000 


Lee 




40,000 


Lexington 

Marion 


Leesville Cotton Seed Oil Mill 

Southern Cotton Oil Co 


15,000 
70,000 




South Atlantic Oil Co 


30,000 




South Atlantic Oil Co 


30,000 


Marlboro 


Southern Cotton Oil Co 


40,000 


Newberry 


Farmers Oil Mill: 


30,000 




Little Mountain Oil Mill and Fertilizer Co. 

Pomaria Oil Manufacturing Co 

Prosperity Cotton Oil Mill Co 


15,000 
15,833 
22,000 




Southern Cotton Oil Co 


35,000 


Oconee 


•Seneca Oil Mill 


15,000 




Strother & Phiney Oil Mill 


20,000 


Orangeburg. . . . 


Westminster Oil and Fertilizer Co 

Cameron Oil Mill 


20,000 
20,000 



•Branch of Anderson Fertilizer Works. 



County. 



Orangeburg. 

Pickens. . 
Richland. . 



Saluda. . . , 
Spartanburg . 



AGRICULTURE. 
COTTON SEED OIL MILLS — 1907. — (Continued.) 



289 



Location. 



Corporation. 



Fort Motte. . . .| Fort Motte Oil Mill 

Rowesville Rowesville Cotton Oil Co. 



Orangeburg. . 
St. Matthews. 

Easley 

Liberty. . . . 
Pickens. . . . 
Columbia . . . 
Columbia. 



Sumter. . . 
Union. . . . 

Williamsburg 
York. . . . 



Southern Cotton Oil Co. 

Southern Cotton Oil Co.. 

Easley Oil Mill 

Liberty Oil Mill 

Pickens Oil Mill 

South Carolina Cotton Oil 

Southern Cotton Oil Co.. .. 

Columbia Tavlor Manufacturing Co.. 

Saluda j Saiuda Oil Mill Co 

Ridge Spring. . ..; G. J. Strother Oil Mill.. .. 

Cowpens Cowpens Oil Mill Co. 

Campobello. . 
Cross Anchor. 
Fairforest. . , 
Pauline. . . , 

Rich 

Spartanburg. 
Wellford. . . 
Woodruff. . . 
Sumter. 



Co. 



Campobello Oil Mill 

Cross Anchor Oil Mill Co 

Fairforest Oil Mill Co 

Pauline Oil Mill 

Rich Hill Oil Mill 

Southern Cotton Oil Co 

Tyger Shoals Milling Co 

Woodruff Cotton Oil Co 

Southern Cotton Oil Co 

Jonesville Jonesville Oil Mill 

Union j Southern Cotton Oil Co 

Kingstree South Atlantic Oil Co 

Rock Hill. .... Highland Park Manufacturing Co. 
Yorkville Victor Cotton Oil Co 



^^ 



3 "O 



5o « 



60 
12 
15 
20 
10 
10 
20 
Vi 
20 
30 
20 
25 
50 



$20,000 
30,000 
25,000 
25,000 
15,000 
12,000 
18,000 
108,333 
133,333 
66,667 
12,000 
16,000 
20,000 
15,000 
12,000 
20,000 
16,000 
18,000 
40,333 
22,500 
20,000 
40,000 
20,000 
26,000 
30,000 
30,000 
25,000 



19— H. B. 




The development of the trucking industry in South Carolina has been one of 
the most conspicuous of all the developments in the State in recent years. This 
industry has heretofore been confined to practically five counties — Charleston, 
Colleton, Beaufort, Horry and Berkeley. In 1889 the acreage in truck in these 
counties amounted to only 2.103. In 1900 the total acreage in these counties 
devoted to truck was 4,928. The rate of increase in the four trucking counties 
tributary to Charleston during that decade was 295 per cent. 

There has in trucking been a growth more rapid than any other one thing in 
South Carolina in the last half decade. The Charleston District acreage at 
present, for instance, is estimated by one of the most careful and best posted 
men on the coast, one intimately identified with the trucking industry, at 24,200 
acres, and the value of the truck produced has been estimated at $3,717,000 in 
this district, against $212,700 six years ago. 

Nowhere in the State has such a marked advance in trucking been observed 
as in Beaufort County, which county had only 30 acres in 1890 and 934 acres 
in 1900. In 1906 the value of product had leaped to $236,569.30, against $120,730 
the preceding year. The rate of growth in the three years preceding 1906, con- 
sidered in the light of the' value of product, was about $100,000 per annum on 
truck to the Northern markets. It is noteworthy that not only are native whites 
going more extensively into trucking each year, but a number of Northern and 
foreign people are doing likewise, and even intelligent negroes have begun the 
growing of truck for the Eastern markets. Over in Horry County the growing 
of strawberries and fruits, begun a few years ago by Northwestern pioneers, has 
developed into a splendid industry. In various portions of the State trucking is 
beginning to be given great attention. 
In the decade between 1890 and 1900 the value of the local market garden 

products, including small fruits, grew 
from $215,113 to $1,213,759, an increase 
of 464.2 per cent. 

The value of the South Carolina truck- 
ing industry annually is rapidly reaching 
into the millions. 

]More notable even than the rapid de- 
velopment of the industry above indi- 
cated has been the increase in the in- 
dustry in the past six years, as is shown 
by the accompanying table. A percent- 
age of 246 in increase of value of prod- 
ucts speaks for itself. 
_ But the actual figures had perhaps best be given, it being impossible, as this 
IS prepared, to bring these figures up to the 1907 crop: 



Trucking. 
1900 (total 



for 



Acreage 

State) 19.643 

Acreage 1906 (trucking dis- 
trict only) 30,000 

Percentage increase 52 

Value 1900 $1,142,961 

Value 1906 3.953.569 

Percentage of increase. 246 



AGRICULTURE. 



291 



1900. 1905. 

Charleston District (.all truck).. $212,200 $2,787,000 

Beaufort 100,000 200,000 

Horry (strawberries) 28,100 55.ooo 

Miscellaneous vegetables 2.079,862 2,416,218 

Strawberries 59,486 65,000 

Asparagus 355400 700.121 

Watermelons (No.) 8,665,130 10.000.000 

Cantaloupes (No.) 3.500.000 

Value of all vegetables 4,064.847 



Per ct. of 
Increase. 
1-MO.3 
100 
95-7 
II-3 
9.2 
96.9 
15-4 



1906. 
$3,717,000 
236,596 
57,000 




SHIPPING RADISHES. 

History.— Truck growing for market in South Carolina began in the year 
1868, when William C. Geraty, now the largest shipper of cabbage plants in the 
whole world, and his partner, Frank W. Towles, of Martin's Point, Wadmalaw 
Island, began operations on a small scale. The present unparalleled develop- 
ment began about 1891, growing by leaps and bounds since 1900, until at this 
time the Charleston district alone has over 24,000 acres planted in truck. From 
a small beginning the industry has assumed its present large and profitable char- 
acter, and, as stated, every year witnesses an extension of the industry. 




MR. GERATY IN HIS CABBAGE FIELU. 

The increased facilities for handling the truck in the improvement of the 
waterways among the islands and the better railroad facilities in more trackage 
and car service, are having the effect of extending and promoting the raising of 
truck and making Charleston one of the greatest centers for the cultivation of 
truck in the United States. 

'ihe beginning of truck raising started on Yonge's Island, now the seat of the 
industry. The great movement mav he said to have started with the experi- 
nieiils of \\\ C. Geraty.* wlio. with llic financial assistance of F. W. Towles, then 
a member of the firm, residing in New York, concluded that the Charleston 
country could raise as marketable a produce as was finding its way on the 
markets of New York and other large consuming centers. Cabbages and Irish 
potatoes were selected for the test, and the industry was entered upon in the 
olanting of these vegetables, and the foundation was laid for the present enor- 



►Dlcd in wiiit.T of 1!tO.S. 




VIEWS OF THE GERATY CABBAGE FIELDS. 



AGRICULTURE. 



293 



mous business. It was soon demonstrated that not only could Yonge's Island 
produce as fine cabbages and potatoes as were grown elsewhere, but even better, 
and at a time ahead of the crops of other sections. Gradually extensions of the 
truck industry were made until now asparagus, cucumbers, beets, beans, peas, 
sweet potatoes, strawberries, lettuce and other crops are successfully grown. 
Cabbages are today the greatest crop oh Yonge's Island and all through the 
truck belt. Not only are cabbages grown and placed upon the markets in lots 
of 10,000 crates, but the growing of cabbage plants for replanting in other sec- 
tions, especially in Western and Northern communities, has become an industry 
within an industry, and the shipment of crates for the tender and luscious greens 
now number annually nearly a million and a quarter crates of an approximated 
value of $1,500,000. 

During the season of 1907 the Geraty cabbage fields grew and sent to the 
market -^rf^^rro cp.bbaee plan'^':. The copc^^- rf '•'^-S 's v rM -"r'-.- vpv as this 




GATHERING TOMATOES IN THE CHARLESTON TRUCKING DISTRICT. 



is written, and it is the purpose of the proprietors to raise and put on the market 
this year 100,000,000 cabbage plants. For this purpose there has been sown the 
largest cabbage seed bed probably in the history of the world, comprismg 120 
acres. In this bed there have been sown two tons of cabbage seeds. 

Next to cabbages, the potato crop is the largest, there having been raised last 
season nearly 300,000 barrels on about 6,500 acres, of an approximated value of 
more than $850,000. Cucum])ers were raised on about 3,000 acres, yielding 
750,000 baskets of a value of $562,000. The bean crop has been averaging some- 
thing over 2,000 acres for several years, of 375.000 bushels, worth about $200,000. 
Asparagus is another choice vegetable, raised about Charleston, of nearly 1,000 
acres, of 500,000 odd bunches, of more than $100,000 in value. More than 
1,500,000 quarts of strawberries are raised on about 500 acres, of approximated 
value of $135,000. Acreage of green peas ran last year about 1,000, worth $50,000. 
Sweet potatoes on about 1,200 acres netted 30,000 buslicls of the value of $10,000. 
Beets, lettuce, radishes and other vegetal)les, aggregating u|)war(ls of 3.000 acres, 




IRISH POTATOES AS COMPARED WITH SIZE CF A SILVER DOLLAR. 



AGRICULTURE. 295 

with products worth last season in excess of $300,000, add to the profits of the 
Charleston truck farmers. 

The trucking industry in Horry County is also quite young. The Homewood 
Colony was formed in 1898 in conjunction with a colony then being formed in 
Chadbourn, in Columbus County, North Carolina. Twelve thousand acres of 
land in the vicinity of Conway, Horry County, were purchased and about fifty 
families of people from the Middle West settled on the tract. 

The colony was rather crudely formed, for nothing was done for the colonists 
after they were dumped down on the land, and there was not a soul to show 
them anything about the culture of truck, especially about strawberries, in the 
culture of which they intended to engage. 

The colonists came on in 1899 and began operations. The first attempt was 
a failure and many went home — fully one-third gave up. The next year things 
looked a little better and some individuals made enough money to do on. But 
many were reduced to desperate straits, the present organizer, Mr. J. Lewis Lee, 
among them. He was advised by his wife to give up, but he told her that he 
had two friends, "the Almighty and the cowpea," and, by the grace of God, the 
cowpea pulled him through. 

In the next two years the colony prospered. In 1903 it reached high-water 
mark, and the average net return was about $300 per acre from the sale of 
strawberries. One man made $1,494.76 on three acres of strawberries. Cucum- 
bers and radishes were also profitable crops, and money was made on beans. 

In the meantime, public sentiment had changed and the condition of the 
colonists was vastly improved. At first they could get no advances on their crops 
for buying fertilizers and other necessities of farm life, but at the beginning of 
the year 1904 they had no such difficulty, all the local merchants and local banks 
being willing to advance almost anything desired. 

A report in 1904 said : "The present season is hardly a fair test of what they 
can do. It is known to everybody that the first and worst drought of a decade 
has visited this section at the very time when berries were ripening and that the 
yield was cut down over a half; some of the truckers claim that they were cut 
down more than two-thirds. Anyhow, this county has shipped about 150 cars 
to date and the cars were loaded with beans, cucumbers, radishes, strawberries. 
The strawberries made about 100 cars, loaded on an average with 250 crates, 
and the net returns have been about $2.50 a crate. 

"Full returns are not all in yet, and it is impossible, therefore, to get the exact 
figures as to the number of crates shipped by each trucker. Mr. J. Lewis Lee, 
whose berries would be a fair average of the best class of berries raised, has 
received $987.62 from the berries grown on three acres. He estimates that his yield 
was cut down over one-half by the dry weather. From the one point of Conway at 
the end of the trucking belt there have been shipped out 31 cars of strawberries, 
valued net at $25,000 to the growers, which is not a bad showing for a few men 
in an off-year. 

"Beans and cucumbers are being shipped now. Prices are low now and there- 
fore results are not what they would be even on an average market, but better 
prices are looked for, and with a favorable turn in this market the truckers will 
come out way ahead for the season. 

"The truckers have all had exceptionally good health since their arrival in 
South Carolina. There has not been a single case of serious illness among them 
and they are satisfied and even enthusiastic over the advantages of their adopted 
home. 

"It is but fair to say that these first colonists settled on worn-out savannahs 
or in the woods, as did most of their brethren in North Carolina, and that in the 
space of four years they were independent, and despite a severe drought this 
year, they will make money. When it is considered that four years ago there 
were scarcely any strawberries grown in this section, and that the present truck- 
ing crop from the territory within 40 miles of railroad from Chadbourn, N. C, 
along one main line, will exceed $3,000,000 and may go to $5,000,000, some idea 
can be had of the enormous strides made by scattered farmers without capital. 

"From present indications, the trucking area, in Horry County will be increased 
over 200 per cent, for next year, and greater variety of truck will be grown. 

"All places within this zone have quick connection with New York city and 
other Northern points by refrigerator car, the rate to New York city being 72 
cents; to Boston, $1.04. The Armours ice the cars at Chadbourn, where they 
keep a large ice storage plant, with a capacity of 12,000 tons. 

"The market here comes midway between Florida and Norfolk, thus giving 
a clear field for growers to get in without opposition. The climate is mild and 
equable, the Gulf stream being only 50 miles off shore and the entire region 



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AGRICULTURE. 



297 



pierced by large rivers. Winters are noted for mildness, and summers are never 
excessively hot, but much cooler than points a hundred miles inshore. 

"The region has a special advantage in Irish potato culture, and very large 
yields are recorded. One party made at Pine Island i6o barrels to the acre. 
Fruits of all kinds flourish. Horry County is in a region of infinite diversity 
and has hundreds of thousands of acres of land waiting to be opened." 

In Williamsburg the trucking industry had its beginning about the same time 
as the rest of the trucking district. The strawberry flourished and the profits 
have been uniformly large. 

The Charleston District. — The situation during 1906 in the Charleston district 
is thus described by a writer sent there for the purpose : 

"The summary of the Charleston truck is interesting and instructive, showing 
— according to conservative estimates — about 25,000 acres, of a product value of 
nearly $4,000,000, with a cost of making about $2,500,000, and a net profit of 
nearly $2,000,000 last season. 




SOUTH CAROLINA RAISED IRISH POTATOES. 

"Charleston's truck belt takes in the mainland, Yonge's Island, Mount Pleasant, 
McClellansville, St. Andrew's Parish, Edisto, Wadmalaw and James Islands. 
Meggett's, at Yonge's Island, is the center of the truck area in respect of business 
activity, although not the geographical center of the truck belt. About Meggett's 
are the largest farms and greater diversification of crops. Here are the farms 
of Norman H. Blitch, the "Cabbage King," so called from the fact that he raises 
a larger number of cabbages than any other individual planter in the world; 
W. C. Geraty, who makes a specialty of raising cabbage plants for replanting 
and cultivation in other sections, and other substantial truck raisers who have 
achieved a reputation in the market in other respects. The Meggett's section 
does not, however, number among its farmers Jolin S. Horlbeck, who has the 
largest grove of bearing pecans in the world, he l)clonging to the Mount Pleasant 
section, just across the Cooper River from Cliark-slon. 

"It is possible to drive for miles through the truck belt about Charleston with- 
out being able to change the scene of growing cal)lKiges which greet the eyes. 
When there is a variation from the dark sea-green of the cabbage leaves, it is 
that of some other truck crop, unless the barns, packing houses or stations of 
the farms are encountered. Land which could have been bought ten years ago 
for a mere song now sells at almost fabulous prices, if it can be bought at all, 
so great has been the result of the extension of ilie industry, 'ihc section is 
traversed with many miles of railroad tracks, running through cabbage and 



298 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



potato fields, and at every mile, and in some instances at a less distance, are 
station platforms filled with barrels, crates and baskets of vegetables for ship- 
ment. Cars are being constantly moved and the places are scenes of much 
activity and business. Daily shipments go out of Meggett's amounting to several 
hundred cars, and fast freights of 25 or 30 cars solid of cabbages or potatoes 
are of daily occurrence during the shipping season, and this, in addition to the 
express business, which is of large proportions. Refrigerator cars are now being 
largely patronized, delivering the vegetables in good form at distant destinations 
and adding to the possibilities of the Charleston market in competing with other 
truck centers. 

"In the handling of this tremendous business perfect system prevails. The 
farmers and others who direct and control the raising of these large crops and 
their handling and shipment are men of executive ability and experience. The 
truck farms and shippers are in constant communication with the markets of the 
country. Telegraphers and telephone operators, stenographers and clerks are 
employed in large forces, and the correspondence is heavy, but the work is of an 
immediate character, and the close and business-like attention which is given to 




STRAWBERRY FIELD IN HORRY COUNTY. 

it accounts in a measure for the success of the truck movement. Much of the 
truck is sold to buyers right on the platforms or in the field, but large quantities 
are also shipped to commission men by the planters ; but in all these operations 
a system prevails which is remarkable in the character of the business and 
operations, conducted on such a large scale and over so extended an area. That 
such a measure of success attends the truck industry about Charleston speaks 
well for the soil, climate, character of the men in control, and the facilities 
employed in building and promoting the industry." 

The accompanying statistical statement, showing the average five-year trucking 
crop of the Charleston district, and the 1906 crop, tells its own story of agri- 
cultural development. It shows the average industry for five years to be 26,400 
acres, with a product of $2,787,000, which value is greatly exceeded by the 1906 
crop's value. 



TRUCK IN THE CHARLESTON DISTRICT 

(including COLLETON.) 

Av'ge for 5 yrs. 

Potatoes (Irish): exclusive of 1906. 

Number of acres grown 8,000 

Number of barrels grown 400,000 

Value $800,000.00 

Potatoes (Sweet) : 

Number of acres grown 1,200 

Number of bushels grown 32,500 

Value $12,000.00 

Cabbages : 

Number of acres grown 7,000 

Number of crates grown . . ., . 1,050,000 

Value '. $940,000.00 



1906. 

6,400 
288,000 
,000.00 



1,200 

30,000 

$10,000.00 

6,600 

1,180,000 

$1,416,000.00 



AGRICULTURE. 



299 



Asparagus : 

Number of acres grown 90c 850 

Number of bunches grown 540.000 510,000 

Value $108,000.00 $105,000.00 

Cucumbers : 

Number of acres grown 2,500 3,000 

Number of baskets grown 500,000 750,000 

Value $300,000.00 $562,000.00 

Beans : 

Number of acres grown 2,500 2,200 

Number of baskets grown 375.000 165,000 

Value $187,000.00 $275,000.00 

Green Peas : 

Number of acres grown 1,400 1,000 

Number of baskets grown 70,000 50,000 

Value $70,000.00 $50,000.00 

Other vegetables, such as Beets, Carrots, Rad- 
ish, Cauliflower, Spinach, Turnips, etc. : 

Number of acres grown 2,500 2,500 

Value $250,000.00 $300,000.00 

Strawberries : 

Number of acres grown 400 450 

Number of quarts grown 1,500,000 1,600,000 

Value $120,000.00 $135,000.00 

Summary 1906 Crops : 

Total number of acres planted ; 24,200 

Gross value of crops $3,717,000.00 

Cost of producing the crops 2,420,000.00 

Net profits $1,297,000.00 

A Notable Experiment.- — From selected ground, five acres, fertilized according 
to his own formula, C. M. Gibson, on Yonge's Island, had the following experi- 
ence with cabbage : 

Five acres yielded 1,500 crates 

Each acre yielded ., 318 crates 

Total worth ($367 an acre), $1,835 net. 

Cabbage Plants. — The cabbage plant industry has grown to enormous propor- 
tions. Exact comparative figures are wanting. Som^ figures for 1905-1906: 

Shipped by F. W. Towles, Martin's Point 4,000,000 plants 

Shipped by W. C. Geraty, Yonge's Island 40,000,000 plants 

Shipped by Blitch & Co., Meggett 35.000,000 plants 

Rest of Charleston district 21,000,000 plants 

Total 100,000,000 plants 

Value of above (100 cars), $150,000. 



Largest in the World. — The following men in this district are the largest in 
their respective lines in the world : 

Norman H. Blitch, Meggett — Largest grower of cabbage plants, 1,000 acres. 
Began a poor man, working for small wages in 1891. It costs $110,000 to culti- 
vate his crop. His daily telegraph bill, during shipping season, is $100. 

Wm. C. Geraty, Yonge's Island — Largest shipper of cabbage plants. Sliips 
40,000,000, worth $35,000. Has booked 100 cars (100,000,000 plants) for this 
year's delivery. Began poor. 

John S. Horlbcck, Mount Pleasant — Largest pecan grower. Main grove 600 
acres ; two smaller groves with 10,000 trees each. Annual production ten tons. 

In the Beaufort District. — The growth of the truck business of the Beaufort 
section has been phenomenal when one considers that it has been accomplished 
by farmers without means. Men have started with nothing and made fortunes 
within a few years. 

The total cotton crop of the 1905 season, which is given by tlie Govcrnnient 
authorities as amounting to 8,159 bales short staple and 2,469 bales long staple, 
figured at $50 per bale for the former and $72 for the latter, was worth $462,268. 



AGRICULTURE. 



301 



So the truck crop amounted to one-half of the total cotton crop, and to $50,000 
more than the long staple cotton crop. 

The prospects are that the 1907 crop greatly exceeds that of 1906. 



Truck Port 

Acreage. Royal. 

Asparagus 264 

Beans 412 

Beets I 

Cabbages ^ 

Cantaloupes 

Cucumbers 2,956 

Lettuce 6 

Onions i 

Peas 2,485 

Potatoes 1,398 

Radish 

Squash 40 

Packages 7-563 

Value $12,883 



Royal I 


SLAND AND \ 


ICINITY 


FCR 


Spring 


OF 1904. 




(I) 


(2) 




(3) 




Beau- 


Yem- 


Total 


P 


•icc per 


Total 


fort. 


assee. 


Pkgs. 




Pkg. 


Value. 


25 


960 


1,249 




$5-50 


$ 6,869 


135 


3.529 


4.076 




1-25 


5.095 


2 


3 
191* 


6 




1. 00 
(.00* 


6 




5ot 


191 




30.oct 


1,691 






7 




1. 00 


7 


1,889 


4.941 


9.786 




.90 


8,807 


59 


1.423 


1,488 




1. 00 


1,488 


I 


12 


14 




[.00 


14 


2,616 


11,510 


16,611 




1. 00 


16.61 1 


152 


18,310 


19.860 




4.00 


79,440 




141 


141 




.62 


87 


48 


IZ^ 


820 




■75 


615 


4.927 


41.759 


54.231 






$5,530 


$102,464 








$120,730 



*Crate. t*-'arload. 

XoTES — (1) Shipments for all way-stations between Beaufort and Yemassee are 
billed at Yemassee : that is. shipments from Burton, Island Tank, Grey"s Hill, beabrook, 
Coosaw. Tomotlev and Sheldon are credited to Yemassee. 

(2) All packages are crates, except that barrels are used for potatoes and most or 
the "cabbages went by the carload, as stated. . . ,, 

(3 1 The prices given are net: that is, with transportation and commission charges 
deducted, and represent the money received. 



Truck Business gf Port Royal Island and Vicinity fir Spring cf 1906. 

(i) (2) (3) 

Truck Port Beau- Yem- Total Price per Total 

Acreage. Royal. fort. assee. Pkgs. Pkg. Value. 

Asparagus 100 41 1,247 1.388 $3-00 $4,164.00 

Beans 835 169 2,218 3.222 i.oo 3.222.00 

Beets 59 218 320 597 4-50 2,686.50 

^ ^^ ( ''Z(>V2 *36^ *35-00 1,277-50 

Cabbages | ^^ j^ |3j7 jg^g ti.oo 849.00 

Cantaloupes u n i-oo ii-oo 

Carrots 2 2 1.50 3-00 

Corn I 210 211 422 3-00 1.266.00 

Cucumbers 9.983 2,582 11.386 23,951 .50 ii.975-50 

Egg Plant 7 7 2.25 , „l5-75 

Lettuce 62 3.358 3.447 6,867 i-oo 6,867.00 

Onions 5 •••■ i 6 i.oo 6.00 

Peas 6,758 4,037 16,298 27,093 .60 16,255.80 

Potatoes 7,650 326 45,189 53,165 3-40 180,761.00 

Radish 28 3,175 464 3,667 1-50 5,500.50 

Squash 300 4 641 945 i-25 1,181.25 

Tomatoes 36 370 16 422 1-25 527-50 

Packages 25,841 14,500 82,264 122.614 ...... 

Value $37,009.80 $14,701.60 $183,591.90 $236,509.30 



K'ar. frate. 



302 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

It is worth the while to give the experience of two settlers from the East. 
These men, the Whipple brothers, natives of Rhode Island, planted 36 acres at 
Beaufort in radishes; took off crop and planted again in radishes, realizing 
$10,000 from two crops net this year (1906). They planted the same ground in 
beets ; took off a good crop and followed this with cucumbers, making a good 
yield. After cucumbers, corn was planted, making over 50 bushels to the acre. 
Five (5) crops on the same ground in the same year, in rotation, were gathered. 
Herewith is presented a picture of their field, taken in the early spring. They 
knew but little of farming at the outset. A statement of this accomplishment 
has been filed with the Department of Agriculture. 

Elseivhere. — The trucker is beginning to be a man of importance, financially, 
elsewhere than on the coast. The larger towns and the cities must be supplied 
with vegetables, and the truck farmer is no mean man at this day in the suburbs 
of the principal towns and cities of the State. The market for his produce is 
ready and profitable. 

The trucking industry has come to stay in South Carolina by reason of the 
advantages of climate and geographical location, by reason of its accessibility to 
the markets of the East, and by reason of the productiveness of the soil. The 
active districts of this State are now not only furnishing their products to 
Eastern but also to Western markets. To the active and ambitious tiller of the 
soil the coastal plain offers rare opportunities if truck be the crop. 









4 

RICE 

IN 

South 
Carolina 




pm 






FIELD CF RIPE RICE ON CREIGHTON PLANTATION. 





Almost from the foundation of the colony rice has been one of the principal 
agricultural crops of South Carolina, the coast country lands being especially 
adapted to its culture and producing the finest quality of rice raised in America. 
While rice-growing is not so general today, it is still more or less profitable, 
and it still commands the highest price for this article in the markets of the 
world. The competition that has sprung up in the Southwest, however, since 
the Civil War, greatly reducing the cost of production of rice, has injured the 
industry in this State, and at this time special efforts are being made by the 
State Department of Agriculture to find some means of reducing the cost of 
production of Carolina rice on the coast, with a view to the reestablishment of 
the industry. 

The principal competition has come from the States of Louisiana and Texas. 
In the last ten years these two States have increased the acreage devoted to rice 
to such an extent that they now furnish nearly three-fourths of all of the product 
in the United States. 

For fifteen years 
prior to i86l the an- 
nual production of 
rice in North Caro- 
lina. South Carolina 
and Georgia had av- 
eraged more than 
105,000,000 pounds of 
cleaned rice, and of 
this, South Carolina 
produced more than 
three-fourths. There 
has never been a full 
restoration of the in- 
dustry since the war. 
From 1886 to 1880, 
inclusive, the annual 
production of the three States averaged a little less than 41,000,000 pounds, of 
which this State produced more than one-half. Since 1880 the average annual 
production of these three States has been, in round numbers, 46,000,000 pounds 
of cleaned rice, of which North Carolina produced 5,500,000, South Carolina 
27,000,000 and Georgia 13.500,000. The average crop in Louisiana since 1880 has 
been about 86,000,000 pounds of cleaned rice. The methods of cultivation and 
handling in Louisiana are totally different from what they are in South Caro- 
hna, and there today the cost of production is very much less than it is in 
South Carolina, all things considered. However, the quality and price of the 
South Carolina product is still the best in this country, and it is a curious fact 
that Anderson County, in the Piedmont, with its yield of upland rice per acre 
still holds the world's record. 

History. — "Rice is a word," the investigator tells us, "that preserves its 
etymology through all human speech. From the Sanskrit through the Persian, 
Greek, Latin, Spanish, French, to contemporary luiglish. it has kept its root 
unchanged. It ii a cereal of the grass family, known as Oryza Sativa. It is an 
annual, reachinr, two to five feet at maturity. It is indigenous in certain parts 
of India and ir, tropical Australia. 



^.. _ 






1' Jl^^ ' 




Wk ■ . 



HARVESTING OF RICE ON CREIGHTON PLANTATION. 



304 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



"There is no record of its nativity in Egypt, Persia, Greece, or Rome. So far 
as is known, it is the first cereal used by man. Probably the Aryans carried it 
with them in their migratory marches from the cradle of the human race, in the 
earliest dawn of history. We know that it was introduced into China about 
3,000 years before Christ. We know that it was grown in the valley of the 
Euphrates 500 years before Christ ; that the Arabs took it to Spain, and sustained 
by its marvelous nourishment, planted their victorious banners everywhere. 
The Moors called it Ariiz; the modern Spaniard still calls it Arroz. 

"It was introduced into Italy in 1468. Sir William Berkeley first cultivated 
it in Virginia in 1647. Today it is grown as the staple article of food by the 
millions of India, Siam. China. Japan and Africa. In the Mediterranean coun- 
tries, and in the tropical and semi-tropical regions of North and South America, 
it is cultivated as a principal means of subsistence." 

Most Important of Cereals. — "Rice is not only the most important of all the 
cereals, but by far the most important of all food products. It is almost the 
exclusive diet of 57 per cent, and the principal support of nearly 75 per cent, 
of the human race. Not only is -it the most extensively used and the most widely 
distributed of the world's foods, but it is the food, par excellence, that produces 
the greatest amount of muscular energy and physical endurance. Rice is the 
chief diet of the wonderful Japanese soldiery, whose strength and prowess conipel 
the admiration and wonder of mankind today. It is eaten almost exclusively 
by the Indian and Chinese coolies, those marvelous human machines who can 
carry a load all day. under a burning sun. that would stagger an American or 
European; who can carry that load at a speed sufficient to tire a horse; and who 
accomplish labors that no meat-eating Caucasian could begin to perform. The 
main reason for the superiority of rice over all other forms of foods is its ready 
digestibility, plain boiled rice being assimilated in one hour, while the other 
cereals, legumes and meats, and most vegetables, require from three and one- 
half to five hours. Rice thus enables a man to economize fully 75 per cent, of 
the time and energy expended in the digestion of ordinary food, setting it free 
to be used in his daily vocation, in the pursuit of study, or social duties, and in 
the case of invalids and people of enfeebled vitality, adding it to the reserve 
force of the system. The perfect digestibility of rice makes it exceedingly valu- 
able for a weak digestion. A rice diet is generally prescribed for any inflam- 
mation of the mucous membrane — whether of the lungs, stomach, or bowels. 
With meat, fish, milk, cheese, or beans, cooked in the proper proportion, it makes 
a perfect nutritive diet." 

Its Grotcth ill America. — A recent bulletin on rice issued by the United States 
Department of Agriculture touches upon the history of its introduction into this 
country in this way : 

"Rice was probably an 
article of food in Asia in 
prehistoric times. It is 
known that the Chinese 
have used it for nearly 
fifty centuries, and in In- 
dia, too, its use ante- 
dates authentic history. 
It was introduced into 
Europe in the fifteenth 
century, when it was ta- 
ken to Italy and Spain 
from Northern Africa, 
where it had been plant- 
ed by the Mohammedans 
in their migration from 
Asia Minor. In 1647, 
Governor Berkeley, of 
Virginia, planted some 
seed rice received from 
England, but the experi- 
ment was not a success, 
and it was not until 1694 that rice-growing was really established in this country. 
In that year the Governor of South Carolina planted some rice given him by the 
master of a trading vessel which had put into Charleston on a cruise from Mada- 
gascar. The seed grew well, and in a few years rice-planting on the lowlands 
of the coast became one of the chief industries of South Carolina. From this 
State the cultivation was extended to North Carolina and Geo-gia, and later to 




ARTESIAN WELL IK B.\RNYARD ON CREIGHTON PLANTATION. 



AGRICULTURE. 305 

Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. The French who settled about 
New Orleans, and the Acadians of Southwestern Louisiana, cultivated rice in a 
primitive way in the latter part of the eighteenth century, but the methods of 
growing were so crude that the industry did not become commercially important 
until after the Civil War. The conditions resulting from the Civil War gave 
considerable stimulus to the planting of rice as a staple crop in Louisiana along 
the Mississippi River, and impoverished planters, who had formerly relied on 
other crops requiring great outlay of capital, began to grow rice as a means of 
quick financial relief. For several years the production was small, but it grad- 
ually increased. 

"Since 1870 there has been a decline in the production of the Carolinas and 
Georgia as a result of unfavorable climatic conditions, and the fact that improved 
machinery cannot be used on the poorly drained fields. 

"In 1896 the problem of irrigating the barren prairies of Southwestern Lou- 
isiana and Southeastern Texas was solved at Crowley, in Acadia parish, and a 
new era in rice culture opened. By means of powerful pumps water is now 
lifted and forced along elevated ridges through great arterial systems of canals, 
from which the low-lying fields can be flooded at will. In many cases, also, 
irrigation is effected by means of artesian wells. 

"The adoption of modern machinery for cultivating and harvesting the grain 
quickly followed the introduction of the extensive irrigation systems, since the 
buoyant prairie soil, which can be easily and thoroughly drained, makes the use 
of machinery possible. Extensive areas can now be cultivated and harvested with 
a small expenditure of labor and with economical production and larger profits 
insured. 

"The development of the industry in the coastal prairie belt of Louisiana and 
Texas, where a few years ago land could be obtained at from $1 to $5 an acre, 
has been so great that the commercial crop for this district in 1904, as reported 
at the census of 1905, was more than 95 per cent, of the whole crop of the 
United States. 

"In the Atlantic States the grain is cut by the sickle, cured, and threshed in 
a stationary machine, which prepares the grain for milling. In Louisiana and 
Texas the rice is harvested and threshed in the same manner as wheat in the 
Western States. As it comes from the thresher it is packed in 4-bushel sacks." 

South Carolina's Mills and Products. — South Carolina has four custom rice 
mills, which received in tolls in 1905 $76,885. The rough rice milled in 1905 
amounted to 28.552.860 pounds, valued at $481,401, all domestic. This netted 
17.825,732 pounds of clean rice, worth $527,686, of which I3'677,357 pounds was 
whole, worth $447,721. The bran was worth $18,460, the hulls and waste $i,447. 
and the polish $6,915. The amount of rice broken in milling is less in South 
Carolina than in any of the other rice-producing States. The rice mills of South 
Carolina have a capital of $317,394. 



STATISTICS OF RICE. 

Av. Val. 

Year Acreage. Production. Value. per Acre. 

Bu. 

1906 19.036 418,792 $418,792 $22.00 

1905 18.114 470,964 499.222 

1004 33.300 832,500 557,775 $16.75 

19CO 77,657 47,360,128 lbs 

1 lie 1907 acreage is slightly increased, and so with the production; the price 
rcninins about the same. 



20— II. n. 



3o6 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



THE 1900 RICE CROP. 



Acreage. 

The State . . . . . . 77,657 

Coast Counties : 

Beaufort 9,361 

Berkeley 9,212 

Charleston 2,641 

Colleton 13,846 

Dorchester 2,612 

Georgetown I4,i57 

Hampton 5, 130 

Horry i,945 

Williamsburg .... 2,206 

Other Counties : 

Abbeville ...... r 

Aiken 234 

Anderson 3 

Bamberg 1,099 

Barnwell 767 

Cherokee i 

Chesterfield 14 



Produc- 
tion in 
Pounds. 
47,360,128 

7,864,612 

5,740,098 

2,034,744 

11,319,208 

714,594 

10,259,430 

3,383,572 

666,454 

471,826 

496 

94,726 

1,380 

307,950 

260,482 

24 

5,756 



Acreage. 

Clarendon 1,432 

Darlington 397 

Fairfield 14 

Florence i,ii9 

Greenville 28 

Greenwood i 

Kershaw 761 

Lancaster 4 

Lexington 804 

Marion 310 

Marlboro 60 

Newberry 49 

Oconee i 

Orangeburg 7,333 

Pickens 35 

Richland 435 

Saluda i 

Spartanburg .... 32 

Sumter 1,616 



Produc- 
tion in 
Pounds. 
358.342 
95,820 
7,960 
205,164 
8,512 
144 
248.276 
1-530 
276,612 
107,862 
17.458 
20,236 
70 
2,266,162 
7,604 
134,736 
170 
21,364 
386,554 




World's Record 

and other 
Noteworthy Crops 



General. — This State has held the world's record for the growing of corn 
per acre, as far as human memory and records go, notwithstanding South 
Carolina has never been one of the great corn-producing States. During the 
year 1906 the last capture of the first prize in such a contest was made. This 
State also holds wonderful records for the growing of grains, and for the pro- 
duction of cotton per acre, and today, as it has ever done, the quality of the 
South Carolina cotton, particularly Sea Island long staple, ranks well above 
the average of the cotton belt. In 1906, in the national contest. South Carolina 
captured the second prize for the growing of oats, and in reality made the 
ranking yield, but a storm destroyed much of the yield during harvest. In pre- 
senting the facts as to some of these noteworthy yields considerable detail has 
been given in order that those interested in the betterment of agricultural con- 
ditions might benefit from the experience of others. 

The Parker Yield of Corn. — The first record yield of corn per acre was made 
in the year 1857, when Dr. J. \V. Parker, at the time superintendent of the 
State Lunatic Asylum, on a piece of land then and since known as the "Asylum 
Farm," about one mile north of Columbia, made "the largest crop per acre ever 
obtained anywhere: from two acres he gathered 359 bushels, and one acre gave 
200 bushels and 12 quarts." 

Capt. Drake's World's Record. — The Parker record stood unchallenged until 
the year 1889, when the American Agriculturalist's contest in corn growing, 
open to the world, took place. In this contest Capt. Zachariah Jordan Drake, 
of Marlboro County, in this State, won the grand prize. The "Book of Corn," 
the standard authority in the United States on corn growing, thus tells of this 
yield : "From a single acre Mr. Drake grew 255 bushels of shelled corn, or 239 
bushels of crib-cured corn. Late in February, 1,000 bushels of stable manure 
and 500 pounds each of manipulated guano, cottonseed meal and kainit were 
broadcasted on the acre and then plowed under. Following the plow 600 bushels 
of whole cottonseed were strewn in the furrows. A subsoil plow was run 
through a depth of twelve inches. The land was well harrowed and the rows 
planted alternately March 2 three and six feet apart. An improved strain of 
the common gourd variety of Southern white dent corn was planted, five or six 
kernels being dropped to each foot of the row. It was planted in the rows 
five inches deep, but covered only one inch. At the first hoeing the plants were 
thinned to one stalk every five or six inches, the missing spots replanted. On 
April 20 the six-foot spaces were plowed and a mixture composed of 200 pounds 
each of guano, kainit, cottonseed meal, acid phosphate and bone was applied 
and hoed in. On May 15 the three-foot spaces were plowed, 300 pounds of 
nitrate of soda sown and worked in. On May 25, 200 pounds of guano were 
applied in the wide spaces. .Another application of 500 pounds of guano, cotton- 
seed meal and kainit was put on June 8, and 100 pounds nitrate of soda June 
II. 'Ihe crop was harvested November 25, before several reputable witnesses. 
It yielded 17,407 pounds of corn in the ear, of which 140 pounds was soft corn. 
Several tests showed that 100 pounds of ear corn yielded 82 pounds of shelled 
corn, which made the yield 254 bushels, 49 pounds of shelled corn at 56 pounds 
to the bushel, which, kiln-dried, to contain only 10 per cent, of water, would 
contain 239 bushels." 

Capt, brake's crop contained 82 per cent, of shelled corn, had 85 per cent, of 
dry matter in the corn, and 87 per cent, of dry matter in the cob. The green 



3o8 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



weight in bushels of shelled corn was 255 bushels, the crib-cured weight 239 
bushels, and the chemically dried weight 217 bushels. The total expenses were 
$264, and the value of the unexhausted manure $158. The net expenses, per 
bushel, amounted to 44 cents, and the feeding and manurial value of the crop 
was $182. 

In this contest Alfred Rose, of Yates County, N. Y., won second prize with 
213 bushels against Captain Drake's 255 ; George Gardner, of Nebraska, was 
third with 171 bushels, and J. Snelling, of Barnwell County, S. C, was fourth 
with 131 bushels. 

Mr. Tindal's World's Record. — No further attempt at a contest, open to the 
world, was made until the year 1906, when the American Agriculturalist under- 
took to repeat, but with more attention to detail, the contest of 1889. This con- 
test was participated in freely by South Carolina growers in competition with 
growers from all parts of th"e country. It was conducted not alone under the 
auspices of The Agriculturalist, but also under a State Commission consisting 
of the Commissioner of Agriculture, the President and the Professor of Agri- 
culture of Clemson Agricultural College, and the General Assembly provided for 
separate prizes. The contest was won by Mr. A. J. Tindal, of Clarendon County, 
S. C, a young farmer who had been educated at Clemson College. His yield 
was 182 bushels of shelled corn. The crop was scored by points and the score 
was as follows, the possible number of points being in parentheses : Purity and 
selection of seed 7(10), methods of culture 25(25), record or reports, its clear- 
ness, completeness, accuracy, care bestowed upon it, etc., 10(15), yield of contest 
acre 25(25), quality of crop, market grade, salability, feeding value, etc., 10(10), 
profits resulting from the entire operation 15(15) — 92(100). 



.^ 






EXECUTIVE DEI '.A 1 fl'Al EXT, 



OKFICK ok CcMITKf 



// CA//l)lJ,VA . 



' payuhlv to order o/_ 



fc*&JH<te.^^»lfa.fctfir-iiTtB iW" 



THE WARRANT PAVING TO MR. TINDAL HIS STATE CXNTEST 
PRIZE MONEY. 



The second prize in 
this contest went to A. J. 
Doore, of Butler County, 
Iowa, with 131 bushels, 
and the third to B. E. 
Moore, of Marlboro 
County, S. C, with 125 
bushels. The sixth, sev- 
enth, eighth, eleventh, 
twelfth and thirteenth 
prizes went to South 
Caroliiia farmers. 

Prof. Thomas Shaw, 
who is perhaps the 
world's most noted grain 
expert, and who has 
made a full review of 
the conditions under 
which the crop was 
grown, was the chief of 
the judges who passed 
on the competing crop 
yields. This report reads : 

"The acre of corn 
grown by Mr. Tindal 
produced a remarkable 
yield. It made him the 
winner of a $100 prize 
(not including State 
prizes). The corn was 
grown on land possessed 
of a cash value of $30 
per acre. The soil, rath- 
er low and naturally wet, 
was humus in its compo- 
sition, at least, to a con- 
siderable extent, choco- 



late in color, and was underlaid at a depth of about two feet by mixed gravel 
and pipe clay of a non-receptive character. 

"The soil was naturally enriched by washing from the surrounding soil and 
had also been highly fertilized during the three previous years. It had in it one 
open and some branch drains that were covered. In 1903 600 pounds of guano 
with a composition of 4.8.4, gave a return to 1,827 ponnds of seed cotton. In 1904 



AGRICULTURE. 309 

600 pounds of 4.8.4 guano and 60 pounds of nitrate of soda gave 132 bushels 
of corn and nine bushels of cowpeas. In 1905 600 pounds of guano, 100 pounds 
of nitrate of soda and 30 pounds of nitrate of potash gave a yield of 3,912 pounds 
of seed cotton. 

"On April 5, 1906, the ground was ploughed to the depth of fourteen inches 
and the same day was cross-ploughed and subsoiled to the depth of twenty 
inches, using a ten-inch turning plough, and the subsoil plough run in every 
furrow was home-made. Immediately after, the same day, a spring-tooth 
harrow was run over the acre to the depth of three inches, and also a smoothing 
harrow. On April 16 it was similarly harrowed and the harrow was at once 
followed by a smoothing harrow. On May 7 it was harrowed in precisely the 
same way as on April 16. 

"The fertilizer applied was as follows : 600 pounds of complete special guano, 
containing 4 per cent, ammonia, 8 per cent, phosphoric acid, and 4 per cent, 
potash; 500 pounds of cottonseed meal with a composition of y.ih and i; 500 
pounds of Peruvian guano with a composition of 8.8.5 and 2 ; and 400 pounds 
of nitrate of soda with 18 per cent, of ammonia. The first three fertilizers were 
applied in a furrow on May 7, at the time of the planting of the corn, and the 
fourth was given as a top dressing on June 15. One man w'ith mule and plough 
opened the furrows and three men applied the dressing by hand. The cost of 
the fertilizers before application was $32.45 for the acre. 

"The variety planted was the ^Marlboro Prolific, grown by the owner, who in 
1900 introduced the variety into the neighborhood. The seed was planted in 
rows that were made with the shovel. The kernels were buried three inches 
deep in a well-prepared soil, and one inch apart in the line of the row. The 
rows were thirty-three inches distant and twenty-eight quarts of seed were 
used, the germination of which was considered perfect. The weather was dry 
until June 10, and was then over-wet. 

"Expenditures were : 

Interest on land at 6 per cent $ i 80 

Cost of ploughing 500 

Cost of harrowing i 00 

Other labor in preparing land I GO 

Cost of fertilizers 3245 

Cost of applying fertilizers i 00 

Cost of seed 50 

Cost of cultivating 2 50 

Cost of other work i 50 

Cost of harvesting 9 80 

Total cost $5655 

"Receipts were : 

182 bushels corn at $2.00 $364 00 

3 tons stover at $6.00 18 00 

4,100 pounds fodder at $20.00 per ton 41 00 

Total receipts $423 00 

Net profit $366 45 

"On May 16 a weeder was run over the corn to the depth of two inches. It was 
cultivated May 22 and June 2, with 16-inch sweeps running to the depth of about 
one inch. On May 30 the crop was thinned by hand to the distance of four to 
six inches between the plants and weeds were removed. One day with three men 
was occupied in the hand work. 

"On August 27 the tops were cut off and the fodder stripped from the ear 
down. On November 30 the crop was harvested by plucking the ears. The same 
day the stubs of the stalks were cut by hand and shredded. The yield of the 
corn was 182 bushels, giving an average of 86 per cent, corn to cob. 

"The profit of $366.45 seems large, indeed, from one acre of land, but it will 
be noticed that in reaching it tlie entire crop is valued at $2.00 per bushel, on the 
assumption that it will all make good seed. For that purpose forty-eight bushels 
had been sold when the manual was filled out in the autumn of 1906. The fodder, 
which, I understand, means the tops and leaves, is valued at $20.00 per ton. 

"To a Northern man this seems a very large valuation. But suppose the 
entire crop is valued at 50 cents per bushel for feeding, and the straw and fodder 
together at $5.00 per ton. These would be worth the figures named in any part 



AGRICULTURE. 311 

of the United States ; the net profit from the acre would still be $44.45, or 
considerably more than the land is worth. In my judgment, the State of South 
Carolina should give Mr. Tindal a medal for what he has done. His achieve- 
ment is simply wonderful, and the lessons from it are many. They include 
the following: 

"He has brought into bold relief the wisdom of keeping land in a high state 
of fertilization, as in i903-'o4-'o5 he got good returns from high fertilization. 

"He has demonstrated the great value of deep and thorough cultivation in 
Southern soils when preparing them, and of pulverizing finely before planting. 

"He has shown that a farmer must not be afraid to put on ^ little hand labor 
when growing crops that will be benefited by it. 

"He has made it clear that to obtain maximum yields of corn the stand must 
not be thin or irregular. His crop was grown more closely than corn is usually 
grown, but, of course, on some soils it may be necessary to plant somewhat 
more distant. 

"He has shown that in the South a farmer may apply fertilizer that costs 
him more than his land is worth, and yet make a good return for the investment. 
"He has demonstrated that a Southern farmer may make enormous profits 
from growing seed corn. 

"Finally, he has shown that in these United States we are only in the A. B. C. 
of possible production of grains." 

Professor Shaw, in a separate article, has the following to say: 
"No feature of the reports has surprised me more than the high value put 
upon corn fodder by contestants living in the South. Mr. A. J. Tindal, for 
instance, of Manning, S. C, had his corn cut down to the ears and the fodder 
stripped ofif. The weight thus obtained from an acre, presumably cured, was 
4,100 pounds. This he valued in his report at $20.00 per ton. The corn fodder, 
presumably the lower part of the stalk, was shredded. Three tons were obtained, 
and this was valued at $6.00 per ton. These facts speak loudly as to the great 
difference in the estimate of the value put upon corn fodder in the South and in 
the corn belt, where millions of acres go back every year to earth ungatnered. It 
would seem scarcely possible that such a difference could exist in the same 
country. 

"That millions and millions of acres of this product should go to waste every 
year in the United States must appear strange to the foreigner. That so much 
should be wasted is indeed a stigma upon our agriculture, but it is a stigma that 
yields its ground very slowly. One acre of corn stover properly cured and fed 
is worth as much, on the average, as one acre of timothy hay. The food thus 
grown on 1,000.000 acres of corn in the stover is worth as much as the food 
grown on 1,000.000 acres of timothy hay. The waste of 1,000,000 acres of corn 
fodder is. therefore, equal to the waste of 1,000,000 acres of timothy hay. 

"It may be answered that live stock get some of the fodder while grazing in 
the fields. They do, but more of it they do not get. and all of what they get is 
impaired in quality." 

Another State contest is being conducted in South Carolina during 1908. 

Four Bales to the Acre. — There have been many instances of very large 
yields of upland cotton in different portions of South Carolina. One of the 
most conspicuDus is that of Hon. E. D. I'hompson, of Point, York County, who 
raised four bales on one acre in 1897. Over his own signature Mr. Thompson 
told the story of this crop in a communication to the Yorkville Enquirer, in 
November of the year named, as follows : 

"Having finished the gathering of the crop off of my pet acre of cotton, I 
will now, in compliance with your request made to me some weeks ago, endeavor 
to give you a history of the experiment. 

"To begin with, the plot of land was stepped off by one of my neighbors as 
follows: First line, 86 yards; second line, 65 yards; third line, 60 yards; and 
fourth line, 65 yards, enclosing a total of 4,910 square yards of dark gray land 
with yellow subsoil. 

"Now, to go back a little. Two years ago (in 1895) this plot was fertilized 
with 500 pounds of soluble guano and planted in corn. The yield was between 
forty and fifty bushels. Last year (1896) it was fertilized with sixteen two- 
horse loads of lot scraping, scattered broadcast, and 1,000 pounds of soluble 
guano, Charlotte acid and German kainit placed in drill. After this, it was 
planted with King cotton, and the yield was 846 pounds of lint. 

"About the middle of March, of the present year, I made a compost heap, 
consisting of fifty bushels of cottonseed, six two-horse loads of stable manure, 
800 pounds of Charlotte acid and 200 pounds of kainit. After a thorough mixing, 
these materials were covered with rich earth and left in a low, flat heap until 



312 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



the 15th of April, when, after having turned out the old stalks and smoothly 
harrowed my acre, I spread over it the contents of the compost heap, as evenly 
as possible, and then turned it under to a depth of from six to eight inches, 
after which I again used the harrow to level and pulverize the land. 

"With the manure 
in and the land thor- 
oughly pulverized, I 
next took a terrace 
level, ran a line di- 
rectly through the 
center of the plot, and 
from this line, each 
way, laid oflf the rows 
four and one-half feet 
apart from center to 
center. Then, in the 
furrows, I drilled 700 
pounds of equal parts 
of soluble guano, 
Charlotte acid and 
kainit, and after that, 
with a six-inch steel 
shovel, I prepared the 
land in low flat beds 
for planting. 

"The seeds used 
were what might very 
properly be called 
Further Improved 
King. They consisted 
of 100 pounds care- 
fully selected from the 
best bolls off the best 
stalks that grew on 
the same land the 
year before. 

"On the 20th of 
May, I side-harrowed 
the acre, and two 
days afterward went 
over it again, and, by 
hand, pulled it up to 
one stalk to every 
six or eight inches. 
This work I did myself, in order to be sure that it was done right, and also that 
I might be assured that there was nothing left but healthy, vigorous stalks. 

"On the 27th of May I side-harrowed again, and on the ist of June thinned 
to eighteen inches in the drill. Next, on the loth of June, I sided with a short 
straight shovel and twelve-inch bow, and on the 22nd I sided again with a larger 
shovel and sixteen-inch bow. Then, on the 15th of July, I hoed and run three 
furrows with shovel and eighteen-inch heel scrape. Last, on the 28th of July, I 
went through the middles as deeply as I could with a bull tongue, or scooter, 
and then, on the same day, 'laid by' by leveling off with shovel and heel scrape. 

"The work of picking, ginning and packing has just been completed, with a 
total yield of four bales, weighing respectively 430, 441, 453 and 398 pounds, in 
all 1,722 pounds of lint on the acre. 

"Now, Mr. Editor, I know that this is a phenomenal yield of cotton to be 
gathered from one acre, and many of your readers will doubt this report. I 
have not got anything to say to Thomas ; but to others who believe in the 
possibility of things that they themselves have never seen, I beg to say that 
what I have done is nothing more than they can do if they will use the means. 
Let them select the right kind of seed, fertilize their land well, work it properly, 
and my word for it they will be gratified at the result. 

"As for myself, I have been using the King variety for some time past. I am 
not prepared to say that the King is superior to all other varieties for all kinds 
of soil ; but in this climate, on highly fertilized lands, I think the King beats 
any other variety. 




VIEW OF CORN IN FIELD OF 100 ACRES, YIELDING 70 BUSHELS 
PER ACRE. 



AGRICULTURE. 313 

"While my success this year has been in a large measure due to the seed — 
probably I owe more to the seed than anything else; still I think that the deep 
furrow at the last working had much to do with the yield. My opinion here is 
based on past experience. I have several times before gathered two bales from 
one acre, and each time there was a considerable quantity of fruit %yhich failed 
to mature. Some of it rotted, and some of it dried up. Anyhow, it did not open. 
I began to think it was impossible to cultivate or fertilize so as to get more than 
two bales. The trouble seemed to be that after a certain point, the stalks would 
become so large and the foliage so dense as to necessarily cause the moulding 
and rotting of the lower bolls. 

"But in the King variety this trouble is, is a large measure, overcome. Owing 
to the natural habits of the plant, dwarf growth and early maturity, the stalk does 
not grow as large under same conditions. It puts on more fruit to the size than 
any other variety of which I have any knowledge, and while the foliage is all 
sufficient to give the stalk a healthy growth, yet this foliage is not so dense, even 
under the stimulus of high cultivation, and this year I noticed but very little 
trouble on account of the rotting of the early bolls. 

"This year the cotton on the acre referred to above bloomed at least two 
weeks earlier than ordinary varieties. It has been earlier every year. It has also 




AN ARTIST S WAY OF ILLUSTRATING SOUTH CAROLINA S SUPREMACY IN CORN GROWING. 



matured earlier. Heretofore I have neglected the deep furrow already described. 
The eff'ect of that furrow has certainly been most noticeable. The cotton kept 
on maturing almost as late as other varieties, and I think the deep furrow was 
largely the cause of it. The furrow deepens the feeding roots and gives greater 
vitality. 

"Then another thing. Although I have referred to this cotton as a dwarf 
variety, I wish to be understood only that it has dwarf tendencies and charac- 
teristics under ordinary circumstances. During the present fall I have picked 
white cotton a foot above my head, or six and one-half feet from the ground. 

"In conclusion, let me say also that I have written this account only because 
you asked me for it, and that my object is the same as yours, to disseminate 
information. I have no cotton seed on hand except the King variety, and am 
selling them to my neighbors at 15 cents a bushel. I do not wisli to sell the seed 
from my pet acre at all. If, however, any individual should be especially anxious 
for a few of these seeds, and will forward the stamps to cover postage ( 12 cents) 
I will be pleased to send him a pound by mail ; but I have only a limited quantity 
to dispose of on this basis, and would not care to send more than a single pound 
to any one individual." 



314 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



Record Yield of Oats. — Not only did South Carolina's farmers participate in 
the National Corn Contest, in 1906. but they were also represented in the 
National Contest for the growing of oats per acre. It has been a source of pride 
to the agricultural interests in the State that notwithstanding this crop was not 
planted with a view to this contest, but was entered after the contest had begun, 
that E. C. Haynsworth, of Sumter, S. C, took the second place when the awards 
were finally made. This was accomplished, also, under the most unfavorable 
weather conditions, severe storms occurring about the time the oats were ready 
for harvesting, and doing great damage, as may be seen from the accompanying 
picture of one of the fields entering in this contest, 
which was practically a total loss, though promising 
up to the time of the storm to far surpass the yield 
that finally won the prize. Mr. Haynsworth's actual 
yield of oats on one acre was 108 bushels, measuring 
32 pounds to the bushel. The first prize was won by 
V. D. O'Donnell. of Montana, who harvested 130^ 
bushels on one acre. The American Agriculturist 
J* IHIItT'j^H remarked, in making the announcement as to the result 

if' ■r'fli(:^H '^^ '^'^^ '9°*^ contest : "South Carolina thus proves her 

™"'"'^™'*^" adaptability to the oats crop as she has done to the 
corn crop. The best yields of corn in the United 
States have been grown in South Carolina in the 
American Agriculturist Contest of 1889 and again in 
our great competition of 1906." The illustration ac- 
companying shows a stalk of Mr. Haynsworth's oats, 
which was taken from the field after the harvest and 
is merely given in order that its height might be seen 
in comparison with a voung man practically six feet 
tall. 

World's Record Rice Crop. — The record for the 
yield of rice per acre is still held by the crop of Dr. 
Bo3'les. of Anderson County, who was a member of 
the historic Pendleton Farmers' Society. The yield 
was stated at the time to be 137 bushels on one acre, 
and this statement has never been successfully chal- 
lenged. .\ committee from the Society supervised the 
measuring of the product. 
A Record Yield , i 'ats. — In 1882 the yield of oats on an acre of land in Lan- 
caster County created national attention. It has been somewhat difficult to obtain 
accurate information in regard to this yield, but a very clear account is given in 
the following letter from the son of the farmer who made this record, which has 
perhaps never been surpassed : 

Lancaster, S. C, August 21, 1907. 
Your favor of 17th inst. received. I will gladly give you all the information 
I can, which was derived from my father many years ago. 

1. The yield of oats per acre — 182 bushels. 

2. Kind of oats — Red rust-proof variety. 

3. Kind of soil — Gray top soil with red clay subsoil. The lot where the oats 
were raised contained a fraction over three acres and is the lot now owmed by 
Col. Leroy Springs, upon which is located the Roddey Boarding House. 

4. Time of sowing- — Early fall in October. 1881. 

5. Time of reaping — In June, 1882. 

6. Manner of preparation — The land had been planted in cotton for several 
years previous, and each year had been thoroughly subsoiled by a long subsoil 
plow drawn by two large mules. Each year lot-manure, manure from the back 
lots and ditches of the town, as well as stable manure, was broadcasted over 
the field and plowed under with a two-horse Oliver Chilled Plow. Before the 
cotton was planted a compost preparation of cotton seed, acid phosphate and 
stable manure thoroughly rotted was put in the drill, and after the cotton was 
up, one or two side applications. 

At this time the lot was in fine condition, the top soil for eighteen inches in 
depth being practically "made earth." The spring before the year the oats were 
planted, I think in May, the field was broadcasted in cow peas, which were cut 
in the fall. When harvested I remember they resembled a dense mottled wil- 
derness of vines. A two-horse Oliver Chilled Plow was used to turn them in. 
And it will be noted that the vine as well as the root was turned in. I remem- 
ber a large heavy log chain was attached to the beam of the plow to drag the 
vines down to prevent the plow from clogging. 




AGRICULTURE. 31S 

7. The manuring — This has been partly answered under six (6) above. After 
the pea vines had been plowed under, lot and stable manure were broadcasted 
over the field and plowed under. 

Six bushels per acre were planted in the following manner : .\ man went 
across the field sowing two bushels with the hand, then came back in opposite 
direction with two bushels more, and then went perpendicularly across the field 
with the two remaining bushels. The oats grew to a height of six feet. They 
were cut with a cradle by hand. I remember that there was only one hand 
who continued work in reaping, and he could not make a full sweep with his 
cradle, as it would be full before he could make a half swing around. The oats 
were threshed and measured by Mr. W. jMcD. Brown, of this place, and Mr. 
Wm. L. Edwards (now dead), who owned the thresher. The large yield 
created a sensation at the time, and was written up by the papers. It was also 
made a matter of record in the office of the Clerk of Court of this county. 

I regret that I cannot give you an approximate amount of the cost of raising 
the oats, but I am confident there was a handsome profit in the yield. 

The yield was made by my father, the late Col. John D. Wylie, who was State 
Senator from Lancaster County at the time. My father was a practicing attorney 
at the time, but was farming at the same time. 

The year 1882 was a fine crop year, not only for oats, but for cotton, corn and 
other grain as well. A reliable farmer of this county told me yesterday that he 
made that year (1882) thirty-five (35) bales of cotton with two mules. 

R. E. Wylie. 

Since the above letter was written, a more complete investigation as to the 
facts in regard to Capt. John D. Wylie's oat yield has been made. It has been 
found that the yield was made in the year 1882 and was 182 measured bushels, 
which would be equivalent to over 200 bushels by standard weight. The yield 
was so remarkable that the committee which made the report had the facts 
recorded in the office of the Clerk of Court in Lancaster County. The affidavit 
of this committee, which was signed by Daniel W. Brown and W. L. Edwards, 
cannot at this time be found, and it is understood that it was subsequently 
removed from the office of the Clerk of Court of Lancaster County and for- 
warded to the then existing Department of Agriculture at Columbia. This 
Department having been abolished a number of years ago, its records became 
scattered, and in this way, no doubt, the affidavit was lost. However, there 
remains a record that amply sustains what Mr. Wylie writes of his father's 
celebrated crop. 

In the Lancaster Ledger (now extinct), June 14, 1882, is found this item: 
"The largest yield of oats to the acre in the United States, or the world, is the 
crop threshed out by Col. J. D. Wylie last week. On 31/ acres, measured by 
actual survey, he harvested 634 bushels. The oats weighed 2>7 pounds to the 
bushel. The aggregate in commercial bushels 7331-16 bushels, or 20925-56 
bushels to the acre. We defy the world to beat this! The field was seeded with 
eight bushels to the acre." 

A Trucking Record. — Two young men from Rhode Island, the Whipple 
Brothers, made a record, during the year 1906, in truck raising on their small 
place of 36 acres at Beaufort. They first planted the place in radishes, took off 
the crop and planted again in radishes, realizing $10,000 net from the two crops. 
Later, on the same ground, during the same season, they planted and secured a 
crop of peas, following that with cucumbers, making a good yield. .A.fter the 
cucumbers had gone they planted the entire place in corn and made over 50 
bushels to the acre. It is thus seen that five crops in rotation wtre gathered 
from the same ground in one year. These young men knew very little of 
farming at the outset. 

Sovic Other Results. — In 1906 a Bamberg County farmer, on a medium-sized 
farm, raising cantaloupes for the Eastern markets, netted the handsome sum of 
$15,000. 

Splendid returns are to be had from poultry-raising for the local and Eastern 
markets, the profits from which average 400 per cent. 

Here is the record of one truck farm in Charleston County during 1905: 
Irish potatoes, 22 acres, value product, $3,300; sweet potatoes, 12 acres, value 
product, $1,500; cabbage, 17 acres, value product, $2,500; lettuce, 6 acres, value 
product, $2,500; cucumbers, 10 acres, value product, $3,000; beans, 15 acres, value 
product, $2,250; watermelons. 8 acres, value product, $800; cantaloupes, 3 acres, 
value product, $450. 

A planter in Barnwell County in 1905 made $12,000 on 160 acres of canta- 
loupes, and another in Charleston County made $200 per acre. In Saluda County 
an asparagus planter in 1905 made $2,200 on 16 acres. 



3i6 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

Irish Potatoes. — In Lancaster County, during the season of 1907, Col. John N. 
Crocket, by intelligent cultivation, gathered 820 bushels of Irish potatoes on 

one acre. . .„,_,. 

Red Clover. — Another record that stands conspicuous in South Carolina agri- 
cultural history is the yield of red clover obtained in 1801 by Col. Hill, of York. 
He gathered 48 tons of red clover from 18 acres of land. 

Oats. — Capt. A. H. White, of Rock Hill, in 1884 harvested 1,012 bushels of 
oats from 16 acres and sold the crop at 75 cents a bushel. He sold one-half the 
straw for enough to pay all the expenses of preparing for the crop and har- 
vesting it. 

Irish Potatoes.— Capt. Lewis M. Grist, of York County, in 1883 made no 
bushels of Early Rose Irish potatoes on one-eighth of an acre. On another one- 
eighth of an acre adjoining the potato patch he had sufficient alfalfa to furnish 
gr'een food for a horse and a cow during the springs and summers of several 
years. 

Successful Corn Planting.— With this chapter is presented a picture entitled 
"Good Corn," which was grown during the 1907 season on the place of W. B. 
Plyler in Lancaster County. Before the crop had been harvested, Mr. Plyler 
wrote as follows in regard to it, the field consisting of 16 acres : 

"First, I had the land broken with a two-horse plow and well harrowed. Then 
T had rows laid oflf five feet apart, putting in one hundred pounds of fertilizer 
per acre, planting the corn (Marlboro Prolific) two feet apart in the row. In 
less than two months from the time of planting the corn was 'laid by,' having 
been plowed three times. With the second plowing one hundred pounds of 
fertilizer was applied per acre and also with the last plowing. Plowing was 
done with cultivators and land kept level. The field will average from two to 
three large ears of corn to each stalk, and the lowest estimate as to yield is 
1,000 bushels, or an average of 50 bushels per acre." The final result was 75 
bushels per acre when measured. 

The Williamson Corn Method — Conspicuous in the State's agricultural 
development of the past few years has been the introduction of the "Williamson 
Plan" for the cultivation of corn. It is here explained by Mr. Williamson 
himself: 

For a number of years after I began to farm I followed the old-time method 
of putting the fertilizer all under the corn, planting on a level or higher, six 
by three feet, pushing the plant from the start and making a big stalk, but the 
ears were few, and frequently small. I planted much corn in the spring and 
bought much more corn the next spring, until finally I was driven to the conclu- 
sion that corn could not be made on uplands in this section, certainly not by 
the old method, except at a loss. 

I did not give up, however, for I knew that the farmer who did not make his 
own corn never had succeeded, and never would, so I began to experiment. 
First, I planted lower, and the yield was better, but the stalk was still too large ; 
so I discontinued altogether the application of fertilizer before planting, and 
knowing that all crops should be fertilized at some time, I used mixed fertilizer 
as a side application, and applied the more soluble nitrate of soda later, being 
guided in this by the excellent results obtained from its use as a top dressing 
for oats. Still, the yield, though regular, was not large, and the smallness of 
the stalk itself now suggested that they should be planted thicker in the drill. 
This was done the next year, with results so satisfactory that I continued from 
year to year to increase the number of stalks, and the fertilizer with which to 
sustain them ; also to apply nitrate of soda at last plowing, and to lay by early, 
sowing peas broadcast. This method steadily increased the yield, until year 
before last (1904), with corn eleven inches apart in six-foot rows, and $11.00 
worth of fertilizer to the acre, I made eighty-four bushels average to the acre, 
several of my best acres making as much as 125 bushels. 

Last year (1905), I followed the same method, planting the first week in 
April seventy acres which had produced the year before 1,000 pounds seed 
cotton per acre. This land is sandy upland, somewhat rolling. Seasons were 
very unfavorable, owing to the tremendous rains in May, and the dry and 
extremely hot weather later. From June 12th to July 12th, the time when it 
most needed moisture, there was only five-eighths of an inch of rainfall here; 
yet with $7.01, cost of fertilizer, my yield was fifty-two bushels per acre. Rows 
were six feet and corn sixteen inches in drill. 

With this method, on land that will ordinarily produce 1,000 pounds of seed 
cotton with 800 pounds of fertilizer, 50 bushels of corn per acre should be made 
by using 200 pounds of cotton seed meal, 200 pounds of acid phosphate, and 400 
pounds of kainit mixed, or their equivalent in other fertilizer, and 125 pounds 
of nitrate of soda, all to be used as side application as directed below. 



AGRICULTURE. 



317 



On land that will make a bale and one-half of cotton per acre when well 
fertilized, a hundred bushels of corn should be produced bj' doubling the amount 
of fertilizer above, except that 300 pounds of nitrate of soda should be used. 

In each case there should be left on the land in corn stalks, peas, vines and 
roots, from $12 to $16 worth of fertilizing material per acre, beside the great 
benefit to the land from so large an amount of vegetable matter. The place of 
this in the permanent improvement of land can never be taken by commercial 
fertilizer, for it is absolutely impossible to make lands rich as long as they 
are lacking in vegetable matter. 

Land should be thoroughly and deeply broken for corn, and this is the time in 
a system of rotation to deepen the soil. Cotton requires a more compact soil 
than corn, and while a deep soil is essential to its best development, it will not 
produce as well on loose open land, while corn does best on land thoroughly 
broken. A deep soil will not only produce more heavily than a shallow soil 
with good seasons, but it will stand more wet as well as more dry weather. 




GOOD CORH IX LANCASTER. 



In preparing for the corn crop, land should he broken broadcast during the 
winter one-fourth deeper than it has been plowed before, or if much vegetable 
matter is being turned under, it may be broken one-third deeper. This is as 
much deepening as land will usually stand in one year and produce well, though 
it may be continued each year, so long as much dead vegetable matter is being 
turned under. It may, however, be sub-soiled to any depth by following in 
bottom of turn plow furrow, provided no more of the sub-soil than has been 
directed is turned up. Break with two heavy plows, if possible, or better, with 
disc plow. With the latter, cotton stalks or corn stalks as large as we ever make 
can be turned under without having been chopped, and in pea vines it will not 
choke or drag. 

Never plow land when it is wet, if you expect ever to have any use for it again. 

Bed with turn plow in six-foot rows, leaving five-inch balk. When ready to 
plant, break this out with scooter, following in bottom of this furrow deep with 
Dixie plow, wing taken off. Ridge then on this furrow with same plow, still 



3i8 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

going deep. Run corn planter on this ridge, dropping one grain every five or 
six inches. Plant early, as soon as frost danger is past, say first seasonable 
spell after March 15th, in this section. Especially is early planting necessary on 
very rich lands where stalks cannot otherwise be prevented from growing too 
large. Give first working with harrow or any plow that will not cover the plant. 
For second working, use ten- or twelve-inch sweep on both sides of corn, 
which should now be about eight inches high. Thin after this working. It is 
not necessary that the plants should be left all the same distance apart if the 
right number remain to each yard of row. 

Corn should not be worked again until the growth has been so retarded, and 
the stalk so hardened that it will never grow too large. This is the most dif- 
ficult point in the whole process. Experience and judgment are required to 
know just how much the stalk should be stunted, and plenty of nerve is required 
to hold back your corn when your neighbors, who fertilized at planting time and 
cultivated rapidly, have corn twice the size of yours. (They are having their 
fun now. Yours will come at harvest time). The richer the land, the more 
necessary it is that the stunting process should be thoroughly done. 

When you are convinced that your corn has been sufficiently humiliated, you 
may begin to make the ear. It should now be from twelve to eighteen inches 
high, and look worse than you have ever had any corn to look before. 

Put half of your mixed fertilizer (this being the first used at all) in the old 
sweep furrow on both sides of every other middle, and cover by breaking out 
this middle with turn plow. About one week later treat the other middle the 
same way. Within a few days side corn in first middle with sixteen-inch sweep. 
Put all your nitrate of soda in this furrow, if less than 150 pounds. If more, 
use one-half of it now. Cover with one furrow of turn plow, then sow peas 
in the middle broadcast at the rate of at least one bushel to the acre, and finish 
breaking out. 

In a few days side corn in other middle with same sweep, put balance of 
nitrate of soda in this furrow if it has been divided, cover with turn plow, sow 
peas, and break out. This lays by your crop with a good bed and plenty of dirt 
around your stalk. This should be from June loth to 20th, unless season is very 
late, and corn should be hardly bunching for tassel. 

Lay by early. More corn is ruined by late plowing than by lack of plowing. 
This is when the ear is hurt. Two good rains after laying by should make you 
a good crop of corn, and it will certainly make with much less rain than was 
required in the old way. 

The stalks thus raised are very small, and do not require anything like the 
moisture even in proportion to size that is necessary for large sappy stalks. 
They may, therefore, be left much thicker in the row. This is no new process. 
It has long been a custom to cut back vines and trees in order to increase the 
yield and quality of fruit ; and so long as you do not hold back your corn, it will 
go, like mine so long went, all to stalk. 

Do not be discouraged by the looks of your corn during the process of culti- 
vation. It will yield out of all proportion to its appearance. Large stalks can- 
not make large yields, except with extremely favorable seasons, for they cannot 
stand a lack of moisture. Early applications of manure go to make large stalks, 
which you do not want, and the plant food is all thus used up before the ear, 
which you do want, is made. Tall stalks not only will not produce well them- 
selves, but will not allow you to make the pea vines, so necessary to the improve- 
ment of land. Corn raised by this method should never grow over seven and 
one-half feet high, and the ear should be near to the ground. 

I consider the final application of nitrate of soda an essential point in this 
ear-making process. It should always be applied at last plowing and unmixed 
with other fertilizers. 

I am satisfied with one ear to the stalk, unless a prolific variety is planted, 
and leave a hundred stalks for every bushel that I expect to make. I find the 
six-foot row easiest to cultivate without injuring the corn. For fifty bushels 
to the acre, I leave it sixteen inches apart; for seventy-five bushels to the acre, 
twelve inches apart, and for one hundred bushels, eight inches apart. Corn 
should be planted from four to six inches below the level, and hid by from 
four to six inches above. No hoeing should be necessary, and middles may be 
kept clean until time to break out by using harrow or by running one shovel 
furrow in center of middle and bedding on that with one or more rounds of 
turn plow. 

I would advise only a few acres tried by this method the first year, or until 
you are familiar with its application. Especially is it hard, at first, to fully 




o 



320 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

carry out the stunting process, where c whole crop is involved, and this is the 
absolutely essential part of the process. ,, , • , r i j 

This method I have applied or seen applied, successfully, to all kinds of land 
in this section except wet lands and moist bottoms, and I am confident it can 
be made of great benefit throughout the entire South. 

In the middle West, where corn is so prolific and profitable, and where, unfor- 
tunately for us, so much of ours has been produced, the stalk does not naturally 
grow large. As we come South its size incrc.ises, at the expense of the ear, 
until in Cuba and Mexico it is nearly all stj^'k (witness Mexican varieties). 

The purpose of this method is to elimiucce this tendency of corn to over- 
growth at the expense of yield, in this Southern climate. 

By this method I have made my corn crop more profitable than my cotton 
crop, and my neighbors and friends who have adopted it have, without excep- 
tion, derived great benefit therefrom. 

Plant your own seed. I would not advise a change of seed and method the 
same year, as you will not then know from which you have derived the benefit. 
I have used three varieties, and all have done well. I have never used this 
method for late planting. In fact. I do not advise the late planting of corn, 
unless it be necessary for cold lowlands. 

The increased cost of labor and the high price of all material and land are 
rapidly making farming unprofitable, except to those who are getting from one 
acre what they formerly got from two. We must make our lands richer by 
plowing deep, planting peas and other legumes, manuring them with acid phos- 
phate and potash, which are relatively cheap, and returning to the soil the 
resultant vegetable matter rich in humus and expensive nitrogen. The needs 
of our soil are such that the South can never reap the full measure of pros- 
perity that should be hers until this is done. 

I give this method as a farmer to the farmers cf the South, trusting that 
thereby they may be benefited as I have been. 

E. McIvER William sex. 

In the season of 1907 the Williamson Plan has been practiced generally in 
South Carolina, and most gratifying results have been obtained, in many 
instances yields of from 60 to 70 bushels per acre being obtained. 





In AlcCrady's History, after referring to the failure of the Huguenots to 
establish the manufacture of silk, the details of the attempt of Sir Nathaniel 
Johnson to develop this industry upon his plantation, "Silk Hope," in what was 
subsequently St. Thomas' Parish, is given. In 1699 he presented to the Pro- 
prietors a sample of silk made by him. In 1707 he was making from £300 to 
£400 yearly from silk alone. Little negro children were employed to feed the 
silk worm, and others encouraged by Johnson went into the industry, earning 
from £40 to £50 per year without interfering with their other avocation. Ihe 

silk was manufactured 
into druggets. "As mul- 
berry trees grow spon- 
taneously in South Caro- 
lina," says this historian, 
"and native silk worms 
produced well-formed co- 
coons which were often 
found in the woods, it 
appears that this country 
was well adapted to the 
development of the in- 
GANZi COLONY HOME. dustry ; but though again 

tried bv the Swiss near Purysburg in 1731, and yet again by the French colony 
near New Bordeaux, Abbeville, in 1764, this manufacture has never been perse- 
vered in, 'probably,' says Dr. Ramsey, 'because there were easier modes of making 
money.'" The silk produced was sent to England. 

Elisabeth Lucas. — Elizabeth Lucas, who was 
the daughter of Col. Geo. Lucas, an English 
army officer, devoted practically her whole life 
to encouraging the people to take to agricul- 
ture on all lines, introducing different plants 
and constantly urging the people to substantial 
agricultural development. When she married 
Chief Justice Charles Pinckney in 1774 and 
went to live at her new home, "Belmont," on 
Cooper River, she undertook the cultivation of 
silk. It is chronicled that with her own hands 
she wound the silk thread that was made by 
the silk worms at "Belmont." "During a visit 
afterwards to England," says White, "three 
silk dresses were made from this thread. One 
of the dresses was given the mother of King 
George the Third, and one of them, a shining 
gold brocade, was worn by Mrs. Pinckney her- 
self when she was received at the Royal Pal- 
ace. This dress has been handed down to her 
descendants of the present day." 

Later Efforts. — Frequently in the early history in South Carolina mention is 
made of various efforts at silk culture. In fact, immediately after the Revolu- 
tion efforts at planting mulberry trees for the cultivation of silk were luadc not 




L.\BOREKS' gUAKTEUS AT LADSON. 



21 — 11. r.. 



322 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 




COLONY STORES AT LADSON. 




ONE-YEAR-OLD VINEY'ARD — GANZI COLONY. 



only in this part of the new nation, but even on up into New England, and 

Benjamin Franklin was one 
of the most notable promoters 
of the movement. It was not 
until December, 1825, that the 
subject began to receive na- 
tional attention, however, and 
the year following official ef- 
forts were made to push the 
industry. There was consid- 
erable activity throughout the 
United States in this direc- 
tion until 1839, from which 
date the efforts seem to have 
almost entirely ceased until a 
few years ago. During the period of marked activity there was considerable 
planting of mulberry trees in South Carolina and some silk growing was done 
not far from the capital of the State. 

Federal Government Aids. — It 
was in 1901 that Congress au- 
thorized silk investigations to be 
made by the Federal Govern- 
ment. Miss Henrietta Aiken 
Kelly, of this State, who had 
long been a close student of seri- 
culture, was employed as a spe- 
cial agent of silk culture in the 
South. She had been to Lom- 
bardy and had carefully studied 
the subject at the home of the 
industry. She was charged with the preparation of a manual of instruction on silk 
culture, which was prepared and published by the Division of Entomology in 1903, 
entitled "Silk Worm Culture." The Federal Government has followed up the 
work continuously with a view to establishing the industry in South Carolina, 
and similarly located sections, has imported and furnished to various persons 
mulberry trees and silk worms, and has established in Washington a plant for 
the reeling of the silk. 

Miss Kelly's Work. — 
Through Miss Kelly's 
activity, in which she has 
had the hearty coopera- 
tion of the State De- 
partment of Agriculture, 
Commerce and Immigra- 
tion, owing to the exact 
similarity of soil and cli- 
mate conditions in South 
Carolina and in Lom- 
bardy, several thousand 
mulberry trees have been 
planted in this State in the past few years. Miss Kelly brought with her from 
Italy an expert, a graduate of the Agricultural Department of the University 
of Turin, and he is still engaged in directing silk culture in the coast section 
of the State. A number of Eastern silk manufacturers have been watching the 
demonstration in South Carolina as to the growing of the proper raw material 
with a view to moving mills to where the raw material is grown successfully. 

Present Conditions.- — This stage of the de- 
\elopment has not at this time been reached. 
Considerable headway has been made with 
the growing of silk by an Italian colony lo- 
cated by the Italian Consul at Charleston, 
near Ladson. In this colony are some sev- 
enty-five people, experienced in sericulture, 
and their trees are doing exceedingly well. 
About 9,000 mulberry trees were planted and 
they are growing well. It will take several 
years for the trees to develop sufficiently for 
the active prosecution of the work in silk 
production, and additional women who un- 
derstand the industry will be needed. These, 
it is stated, will be obtained at the proper 




POULTRY DEPARTMENT GANZI COLONY. 




BARN AT THE GANZI AGRICULTURAL 
COLONY AT LADSCN. 



AGRICULTURE. 323 

time. A number of trees have been planted in the vicinity of Bamberg, and an 
excellent variety of cocoons has been furnished by those engaged in the under- 
taking there. At Winthrop College, too, a number of trees have been planted 
for the purpose of experimentation. 

Silk culture is being prosecuted also in Beaufort County, and the following 
report of the work there is of interest : 

"The silk farm at Beaufort, S. C, was started as an experiment by Admiral 
Beardslee and he had 4.000 white mulberry trees imported from Italy through 
Miss Kelly. Admiral Beardslee died before he had accomplished very much 
in the way of silk farming, but the work was carried on by his wife under 
the management of Tosaku Mizutani, a Japanese, who is educated in the art 
and knows all about silk growing. The work on this farm has. up to the 
present, been done by Japanese labor. The cocoons raised are pronounced 
first-class by the Department at Washington, and bring $1.00 a pound without 
any trouble. The amount of time put on the growing of the silk is about 
eight weeks out of the year, six weeks of which is filled up with the feeding 
of the silk worm. This part of the work has to be done most carefully and 
requires the closest attention the entire time. The work is pleasant, however, 
and is easily done by girls, the hardest part of the work being the gathering 
of the leaves for the silk worm." 

All things considered, the prospect for the development of the silk growing 
and manufacturing industry in South Carolina may be considered excellent. 

jToTE. — Some additional data as to sericulture is found in the closing pages of thi* 
volume. See Index. 



The fact that the Pinehurst Tea Gardens at Summerville are the only com- 
mercial producing tea gardens in all of America has attracted widespread atten- 
tion. It is only within the last few years that the growing of high-grade teas 
for market purposes at home and abroad has been demonstrated beyond ques- 
tion, and to Dr. Chas. U. Shepard is due the credit of establishing the industry. 
Without his persistency failure would have undoubtedly resulted. As it is, his 
experiments have led to the launching of another tea-growing enterprise in this 
State and one in Texas. 

It was over a century ago that the first tea plant was introduced mto this 
country, being planted at Middleton Barony, on the Ashley River, about fifteen 
miles from Charleston. The bringing of the first plants is credited to the French 
botanist, Michaux. It was in 1848 that Junius Smith, a retired London business 



&|^X« 




















1 


M 


,1;. ^j— iflBJH 


f 


^m 




^^^^H 


^^^g^^y 


'i '' ' 


1 


^^^«K- ^' 




• 


1 



PICKING TEA. 



man, who was seeking the quiet of the country, came to his estate near Green- 
ville and began what Dr. Shepard terms his "path-breaking" experiments in tea 
culture. "The plants and the seeds with which Dr. Smith experimented were 
imported, and an article," says Mr. Geo. F. Mitchell, of the United States Bureau 
of Plant Industry, "appearing in The American Agriculturist in 1851, Dr. Smith 
tells of the excellent condition of his plants, adding that they had \yithstood a 
snow of eight or nine inches on January 3d of that year. Dr. Smith died in 
1852, having previously made this announcement, T cannot help thinking that 
we have now demonstrated the adaptation of the tea plant to the soil and 
climate of this country, and succeeded in the permanent establishment within 
our own borders.' " Dr. Smith's plants being bereft of their guardian, died from 
lack of attention. About the year 1858 the Federal Government sent Robert 



AGRICULTURE. 



325 



Fortune to Asia to select and obtain seeds suitable for planting in this country. 
He went to China, and in less than twelve months the Patent Office had dis- 
tributed seed generally in the Southern and Gulf States. In many cases the 
tea plants did well, and home-made tea was being used in homes. There was 
no general development of the industry, however, notwithstanding the general 
adaptability of the plant to the climate had been demonstrated, because the 
important point of teaching the growers how to pluck and make the leaves into 
tea had been neglected. This obstacle has recently been overcome by the pub- 
lication by the United States Department of Agriculture of Bulletin No. 301 on 
"Home Grown Tea," by Geo. F. Mitchell. 

It was not until 1880 that Commissioner of Agriculture W. G. Le Due 
•employed John Jackson, who had fourteen years' experience as a tea planter in 
India, to conduct a series of experiments, designed to demonstrate the practi- 
cability of growing and manufacturing tea in the United States. The first exper- 
iments were conducted in Liberty County, Georgia, on a place where tea had 
"been planted in 1850. This seemingly did not prove successful, however, and in 
the early eighties some 200 acres of land, near Summerville, belonging to Henry 
A Middleton, were leased for the purpose of prosecuting practical experiments, 
the Government placing a station there. The seed were imported from China, 
India and Japan, and was also collected from the few plants then surviving in 




IN THE TEA GARDENS AT "PINEHURST. 



the United States that had been previously sent out by the Patent Office. At this 
station a small area was planted in tea, but before the plants had had a fair 
opportunity to gain headway Commissioner Le Due was succeeded by Commis- 
sioner Loring, and the latter, because of the illness of Mr. Jackson and for other 
reasons, caused the station to be abandoned. 

Shortly afterwards, the father of successful tea culture in the United States, 
Dr. Chas. U. Shepard, appeared upon the scene. In the spring of 1887 Dr. 
Shepard bouglit his "Pinchurst" estate near Summerville, S. C, and also obtained 
the right to experiment with the plants then surviving on the old Government 
i'ea Farm. The nursery on this abandoned Government farm was full of plants, 
l)Ut no record of any description had been kept. Small quantities of tea were 
made in a very crude way from leaves picked from these plants and were pro- 
nounced by experts in New York and Baltimore as comparing favorably, if not 



326 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



better than the best Chinese teas. The first big freeze, as Dr. Shepard expressed 
it, "I found had almost ruined me," as it killed all the plants to the ground, by 
splitting the bark on the main stem, but this proved to be a "blessing in disguise," 
because after the plants were "collar pruned" to the ground, they put forth 
numerous shoots from the roots that gave a much larger "bearing surface," and 
thus increased the yield of leaf. Dr. Shepard says that he went on with the 
work little by little, studying the plant carefully and working improvements all 

the time. . ,, • t^ 01 j. 

In 1896 Secretary of Agriculture Wilson interested himself m Dr. Shepard s 
experiments and paid a visit to Pinehurst. It was on this trip that Secretary 
Wilson made the remark quoted in the opening chapter of this volume. Secre- 
tary Wilson at once proceeded to help Dr. Shepard to get a supply of the 
Dragon's Pool seed, a variety of tea too costly for exportation from China. 
The Secretary of Agriculture sent Mr. Saunders to Pinehurst to carefully 
inspect the property and report whether the Government could consistently lend 
Dr. Shepard any aid. Mr. Sanders had previously made an adverse report on 
the tea experiments that had been abandoned by the Government, and, strange 
to say, they had been carried on on the adjoining farm. However, after seeing 
what Dr. Shepard was doing, he expressed himself as delighted, and made such 
a report that Secretary Wilson determined to cooperate with Dr. Shepard. Pine- 




TEA GATHERERS AT WORK. 



hurst has been operated in this way for the last few years, at least one scientific 
assistant being detailed to the station. All rainfall and temperature records 
are kept regularly at the station, and Dr. Shepard has, after long experimenta- 
tion, evolved valuable machinery for making the tea ready for the market. 
There are now 100 acres in tea at Pinehurst on lands that have been thoroughly 
underdrained. Dr. Shepard planted pecan-nut trees 40 feet apart in about 18 
acres of his tea fields, with the idea of realizing a greater profit with the same 
amount of cultivation, but it reduced the yield of his tea to such an extent that 
the scheme had to be abandoned. The tea gardens at "Pinehurst" are planted 
in seedlings grown from seed imported from the best gardens in Japan. India, 
China and Ceylon; there are also a few plants grown from seed imported from 
the Island of Formosa ; this variety is used to make the Formosa Oolong teas 



AGRICULTURE. 327 

that are so popular with the American people. In Formosa ihe plants are propa- 
gated from cuttings and layers, and the Federal Government is busy at present 
trying to secure layers to be planted in this country. 

The production has now reached some 12,000 pounds of commercial tea annu- 
ally, which is about one-half the capacity of the curing factory now in operation. 
Dr. Shepard says that he has been experimenting throughout for knowledge, 
and has not been so much after the making of money returns. He says that 
thousands of dollars have been expended in the effort to establish the Ceylonese 
type. The Japanese types have also proven costly. Dr. Shepard says that the 
thoroughly up-to-date tea garden gives equally as much trouble as a sugar beet 
plantation, it being necessary to have expert pickers, tea tasters, chemists, etc. 
He asserts that it is not advisable for anyone to go into tea culture for commer- 
,cial purposes with less than $50,000 capital and several hundred acres of land 
well cleared and flat, fertile and so drained that there shall be no stagnant water. 
He says that if rice land is once made "sweet" there will be no necessity for the 
use of fertilizers. He says that the tea planter must be a man of good educa- 
tion and discrimination. It is necessary to reject many leaves that are picked. 
The Pinehurst tea retails from 80 cents to $1.00 per pound, and is sold direct to 
the retailers. There is a ready market for the entire output of the gardens, this 
market extending from Maine to Florida in the South, and to California in the 
West, where the purchasers paid 8^ cents per pound freight on green tea in 
preference to paying 2^ cents on imported Japanese. Shipments are now made 
regularly to Bremen and to Liverpool, and some shipments have been made to 
France. The Pinehurst teas are sold through regularly established agencies in 
Georgia. Virginia, Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, Chicago, 
Grand Rapids, and many other leading points in the country, and a number of 
the leading hotels in New York City keep it — particularly "American Breakfast 
Tea" — on their menu cards. 

One of the greatest difficulties that the development of the market has encount- 
ered has been in transportation, it being cheaper to ship tea from China to 
Chicago than from Summerville to Chicago. 

Dr. Shepard has invented several machines for the manipulation and manu- 
facture of tea, the two most important being a green tea "Sterilizer" and a 
machine for polishing the green teas without the use of chemicals, as are used 
in the East. This machine turns the dark, uncolored green tea to a beautiful 
greenish-gray, simply by the principle of attrition. This greenish-gray color is 
produced in the East by the addition of Prussian blue, turmine and soapstone. 
The "Pinehurst" teas are also compressed into small tablets by a machine that 
furnishes about 2,000 pounds of pressure. These tablets are made from dust 
ground from pure tea and are made without the addition of any glutinous sub- 
stances, as are tea bricks in the Orient. They do not absorb atmospheric mois- 
ture or lose their strength or deteriorate by keeping. They are packed in boxes, 
twenty tablets to the box, and each tablet capable of making one cup of tea. 
Three boxes are sold for 25 cents, and the tablets are made in three varieties: 
the Oolong, "American Breakfast" and green. 

It is confidently expected that the next year's production will reach 20,000 
pounds. As a result of what Dr. Shepard has been successful in accomplishing, 
the American Tea Company has begun the establishment of a large tea garden 
in Colleton County, and elsewhere in the State tea plants are being grown for 
the purpose of home consumption. There are a few valuable plants of considei- 
able age to be found at Columbia and at Gaffney. The cultivation of the tea 
plant could safely be risked where the temperature seldom falls below 24° F., 
and never goes below zero, and where the annual rainfall exceeds fifty inches, 
thirty inches or more of this precipitation occurring during the cropping season. 
The plants being of subtropical origin, need as much protection from tlie cold 
as possible ; therefore, much better results can be obtained where the southern 
exposure, with an abundance of sunshine, is obtamed. A well drained, friable 
and easily penetrable clay loam or sandy loam containing a large amount of 
organic matter is best adapted to the cultivation of the tea plant. In the fall 
this beautiful evergreen plant is covered with handsome, fragrant white flowers 
having a yellow center, making it a decidedly ornamental plant. 

The crop of an average tea plant is about three ounces of the cured tea during 
the picking season, so that 100 plants will yield about eighteen pounds a year. 
As a pound makes from 350 to 400 cups of tea, fifty plants should furnish a cup 
of tea apiece to a family of nine every day in the year. 

Nearly one acre of tea is grown under "shelter." This tea is very rich in 
theine, the stimulating principle, and very low in tounin, the deleterious con- 
stituent, and is the kind used by the Mikado of Japan and his Imperial Court. 
It is very high in sugar and is known in Japan as "sugar tea." 




TOBACCO 




It is almost needless to attempt to give a sketch of the history of tobacco m 
South Carolina, for tobacco was here with the Indians when the country was 
discovered, and it has always been an item to be reckoned with in South Caro- 
lina agriculture. It was never during the early days, however, as in Maryland 
and Virginia, a legal tender. Tobacco culture in South Carolina has always 
been confined to the 62°-64° isothermic zone, in any portion of which the plant 
grows well, but it is at its best in this zone in the counties in which the annual 
rainfall is about 50 inches. In other words, what is commonly known as the 
Pee Dee section of the State is the home of tobacco. The figures herewith only 
deal with the crop of today and of recent years, because as a crop of real value 
it is recent. The industry has had a varied experience, the causes of which need 
not be discussed. It suffices to say that the crop of 1907 is the record crop, and 
that it is selling at a record price. The figures given tell their own story, the 
acreage being increased whenever the market' warrants it. 



Acreage. 

1907 27,000 

1906 13.400 

1905 12,574 

1904 11,643 

1903 40,149 

IQ02 34,912 

1901 . . 27,259 

1900 26,567 



Production. 




Av 


.Val. 


lbs. 


Value. 


per lb. 


26,000,000 


$2,795,000 


10.75 cts 


8,978,000 


942,690 


10 


5 cts 


9,254,464 


805,138 


8 


7 cts 


8,185,029 


671,172 


8 


2 Cts 


24,490,890 


1,249,035 


5 


I Cts 


25,625,408 


1,793,779 


7 


Cts 


20,946,705 


1,551,519 


7 


cts 


23,203,003 


1,590,648 


7 


Cts 



In Florence, Darlington, Mullins, Marion and Timmonsville there are tobacco 
warehouses and manufacturing plants, and the industry means much to the 
Pee Dee country. 

In ante-bellum days, and farther back, tobacco was rather extensively cultivated 
in South Carolina. In Mills's Statistics and in Ramsay's History important 
details are given concerning this industry. During the past 25 years new impetus 
has been given to the crop, which is now one of the most important factors in the 
industrial development of South Carolina. 

The present principal tobacco growing counties are Florence, Darlington, 
Marion, Williamsburg, Sumter, Horry and Clarendon. Florence. Timmonsville, 
Mullins and Darlington are the leading home tobacco markets in South Carolina. 

Each of these markets sells annually leaf tobacco by the million pounds, and 
with three or four leaf warehouses each, they constitute the acknowledged center 
of the South Carolina home leaf tobacco markets. Since the establishment of 
these home markets the greatest changes have been wrought in the towns referred 
to, changes of the utmost importance and which involve the upbuilding of towns 
and communities. 

The four towns referred to — Timmonsville, Florence, Mullins and Darlington — 
are the leading home markets which have done most in establishing the record 
South Carolina has made in tobacco culture. In these centers were the first 
efforts made ; here was where the great preliminary difficulties were successively 
met and mastered. The business men and planters spent time, money, work and 
persistent efforts in the endeavor to permanently establish this industry. 

The South Carolina tobacco crop is now of such permanent and recognized value 
that official action in furtherance of its development has been taken by the United 
States Department of Agriculture. In the appropriation of 1902, Congress made 
provision for extensive experiments in tobacco culture and curing in South 
Carolina. Two experts were sent to examine the soil, and a farm was selected 
at Hartsville in Darlington County as the site for official experiments to be made 
by the Department of Agriculture. An abstract from the report made to Secre- 



330 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

tary Wilson will have authoritative consideration here : "It is the firm conviction 
of Prof. Whitney that it is possible to produce in South Carolina as fine a grade 
of Cuban fillers as is that imported from the island." This is all that could be 
desired, and emphasizes the situation which has been established under a variety 
of climatic conditions, upon all varieties of soil, and this during a period of 
25 years. . , 

The tenth United States census, published m 1880, contams no mention what- 
ever of South Carolina as a tobacco-growing State. This was not a quarter of a 
century ago, and the tobacco crop of this State in 1904 aggregated about 26,000,000 
pounds, as is shown by official United States census returns. 

In the eleventh United States census, of 1890, South Carolina ranked 19th in 
the procession of tobacco-growing States, while the twelfth census, published ten 
years later, revealed the remarkable fact that South Carolina, in the number of 
pounds of leaf tobacco produced, ranked Qth out of 42 tobacco-growing States. 
A study of the same report shows also that this new crop, requiring most careful 
cultivating and handling, had been so successfully grown that in acreage South 
Carolina ranked 7th. 

The census figures really place South Carolina approximately in the 6th place 
as a tobacco-producing State, for the reason that the figures for the next three 
highest differed not materially from those given for South Carolina. In addition 
to this, the great consideration involved in the statement that in proportion to 
acreage, yield and average price, no State showed finer results than did South 
Carolina, which State reached a more rapid ratio of increase in yield and culture 
than any other. 

The twelfth census shows that 6,744 tobacco farms, containing a total of 25,993 
acres, were in South Carolina. From these 26,000 acres were gathered 19.895-970 
pounds, an average yield— from all sorts of land and from equally variegated 
beginners in tobacco culture— of nearly 800 pounds per acre. This crop— as 
revealed by these same official returns— netted $1,297,293, which figures, taking 
the average yield as a basis, is much more per acre than is the market price for 
South Carolina farming lands, even in favored sections. 

The 1907 Crop the Record Crop. — Mr. Hartwell M. Ayer, a member of the 
General Assembly from the county of Florence, who has himself prepared a 
handbook of South Carolina, at the request of the Department of Agriculture, 
Commerce and Immigration, has thoroughly investigated the 1907 crop of tobacco 
in the tobacco belt of the State, and has filed the following report: 

"Tobacco in this section is selling higher this year than it has sold since the 
banner year, 1902. The prices that year were particularly high, partly because 
of the hot fight between the American Tobacco Company and the Imperial, and 
partly because the tobacco was really of a much better grade. The price of 
South Carolina weed has gone up steadily year by year with some few variations 
in particular grades. Just now the prices of most grades are really much higher 
than they were in 1902, and the average for the year will probably be a little 
higher. 

"It is estimated that there are 27,000 acres in tobacco in the Pee Dee tobacco 
belt. These figures are conservative and come from the official report from which 
the Government statistics are made up. From this acreage the yield will be 
about 26,000,000 pounds, which will sell for an average of 10^ cents. This will 
mean a net income for this section of the State of $555,000, over half a rnillion 
dollars put in three or four counties for one crop which is hardly considered 
with corn and cotton in the farmers' count. It means a little more work and a 
little more money for fertilizer, but very little more land cultivated and very 
few more hands employed, if any. It comes in at a time that enables the farmer 
to gather his cotton without having recourse to the merchant or to the bank. 
The tobacco counties are Florence, Darlington, Williamsburg and Marion, with 
a little in Horry and Clarendon. 

"South Carolina tobacco has won its place in markets of the world. It has 
been growing in favor rapidly for some years, and is now being especially adver- 
tised by foreign houses for their trade as the most pleasing of all tobaccos. 
It is understood that fully 75 per cent, of this tobacco is used at home. In time 
past it could not be sold at home, but as the farmers have learned how to 
make it better, and the prejudice of the dealers has been removed, it has been 
in great demand all over this country. It is used for wrappers and cigarettes 
and cut plug, which is year by year becoming more and more in demand. It has 
both beauty of color and body, which makes it the most desirable weed on the 

market. .,, , 

"The figures in the hands of the Government agents will show that all of the 
markets in the State which handle the same grade of tobacco sell at practically 
the same price. The difference in prices is generally in the quality or the grade 



AGRICULTURE. 33i 

of the tobacco. The price may be regarded as permanent now with such few 
fluctuations as are referred to above, and at those prices there is no question^ of 
its being a paying crop. There is practically no danger of the market bemg 
overstocked with South Carolina tobacco ; it has a place all its own and that is 
at the top of the list. It will sell high when other tobaccos do not." 

Manufacture of Tobacco.— The manufacture of tobacco has grown rapidly in 
South Carolina. The average price per pound of tobacco has increased rapidly 
since 1900. when it was only 6.6 cents. In 1900 there were six establishments 
making cigars and cigarettes." with a capital of $12,510; in 1905 there were seven, 
with a'capital of $699,296. employing nearly 500 persons and using $108,289 worth 
of materials, where five years before only $9,647 were being used. The value 
of their product in 1905 was $257,078. against $3i.550 in 1900. In this production, 
347.690 pou!:ds of tobacco were used and 15,372.380 cigars and cigarettes (prac- 
tically all cigars) were manufactured. Into chewing tobacco and snuff. South 
Carolina manufactures 1.269 pounds of tobacco, mostly plug. 

In 1907 there was one plant manufacturing cigars, employing 450 persons and 
turning out in gross value of products $378,000 annually. 




Nothing aids more in the development of the agricultural industry of a com- 
monwealth than good roads. South Carolina has ever been a pioneer in the 
matter of good roads, as will be seen under the head of transportation in this 
volume. But subsequent to the Civil War little in this direction was done until 
the year 1895, when the introduction of the rural mail delivery system made 
speedier transportation in the outlying country districts desirable. The real 
agitation, however, began about the summer of 1888, when the sand-clay treat- 
ment — since so generally adopted and so successfully used as to become the 
object-lesson svstem for other portions of the United States — was suggested by 
Charles C. Wilson. The State abolished its old county government system and 
in 1895 adopted the new system permitting the use of short term convicts in the 
construction of roads, the convicts working in conjunction with free labor. Such 
a provision naturally was viewed with apprehension, and in Richland County in 
the latter part of 1895, pushed vigorously by F. H. Hyatt and others, the new- 
system was put in practice. By private subscriptions, supplementing county 
work, an experiment road was built out of Columbia on the "Winnsboro Road"' 
about three miles. This experiment really started the work off in South Caro- 
lina, and by January, 1899, the sand-clay road scheme was being put into prac- 
tical and successful operation in several counties. In 1901, in the Year Book 
of the United States Department of Agriculture, this sand-clay road scheme 




BEFORE WORKING. 



was advertised to the United States as a model scheme for the ideal country 
road, capable of being constructed at a minimum of cost. The first builded of 
these roads lasted for about five years, practically without repairs. A State 
Good Roads Association was organized in 1898, the influence of which has been 
most effective. . . 

Very recently there has been a general agitation in favor of a statute requirmg 
the use of broad tires, and broad-tired wagons have been voluntarily brought 
into use by many farmers in many sections, but the legal requirement has not 
yet been made. The sand-clay roads are now built regularly at a cost varying 
from $150 to $300 per mile; the annual cost of repairs is about $10 per mile. 
Many of these roads, particularly those leading out of the chief centers of popu- 
lation, are exceptionally fitted for automobiling, and the horseless carriage is 
often passed in a fifteen or twenty mile journey at this time; its use is daily 
becoming more general. 

In November of last year (1906) the United States Office of Public Roads 
gave this interesting summary as to mileage of and expenditures for public roads 
in this State, the figures being for the year 1904: 



AGRICULTURE. 



333 



Mileage of Roads.— The accompanving table shows that in 1904 there were 
41,830 miles of public road in the State of South Carolina. Of this mileage, 
69 miles were surfaced with stone, 179 miles with gravel, 1.575 miles with sand- 
clay mixtures, and 55 miles with shells, making in all 1,878 miles of improved 
road. It will be seen from these figures that 4.5 per cent, of the roads have been 
improved. Bv comparing the total road mileage with the area of the State, it 
appears that 'tliere were 1.3 miles of public road per square mile of area. A 
comparison of mileage with population shows that there was one mile of road 
to every 32 inhabitants and one mile of improved road to every 713 inhabitants. 

Sources of Kcienuc.— The county or township boards of commissioners of the 
various counties or townships mav "cause a road tax to be levied of not to exceed 
one mill on all taxable propertv in any county or township, except in the county 
of Bamberg, where the levy must not exceed two mills. In counties where the 
contract system of working the roads is adopted, the county or township boards 
mav authorize a special annual levy of not to exceed one mill on all taxable 
property. In view of the fact that seven counties report two-mill levies, it is 




A COMPLETED SAND-CL.'VY ROAD. 



assumed that one mill was the regular levy and that the additional mill was a 

In the county of Colleton the county board of commissioners is authorized to 
hire the county chaingang to any reliable person or co' poration, the money 
realized therefrom to be a part of the road fund. In all o.her counties the com- 
missioners are authorized to work the convicts on the roads, their maintenance 
being paid for out of the funds derived from the regular or special lc\ics. llic 
commutation tax, or from the general county funds. 

All able-l)odicd male persons between certain ages— which vary in the ditlcrcnt 
counties— unless by law exempt, are required to perform or cause to be per- 
formed annually not less than two nor more than ten days' labor upon the public 
roads. The number of days each person is required to perform road duty is 
fixed by law and varies in the different counties. In lieu of "^uch labor a com- 
mutation tax of not less than $1 nor more than $3 may be paid by tin- person 



336 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



so liable. The rate of commutation is also fixed by statute in the various 
counties. 

Since 1904 the Legislature has authorized the county commissioners to fix the 
number of days the taxpayers are required to work on the roads and the rate 
at which this labor may be commuted in cash. 

MLEAGE AND EXPENDITURES IN 1904. 



County. 



Abbeville. . 
Aiken. . . 
Anderson . . 
Bamberg. . 
Barnwell. . 
Beaufort. . 
Berkeley. . 
Charleston . 
Cherokee. . 
Chester. . . 
Chesterfield 
Clarendon. . 
Colleton. . 
Darlington. 
Dorchester . 
Edgefield. . 
Fairfield. . 
Florence. . 
Georgetown 
Greenville . 
Greenwood . 
Hampton. . 
Horry. . . . 
Kersliaw. . 
Lancaster. . 
Laurens. . . 
Lee. 

Lexington . 
Marion. . . 
Marlboro. . 
Newberry. . 
Oconee. . . 
Orangeburg 
Pickens. . 
Richland. . 
Saluda. . . 
Spartanburg 
Sumter . . 
Union . . 
Williamsburg 
York . . . 



Miles of Public 
Roads. 



Total. . 



1,000 

2,000 

2,200 

400 

900 

5400 

1,500 

■ 8700 

700 

600 

700 

800 

900 

750 

600 

1,700 

850 

675 

375 

1,500 

850 

2,000 

2,000 

800 

600 

1,000 

480 

1,200 

1,200 

500 

1,000 

800 

1,100 

1,000 

700 

1,100 

1,500 

1,500 

550 

1,800 



41,830 



Expenditures in Money and Labor. 



Cash Tax. 



S 3 

!U >, 






d3 

CI c 

o o. 

5w 



Labor Tax. 



SE>- 



^a ~ .S-o 



2:& 



01 

S o 

O) :A 

fcCTT 



E- 



H 



5 


7 


"30" 

"156' 
40 


5 
12 
10 
20 
12 




5 












10 


1 






5 
10 


3 
10 




20 
20 
12A 














8 
10 
20 

2A 






100 


















2 


.... 


160 


10 
3 

10 
10 
5 
20 
20 

'26' 


4 
10 


9 
5 












25 

"9" 


16' 
















15 






100 












20 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

6 
10 
10 

8 

. . . . i 






5200 
"356' 




100 


10 










250 
100 

85 


26' 


15' 


69 


179 


1,575 



$7,500.00 
7,500.00 

16,000.00 
5,000.00 
7,160.00 
4,500.00 
4,000.00 

12,236.30 
9,900.00 

18,144.00 
3,125.00 
5.000.00 
2,900.00 

11,600.00 
4,6CO.0O 
5,600.00 
3,500.00 

10,000.00 
8,000.00 

10,000.00 
8,000.00 
5,000.00 
5,181.00 
6,826.53 
500.00 

10,500.00 
6,000.00 
1,135.00 

10,545.48 
7,500.00 
3.500.00 
6,000.00 

10,000.00 
4,000.00 

20,000.00 
7,000.00 

48,191.65 
1,831.22 
4,500.00 
3,205.72 
8,400.00 



$334,081.90 



4,000 
3,419 
1,000 

800 
3,720 
1,800 
3,000 
2,100 
1,100 
3,928 
4,000 
4,000 
1,600 

100 
2,200 

600 
73,050 
82,700 
3,000 
5,000 

300 
2,000 
3,000 
3,000 
2,6fK) 
5,000 

600 
2,365 
4,000 
3,000 

80O 
3,200 
7,000 
1,800 
3,200 
3,100 
6,000 
3,200 
3,000 
3,500 
4,500 



116,282 



$.60 
.60 
.75 
.75 
.50 

1.00 
.60 
.70 
.70 
.50 
.75 
.75 

1.00 
.50 
.75 
.50 
.50 
.65 
.75 
.60 
.60 
.50 
.75 
.65 
.50 
.50 
.75 
.75 
.75 
.75 
.50 
.70 
.60 
.60 
.75 
.50 
.75 
.75 
.60 
.65 
.75 



$9,600.00 
8,205.60 
3,000.00 

3,600.00 

7,440.00 

14,400.00 

14,400.00 

5,880.00 

3,080.00 

11,784.00 

12,000.00 

24,000.00 

9,600.00 

200.00 

9,900.00 

1,800.00 

6,100.00 

8,775.00 

18,000.00 

9,000.00 

720.00 

8,000.00 

13,500.00 

7,800.00 

5,200.00 

10,000.00 

2,700.00 

7,095.00 

24,000.00 

18,000.00 

2,400.00 

13,440.00 

25,200.00 

5,400.00 

24,000.00 

9,300.00 

13,500.00 

14,400.00 

3,600.00 

9,100.00 

13,500.00 



$411,619.60 



■V '^ 



$745,701.50 



^Where figures are not given in these columns no mileage has been reported. 

^f levy is not stated, amounts expended in cash were drawn either from general county fund or 
from labor tax paid in cash. 

includes amounts received from commutation tax and amounts expended for the support of the 
county chaingangs, so far as these amounts have been reported. 

*When labor tax was paid in cash, the amount so paid has been included under cash expenditure 
and the number of men paying the same eliminated from this column. 

^Includes 25 miles of road surfaced with shells. 

•Includes 30 miles of road surfaced with shells. 

'Estimated in this oflSce. Impossible to get a complete report from this coimty. 

*About 8,400 days' work done in this county in 1904 by convicts at a cost for maintenance of 
$0.35 per day. 

"Report from this county indicates that there are 500 miles of gravel roads, but these are prob- 
ably natural rather than improved roads. 




A ROADWAY. 





GANG AT WORK. 



22—11. li. 




STEAM ROLLER USED. 




USING THE WATER CART. 



AGRICULTURE. 



339 



Expenditures in Money and Labor.— The amount derived from the property 
tax and the commutation tax and expended on roads was $334,081.90 in 1904. 
and the estimated cash value of the labor tax was $411,619.60. making a total 
expenditure of $745,701.50. It will be seen from the table that the cash value 
of the labor tax in each county is the product derived by multiplying the number 
of men drafted for road service by the number of days required of each per 
annum, and this product by the average wages per day for road work. When 




BUILDING THE WAY. 



the labor tax was commuted for cash, the amount so commuted has been included 
under cash expenditure and the number of men commuting eliminated from the 
labor-tax column. . 

By comparing the total expenditure with the total mileage of public road and 
with the population of the State, it is found that the funds collected and expended 
for road purposes, including the estimated cash value of the labor tax, amounted 
to $17.82 per mile of public road, or $0.55 per inhabitant. 

There has been in 1908 a considerable revival of good road building, Richland 
County, for instance, undertaking the building of considerable heavy granite 
macadam roadway. 



County. 
Beaufort . . 
Charleston . 
Horry .... 
Colleton . . . 
Sumter . . . 
Marion . . . 
Marlboro . . 
Orangeburg 



Acreage. 

. 5,184 

3,679 

■ 3,164 

. 2,381 

. 2,318 

1,871 

1.069 

. 1,081 



Production. 
192,474 
203,817 
252,17s 
146,734 
171,594 
190,307 
106.604 
149,249 



Szvcet Potatoes.^South Carolina is the fourth largest sweet potato producing 
State in the Union. This potato is used by the people on their dining tables 
and is a nourishing article of food. It grows abundantly and luxuriantly in all 
the soils and in all sections of the State. Its possibilities are only now begin- 
ning to be realized. Experiments with a process for canning and with the con- 
version by a process of evaporation of the sweet potato into non-perishable food 
tablets, the latter now being used by soldiers on forced marches, have in the last 
few years proven most successful, and a new realm of usefulness for this article 
has been opened. The suitability of the sweet potato for starch manufacture has 
also been demonstrated, and even at this time one of the largest starch manu- 
facturing concerns in this country is carefully considering the matter of estab- 
lishing large plants where the sweet potato is most prolific. 

Sweet potatoes are grown on 
some 80,000 farms in the State, 
and about 50,000 acres are devoted 
to this crop. The annual yield is 
about 3>2 million bushels, the cen- 
sus giving the value at a little over 
i^ million dollars. The census 
gives' the value per acre of the 
South Carolina sweet potato crop 
at $31.50 and the value per bushel 
at 46 cents. The census also gives 

^__^__ the yield per acre at 69 bushels. 

This latter figure, however, means 
nothing, as this is the average of all of the potato fields in the State, including 
the thousands of acres of uncultivated patches of the negroes, who apply no 
fertilizer. A yield of 250 bushels per acre under proper cultivation is about an 
average one. 

Beaufort is the largest potato producing county in the State, as may be seen 
from the following statement of acreage and production in bushels of the leading 
potato producing counties of South Carolina in 1899: 

Sugarcane. — The growing of sugarcane is rapidly becoming a revived industry 
in South Carolina, the soils along the Savannah River counties, principally Aiken, 
Barnwell and Hampton, being particularly well adapted to the purpose. It is 
impossible to give accurate figures for the year 1907, though therehas been a 

marked increase in the last 
four or five years. The table 
herewith shows the production 
and value of sugar, molasses 
and syrup at the opening of 

the year 1900. 

The growing of sugarcane is 
not a new industry in this State. Sugarcane was first planted in South Caro- 
lina in 1822, an experiment patch having been planted in "Tivoli Garden," near 
Charleston, by Philip Chartrand, in 1827. Ramsey's History of South Carolina 
makes no reference to sugarcane, either as one of the garden or field crops of 
the State, in its chapter devoted to an elaborate review of the agricultural 
growth of the State from its first settlement to 1808. 

Other experiments rapidly followed Chartrand's. Mr. Edward Barnwell, in 
1830, reports in the Southern Agriculturist an experiment on one acre that he 
had planted, in 1829, at the request of the Agricultural Society of South Caro- 
lina, which yielded 23,150 average-sized stalks of cane, that it would be safe 
to estimate at 27 to 30 tons for the acre. 

In concluding his report to the Society, Mr. Barnwell said: "I am inclined 
to think our best soil will be such as is best adapted to the culture of corn, 
and state further that the cane is as easily cultivated." 

According to the United States Census of 1850, South Carolina produced 
805,200 pounds of sugar; i860, 237,600 pounds; 1870, 1,266,000 pounds of sugar 



Sugar 
Syrup. 



Pounds. Gallons. Value. 

49,590 $ 2,256 

805,064 310,799 



342 SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 

and 436,882 gallons of molasses or syrup ; in 1880, 274,800 pounds of sugar and 
138,944 gallons of molasses or syrup, and in 1890, from 3,305 acres produced 
219,980 pounds of sugar and 386,615 gallons of molasses or syrup. 

A few years ago, consequent upon the visit of Dr. Stubbs to Georgia, Capt. 
John Lawton, a prominent citizen and successful planter of Hampton County, 
was induced to ascertain his cane yield in tons to the acre, a test of value he 
had never applied before, and found it to be 21.5 tons. It was a low average 
yield, as his cane had suffered from drought. 

Analyses of samples of South Carolina canes made by Dr. Stubbs, in Novem- 
ber and December, 1899, show the sugar content to be about equal to the canes 
of Georgia and Florida. 

Alfalfa. — Alfalfa has not been grown very extensively as a forage crop in South 
Carolina, although in certain localities it has been most successfully grown, and in 
Anderson and Fairfield counties today there are stools of this valuable forage 
plant, still vigorous, known to be fifty years old. Perhaps the most noteworthy 
experience in the history of the State with alfalfa was that of Col. James H. 
Ryon, of Fairfield County, who in 1874 planted a half acre of lucerne on a piece 
of worn-out red land, which was infested with nutgrass. The follo\ying year 
he cut one cutting and from that on until 1880 from four to ten cuttings each 
year. The ten cuttings were obtained, in 1878. The plants averaged two and 
one-half feet in height in every cutting, making a total growth of the season of 
twenty-five feet. By actual weight each cutting averaged 4,189 pounds from 
this half acre, which was also carefully measured, giving a total of twenty and 
one-half tons to the acre. > 

Writing of alfalfa in South Carolina, Dr. W. J. Spillman, Agriculturist of 
the United States Department of Agriculture, says : "This valuable crop is 
adapted to climatic conditions in all parts of the State of South Carolina. It is 
adapted to a wide variety of soils, but does best on rich alluvial soils. It will 
not grow on distinctly wet lands, though it will stand considerable overflow. 
It is very difficult to start on poor, thin land, and is very subject to destruction 
from weeds when the alfalfa is young and tender. On good rich land the best 
method of starting alfalfa is to plow the land broadcast near or shortly after 
the middle of summer, harrowing every half day up to the plow to prevent 
the formation of clods. The plow should run seven or eight inches deep, unless 
the land has formerly been plowed only three or four inches deep, in that case 
plow an inch deeper than the land has been plowed before. Keep the land well 
harrowed so as to kill the weeds and keep in moisture until about the first of 
September, then sow alfalfa seed broadcast at the rate of about twenty pounds 
to the acre and cover it by means of a drag harrow. If the season is favorable, 
this will give a good stand. If the fall turns out to be exceedingly dry, the 
stand will fail. In that case the seeding should be repeated on the same land 
in very early spring. 

"On uplands that are not in very good heart it is wise to go to some trouble 
in preparing it for alfalfa. A good course to pursue is to sow rye in the fall 
of the year. When this rye is heading out next spring, turn it under good and 
deep with a turning plow, harrow immediately, slanting the teeth of the harrow 
so as to drag out the rye. Let the land lie about six weeks to give the rye 
time to decompose thoroughly and let the rains wash out the resulting acids 
from the soil. It is a good thing to apply about twenty bushels of lime per 
acre at this time if it is available. This lime should be air-slaked, sown broad- 
cast and harrowed into the surface. After the rye has had time to rot and 
the acids to be washed out, sow an early variety of cowpeas. such as whippoor- 
will. Cut these for hay the latter part of August. After the hay is off, disk 
the land thoroughly and sow alfalfa as above indicated. It is very important 
that alfalfa be allowed to go into winter with a good covering, which may be 
secured by leaving a growth of at least six inches on the field in the late fall. 

"The worst trouble that will be met with in growing alfalfa in South Caro- 
lina will be the presence of weeds, particularly crabgrass. The remedy for 
weeds other than crabgrass is to mow frequently the first summer. The mow- 
ing will not hurt the alfalfa and it will discourage most kinds of weeds. If 
crabgrass appears in the alfalfa, a different course must be followed. Mow the 
field and put a heavy drag harrow upon it with the teeth set fairly straight. 
In this manner it is possible to harrow the crabgrass out, for it is easily pulled 
up, while the alfalfa will be harmed very little, if any. 

"On good land that is free from weeds, in a favorable season, alfalfa ought 
to make four crops of hay the first year after fall sowing. . The second year 
it will make four crons better than the first. There is one sma'1 field of alfalfa 









''^•^ 



W^'^-- '-'^^^ 










^.:^.:^:-^^^'*^:'" 



.v,.'-i,-^,-« 



344 



SOUTH CAROLINA HANDBOOK. 



Broom Corn in South Carolina. 



in South Carolina sown sixty-nine years ago on which there is still a moderately 
good stand, so that it would seem the crop is long lived. 

"The alfalfa crop may be made use of in three ways with very great advan- 
tage: First, it furnishes an abundance of very valuable green feed for summer; 
second, it furnishes a laige amount of very fine hay, which is so rich that even 
hogs may be wintered on the dry hay. They will not make any gain on this hay, 
but if given an abundance of it they will not lose weight. The third use is for 
hog pasture. A good stand of alfalfa on good land will carry from five to eight 
head of hogs per acre during the whole summer season, and if these hogs are 
fed from one to fhree ears of corn per day they will make rapid growth and 
produce pork very cheaply. 

"Alfalfa also makes very good pasture for horses and mules, but is dangerous 
for cattle and sheep on account of bloat. There is danger from bloat only when 
cattle and sheep are allowed to run upon alfalfa pasture, not when it is cut and 
fed to them or when the dry hay is given them. 

"A very good way to utilize alfalfa in building up worn-out soil is to use a 
field of it for hog pasture, feeding the hogs some grain. After three to five 
years' use in this manner, put another field in alfalfa and plow up the first one 
for corn or cotton. The alfalfa plant, like all legumes, has a marked fertilizing 
effect upon the soil, supplying an abundance of nitrogen. It is a crop worthy 
of cultivation all. over the country." 

Broom Corn. — A crop that will, no doubt, soon assume some proportions in 
this State, following the advent of Middle West settlers, is broom corn. There 
seems -no reason why this crop cannot be most successfully introduced in South 
Carolina. 

Broom corn, experts claim, will 
grow well in any portion of the State. 
For some years a considerable quan- 
tity was raised in the Beech Island 
section of Aiken County and was sold 
to broom factories being operated in 
Augusta, Ga. There are about i8o,- 
000 acres of land in the United States 
devoted to broom corn, the average 
value of the crop being about $20 per 
acre. Coles County, in Illinois, pro- 
duces one-fourth of all the broom 
corn in the country. 

In Oklahoma the acreage is in- 
creased from 59 in 1889 to something 
like 15,000 at the present time, with a 
yield of over 3^ million pounds, making that State the fourth broom corn pro- 
ducing State in the Union. The industry was started as an experiment there 
and the success speaks for itself. There is no reason why South Carolina could 
not likewise take a permanent place in the production of this plant. This is 
particularly true when the large number of brooms used by the people of South 
Carolina and in the South Atlantic States is considered. Again, the grain can 
be freely used for poultry. At the State Hospital for the Insane the authorities 
manufacture their own brooms, but they send beyond the borders of the State 
to get the broom corn. 

There are in South Carolina six broom manufacturing concerns, located respec- 
tively in Horry, Charleston, Anderson, Spartanburg and Abbeville Counties. At 
Yemassee there is a factory in operation, which, when visited, was using Illinois 
grown corn, but it had been using the South Carolina raised product, grown by 
the proprietors on a place near Yeamssee. and the brooms were in every respect 
as good as those made from the Illinois material. It is said that the land is 
better adapted for this crop than any of the soils out West. Broom corn is a 
cash crop, and, like other cash crops, has its favorable and unfavorable features. 
Its cultivation on a very large scale is seldom successful, but if properly handled 
on a small scale, say from 15 to 25 acres for the average farmer, and especially 
on new land where the variety of sure crops is limited, it will prove to be as 
paying as almost any crop that can be raised. South Carolina has early seasons 
and can market the brush early in the season, and for that and other reasons 
should easily become a great resource of the nation's supply of broom corn. 

Malting Rvsli. — One of the most interesting things of recent years in South 
Carolina agriculture has been the experimentati